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history both general and local, geography with descriptions 
of its counties, cities and villages, its agricultural manu- 
facturing, mining and business development, sketches 
of eminent and interesting characters, etc., 
with notes of a tour over it in 1886. 

Illustrated by about Five Hundred Engravings, 

Contrasting the Ohio of 1846 with 1886-S8. 

From drawings by the author in 184.6 and photographs taken in 1886, 1887 

and 1888 of cities and chief towns, public buildings, historic localities, 

monuments, curiosities, antiquities, portraits, maps, etc. 






Vol. I. 




[Sold by Canvassers Exclusively .J 
Copyright, 1888, by Hbnxv Howb. 






[This is the Preface to the first edition .issued in 1847, and printed 
from the old plates.] 

Introductory to this work, we state some facts of private history. 

In the }ear 1831, Mr. John W. Barber of New Haven, Ct., prepared a 
work upon that our native city, which combined history, biography and dp. 
scription, and was illustrated by engravings connected with its rise, progress 
and present condition. Its success suggested to him the preparation of one, on 
a similar plan, relative to the State. For this object he travelled through it, 
from town to town, collecting tb e materials and taking sketches. After two 
years of industrious application in this, and in writing the volume, the His- 
torical Collections of Connecticut was issued, a work which, like its suc- 
cessors, was derived from a thou sand different sources, oral and published. 

As in the ordinary mode, the circulation of books through "the trade," is 
so slow in progress and limited in sale, that no merely local work, however 
meritorious, involving such an u'n isually heavy outlay of time and expense as 
that, will pay even the mechanic al labor, it, as well as its successors, was 
circulated by travelling agents solely, who thoroughly canvassed the state, until 
it found its way into thousands of families in all ranks and conditions, — in 
the retired farm-house equally with the more accessible city mansion. 

That book, so novel in its character, was received with great favor, and 
highly commended by the public press and the leading minds of the state. 
It is true, it did not aspire to high literary merit : — the jignified style, — the 
generalization of facts, — the philosophical deductions of regular history were 
not there. On the contrary, not the least of its merits was its simplicity 
of style, its fullness of detail, introducing minor, but interesting incidents,, 
the other, in " its stately march," could not step aside to notice, and in avoid- 
ing that philosophy which only tho scholastic can comprehend. It seemed, 
in its variety, to have something adapted to all ages, classes and tastes, and 
the unlearned reader, if he did not stop to peruse the volume, at least, in 
nmny instances could derive gratification from the pictorial representation of 
his native village — of perhaps the very dwelling in which he first drew 
breath, and around which entwined oarly and cherished associations. The 
book, therefore, reached more minds*, and has been more extensively read, 
than any regular state history ever issued; thus adding another to the many 
examples often seen, of the productions of industry and tact, proving of a 
more extended utility than those emanating from profound scholastic ac- 

This publication becn^e the pioneer -of others : a complete list of all, with 
the dates of tbe ; .r issui, follows : 

1 2 36. The Hfsiv Com, <>v Connecticut ; by John W. Barber. 
1^39. w " Massachusetts ; 4 * John W. Barber. 

1^41. 4 l NewYp.rk; ' " J. W. Barber and H. Horr. 

H43. •' N Pennsylvania; " Sherman Day. 

1844 % ' 4 New Jgrsky ; " J. W. Barber arid H. Howe. 

IS 45. n " Virginia ; " Henry Howe. 

1*47. k4 ~ Ohio: " Henry Howe. 



From this list it will he perceived that OHIO makes the seventh state 
work published on the original plan of Mr. Barber, all of which thus fai 
circulated, were alike favorably received in the states to which each respect, 
ively related. 

Early in January, 1846, we, with some previous time spent in preparation, 
commenced our tour over Ohio, being the fourth state through which we 
have travelled for such an object. We thus passed more than a year, in the 
course of which we were in seventy-nine of its eighty-three counties, took 
sketches of objects of interest, and every where obtained information by con- 
versation with early settlers and men of intelligence. Beside this, we have 
availed ourselves of all published sources of information, and have received 
about four hundred manuscript pages in communications from gentlemen in 
all parts of the state. 

In this way, we are enabled to present a larger and more varied amount 
of materials respecting Ohio, than was ever before embodied ; the whole 
giving a view of its present condition and prospects, with a history of its 
settlement, and incidents illustrating the customs, the fortitude, the bravery, 
and the privations of its early settlers. That such a work, depicting the 
rise and unexampled progress of a powerful state, destined to a controlling 
influence over the well-being of the whole nation, will be looked upon with 
interest, we believe : and furthermore expect, that it will be received in the 
generous spirit which is gratified with honest endeavors to please, rathei 
than in the captious one, that is dissatisfied short of an unattainable perfection. 

Whoever expects to find the volume entirely free from defects, has but 
little acquaintance with the difficulties ever attendant upon procuring such ma- 
terials. In all of the many historical and descriptive works whose fidelity we 
have had occasion to test, some misstatements were found. Although we 
have taken the best available means to insure accuracy, yet from a variety 
of causes unnecessary here to specify, some errors may have occurred. If 
any thing materially wrong is discovered, any one will confer a favor by ad- 
dressing a letter to the publishers, and it shall be corrected. 

Our task has been a pleasant one. As we successively entered the va- 
rious counties, we were greeted with the frank welcome, characteristic of 
the west. And an evidence of interest in the enterprize has been variously 
shown, not the least of which, has been by the reception of a mass of valua- 
ble communications, unprecedented by us in the course of the seven years 
we have been engaged in these pursuits. To all who have aided us, — to 
our correspondents especially, some of whom have spent much time and re- 
search, we feel under lasting obligations, and are enabled by their assistance 
to present to the public a far better work, than could otherwise have been 
produced. H. H. 



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A once aged friend of mine, now no longer aged, was wont to refine a very 
beautiful life with golden scraps of philosophy that seemed to fit in with the 
varying incidents of seeming good or ill that he or his friends met on their path- 
way. One of his expressions was : " We don't know what is before us." 

When, in 1847, 1 had written the preface on the preceding pages I could little 
imagine that forty years later I should make a second tour over Ohio and put 
forth a second edition Not a human being in any land that I know of has done 
a like thing. It is in view of what I have been enabled to do for a great people 
I regard myself as having been one of the most fortunate of men. A spot is 
now reached which even in my dreams could not have been visioned, and I here 
rejoice that in the year 1839, now just half a century, I turned my back on 
Wall Street, with its golden allurements, where I had passed more than a year, 
to follow an occupation that was congenial with my loves and would widely 
benefit my fellow-men. " He that hasteth to be rich shall not be innocent," but 
he that labors to spread knowledge in the form of good books that will reach 
the humblest cabin in the wilderness will feed his own soul, and earth and sky 
be a delight in his eyes all his days through. 

When, in 1846, my snow-white companion, Old Pomp, carried me his willing 
burden on his back entirely over Ohio it was a new land opening to the sun. 
Its habitations were largely of logs, many of them standing in the margins of 
deep forests, amid the girdled monsters that reared their sombre skeleton forms 
over a soil for the first time brought under the benign influence of human culti- 

So young was the land that in that year the very lawmakers, 84 out of 107, 
were born strangers. The list of the nativities of the members of the legisla- 
ture, which I have saved from that day, is as follows : Pennsylvania, 24 ; Ohio, 
23 ; Virginia, 18 ; New York, 10 ; all the New England States, 18, of whom 6 
were from Connecticut ; Maryland, 7 ; Europe, 6 ; Kentucky 1, and North Caro- 
lina, 1. Only four years before had the State grown its first governor in the per- 
son of Wilson Shannon, born in a log-cabin, down in Belmont county, in 1802, 
and to be soon thereafter a fatherless infant, for George Shannon, whose son he 
was, in the following winter, while out hunting, got lost in the woods in a snow- 
storm, and, going around in a circle, at last grew sleepy, fell and froze to death. 
The present governor, J. B. Foraker, that very year of my tour, was born in a 
cabin in Highland county, July 5th, the day after the American flag had been 
thrown out joyously to the breeze while booming cannon announced the seven- 
tieth anniversary of that great day when the old bell proclaimed liberty and 
independence throughout the land. 

The very State Capitol, as is shown on these pages, in which the legislature 
assembled, was a crude structure that scarce any Ohio village of this day would 
rear for a school-house. But the legislators made wise laws, and on the night of 



their adjournment in that year, after having been absent from their families for 
months, were hilarious as so many school-boys, and to my astonished eyes from 
their seats some of the more frolicsome were pelting each other with paper wads. 
In September, 1847, I published my book in Cincinnati with 177 engravings, 
mainly from my drawings. Seven years of my young life had been given to the 
travel — very much of it pedestrian — over four States of the Union, and making 
books upon them — New York and New Jersey in connection with Mr. J. W. Bar- 
ber, and Virginia and Ohio alone. For thirty years Cincinnati was my home. 
There my children were born and there I devoted myself to the writing and 
publishing of books, a very secluded citizen, mingling not in affairs of church 
nor State, still paying my pew-rent and always voting on election days a clean 
ticket. In my life a third of a million of my books have gone out among the 
people and done good — gone out exclusively in the hands of canvassers number- 
ing in the aggregate thousands and penetrating every State in the Union. 

In 1878 I returned to my native city, New Haven, and the proud, stately elms 
appeared to welcome me, there in that charming spot where even the very bricks 
of old Yale seem to ooze knowledge. In September, 1885, I resolved to again 
make the tour of Ohio for a new edition. The romance of the project and its 
difficulties were as inspirations. Since 1846 Ohio had more than doubled in 
population, while its advance in intelligence and resources no arithmetic could 

No publisher or capitalist, even if I had desired, which I did not, had the 
courage to unite with me — the enterprise was too risky, involving years of time 
and many thousands of expense, its success depending upon the uncertain tenure 
of the life of a man entering his seventieth year. Furthermore, any publisher 
would have looked upon my enterprise simply from the money-making point of 
view. I should have been hampered for the means to make the work every way 
worthy. I could brook no restrictions and would not give the people of this 
great State any other than the best and most complete results of my efforts. 
The book must be brought down to the wonderfully advanced point of the Ohio 
of to-day. I could not in the years of labor required supply the capital to do 
this, but my. health Was and is perfect, and I have a light body to move. I 
formed my plan. First I went among my fellow-townsmen of means for a sub- 
scription loan to fairly launch me upon the soil. They responded nobly, more 
than glad to aid me, looking upon me as the instrument for a public good. 
Some of them had been school-boys with me. Together we had conjugated in 
the old Hopkins Grammar School : "Amo, amas, amat," " I love, thou lovest, he 
loves," and this was a second conjugation. 

In the meantime Judge Taft, Gov. Hoadley and ex-President Hayes had written 
me encouraging words. I had known the three from their early lives. The 
latter invited me to his home and was my first subscriber in the State. My plan 
for getting over Ohio was by obtaining advance-paying subscribers. And so good 
was the memory of the old book and so strong the love of the State with its 
leading men upon whom I called that it worked to a charm. My tour had 
something of the character of an ovation. I was continually greeted with ex- 
pressions of gratitude from men of mark for the good my book had done them 
in their young lives in feeding the fires of patriotism and in giving them an 
accurate knowledge of their noble State. It had been the greatest factor extant 
to that end, and, as Mr. R. B. Hayes, who has had no less than ten copies in the 
course of his life, once wrote, has been of an inestimable benefit to the people. 


Sometimes the expressions of those upon whom I called were too strong for 
my humility. One old gentleman said : u What ! you are not the Henry Howe 
who wrote our Ohio History?" " Yes." With that he sprang for me, grasped 
me around the waist, hugged me, lifted me off my feet and danced around the 
floor. Short of stature, but strong as a bear, there was no resisting his hug. 
Speaking of it afterward, he said he never did such a thing before — embracing a 
man ! But when I told him who I was a crowd of memories of forty years came 
upon him and he was enthused beyond control. In other cases old gentlemen 
brought in their children to introduce to me. In many places visited I did not 
offer my subscription list. Time would not allow ; only when funds were short 
did I pause for the means to move. Beside, it is not honorable to draw upon 
the resources of generous spirits beyond absolute necessity. 

Everywhere I made arrangements with local photographers and took them to 
the standpoints I selected for views to be taken. These were for new engravings 
to make a pictorial contrast of the Ohio of 1&46 with that of 1886. About one 
hundred were seen. 

My tour finished, in March, 1887, 1 returned my family to Ohio — to Columbus 
— for a permanent home, where, in connection with my son, I am now publishing 
the work, and will endeavor to give every family in Ohio an opportunity to 
obtain it through township canvassers. In no other possible way can the 
people be reached and a fair remuneration given for the extraordinary labor and 

No other State has in its completeness such a work as this, and none under 
the same extraordinary circumstances of authorship. The introductory articles 
are written by the best capacity in the State upon the subjects treated. Sketches 
of those contributors are given with their articles, as I wish the living public and 
that unborn to know about the gentlemen who have thus aided me. 

And as for my own part, no one living has had an equal and like experience, 
and my self-appointed task has absorbed the best of which I am capable. To 
call it 1 a history tells but a part of the truth. So broad its scope that, to speak 
figuratively, it is the State itself printed and bound, ready to go into every family 
in the State, to show the people of every part concerning the whole collectively, 
and each part in succession, and in all the varied aspects that go to form the 
great Commonwealth of Ohio, and the history that went to make the sons of Ohio 
the strong men they are, ever appearing in the front in every department of 
activity and acquisition. 

Wherever I have introduced living characters my rule has been to admit only 
such as the public at large should know of, and never to the knowledge of those 
introduced if it could be avoided. None have been allowed to pay their way 
into this book, and, where portraits have been engraved for it, it has been at my 
expense. Sketches of living men with their portraits are herein, which they will 
never learn from me personally. I have adopted this course to make the 
work clean throughout, feeling that the people will sustain me in perfect 

Throughout are occasionally introduced Travelling Notes, so that it should 
combine the four attractions of History, Geography, Biography, and Travels. 
The observations of one travelling over the same ground after a lapse of forty 
years would naturally be interesting. This feature enables me to make it more 
useful and instructive to the young, and to give some of the philosophy that has 
come from experience, and which has helped to brighten and make glad my own 


way so well that, though the rolling years have at last whitened my locks, within 
I still feel young, move with agility, and love the world the better the longer I 
live in it. "I love the world 1 ," wrote old Isaac Walton; "it is my Maker's 
creature ; " but how much stronger would not that old fisherman love it were he 
here now. Human life never had such a full cup as in these our days of expand- 
ing knowledge and humanities. 

When I began this work I did not anticipate bestowing upon it so much time 
and labor, but as I progressed my ambition enlarged, and so I enlarged the plan. 
Throughout, my great struggle has been financial, but in the darkest hour when 
beside this burden I was brain-weary from incessant work and diversities re- 
quiring thought and the turning aside for investigation, I had full faith I should 
triumph. Providence would not allow such a work for such a people to perish. 
From the citizens of the State I have received, with a single exception, no direct 
pecuniary aid other than by advance payments of subscriptions. This exception 
was Mr. Henry C. Noble, of Columbus, who, in the last dark, trying moment, 
most generously came to my rescue, and then the fog lifted that had gathered 
around the ver} r summit of final success. 

Of my old townsmen in New Haven who, in 1885, first aided me for a start, 
I am more especially indebted to Profs. Henry W. Farnam and Salisbury, of 
Yale; Henry T. Blake, attorney-at-law ; Dr. E. H. Bishop; Charles L. English, 
ex-banker, and Dr. Levi Ives. Of the twenty-seven on the list five have since 
finished their life-work and passed away, viz., Henry C. Kingsley, Treasurer of 
Yale ; Major Lyman Bissell, U. S. A. ; Robert Peck ; Thomas Trowbridge, shipping 
merchant, and John Beach, attorney-at-law. Prof S. E. Baldwin, of theYale Law 
School, was the first subscriber anywhere to this* work. 

One effect of my work will be to increase the fraternal sentiment that is so 
marked a characteristic of Ohio men wherever their lot is cast, and that leads 
them to social sympathy and mutual help. And if we look at the sources of this 
State love we will find it arises from the fact that, Ohio being the oldest and 
strongest of the new States of the Northwest, by its organic law and its history has 
so thoroughly illustrated the beneficence and power of that great idea embodied 
in the single word Americanism. 

But I must here close with the observation that I have passed the allotted age 

of human life, and, although in sound health, cannot expect for many more years 

to witness its mysterious, ever-varying changes. But it will be a just satisfaction 

to me if, in my declining days, I can see that this work is proving of the same 

widespread benefit to the present people of Ohio as did that of my young life 

to those of forty years ago. 

Henry Howe. 

41 Third Avenue, Columbus, 0., January 1, 1889. 


VOL.. I. 

Abbott, David, Escape of . 579 

Abolitionists, Salem .... 449 
Academies and High Schools . .143 
Agriculture in Ohio, History of . .100 
Ammens, Sketch of the . . .338 

Amusing Incidents .... 277 
Ancient Works, 264, 285, 325, 470, 552, 586 
Andrews, Lorin, Ohio's First Volunteer, 253 
Andrews, S. J., Sketch of . . .511 
Anthony, Charles, Notice of . . 404 

Anti-Slavery Societies .... 280 
Appleseed, Johnny .... 260 
Armstrongs, Notice of . . . . 608 
Arnett, Eev. Dr., Notice of . . .45 
Ashtabula Harbor .... 273 

Assault on Gen. Jackson . . . 606 


Bachelor Hermits, The Two . . .488 
Badger, Rev. Joseph .... 279 
Bark Cutters, The m . . . .231 
Baldwin, John, Notice of 526 

Bears and Wolves . 278, 317, 491, 552 

. 581 

Beatty, John, Sketch of 

Beatty, Gen. John, Sketch of 

Bebb, Gov.' William, Sketch of . 

Beckett, William, Sketch of . ^ 

Beech er, Hon. Philemon, Notice of 

Black Hoof, Sketch of . 

Black Watch, A Veteran of 

Blind, Institution for the 

Bloss, G. M. D., Sketch of 

Blue Jacket, Sketch of 

Bockinghelas, Notice of 

Bodily Exercises . 

Boone, Daniel, Anecdotes of 

Bouquet, Col. Henry, Sketch of . 

Bouquet's Expedition . 

Boulders . 

Bowman, Expedition of 

Bradstreet's Expedition 

Breckinridge, Reminiscences of . 

Brown, Hon. Ezekiel, Notice of . 

Broadhead's Expedition 

Brough, Gov. John 

Buckeye State, Why Ohio is Called 

Buckeye Songs .... 

Bullit, Capt. , Boldness of 

Bureau, John Peter Romaine, Notice of 681 

Byxbe, Col. Moses, Sketch of . . 551 

Campbell, Col. Lewis D., Sketch of . 348 

Canal, Sandy and Beaver . ... 358 

Captina, Battle of 307 

Carney, Gov. Thomas, Notice of . . 558 
Carpenter, Charles, Notice of . . 585 
Carroll, Charles, of Carrollton, Notice of 358 
Case, Leonard, Sketch of 
Cass, Major, Allusion to 343 

Cascade at Clifton 724 

Catholics of St. Martin's . . . 339 
Central Insane Asylum .... 634 
Chase, Hon. Salmon P. , Boyhood Pranks 

.of 611 

Cheese Industry on the Western Reserve 690 
Chillicothe, Old . . . . . 692 
Civil War, Ohio in the . . . . 150 
Cleveland, Its Past and Present . . 503 
Cleveland, Gen. Moses, Sketch of . 510 

Climate, Ohio 87 

Climatic Changes 535 

Clinton, Gov. George, Sketch of . . 422 
Coal Trade on the River, The Early . 322 
Cockerill, Col. John A, Notice of . 229 
Colleges and Universities . . .144 
College Lands, Settlement of . . 283 
Confederate Conspiracy at Sandusky . 572 
Cooke, Eleutheros, Sketch of . . 574 
Cooke, Jay, Anecdote of . . . . 582 
Coon-Skin Library . . . .288 
Coppock, Edwin, Last Letter of . .451 
Copus Tragedy, The ... 257 

Corwin, Thomas, Anecdotes of . . 403 
Coshocton Campaign . . . .479 
Courts, Primitive . . . . . 700 
Cowles, Edwin, Sketch of . . .513 
Cowles, Betsy M., Sketch of . . 280 
Crawford, Col., Notice of . . . 482 
Cranberry Marsh . . . . .486 
Customs, Early, 243, 260, 318, 342, 534, 550, 

565, 589, 733 
Cumming, Rev. E. H., Sketch of. . 403 
Cyclone at Washington Court-House . 603 
Cj clone, the Jamestown . . . 724 

Dahlgreen, Madelaine Vinton, Sketch 

of 681 

Darlington, Gen., Notice of . . .229 
Darke, Gen. William, Sketch of . . 529 
Dayton, Riley, The Trapper and Hunter 664 
Deaf and Dumb Asylum . . . 636 
Defiance, Fort, Naming of . . . 545 
Delaware Grape, The .... 558 
Delaware Tribe, Sketch of . . . 549 
Denver, Gen. James W., Sketch of . 430 
Dennison, Gov. William, Sketch of . 653 
Deserters Executed .... 342 




Deserted Camp, The . . . .424 

Devenny, Capt. John, Notice of . . 238 

Dickey, Hon. Alfred S., Notice of . 601 

Donalson, Israel, Captivity of . . 224 

Dora, Hon. Henry, Sketch of . .119 

Dow, Lorenzo, Sketch of . . .412 

Downing, Escape of . . . 225 

Drouth, The Great . . . .683 

Drouillard, Joseph, Notice of . . 681 

Dunkards, Society of . . . . 254 

Drummed Off the Island . . . 574 


Early Acquaintance, An . . - . 268 

Eckley, Gen. Ephraim R., Notice of . 361 
Edgerton, Hon. Alfred P., Sketch of . 547 

Edison, Thomas Alva, Sketch of . . 580 

Edgingtons, Attack on the . . 227 

Educational Progress in Ohio . .137 

Elevations in Ohio . . . .60 

Ellison, Andrew, Captivity of . . 227 

Ewing, Thomas, Autobiography of . 289 

Ewing, Thomas, and Family, Sketch of 593 

Garden of Ohio 

Gas, Natural . . . 

Geddes, James, Sketch of . 

Geography and Geology of Ohio 

Geological Surveys, State 

German Colonies . 

Giddings, Joshua R. , Anecdotes of 

Giddings, Joshua R. , Sketch of 

"Globe Factory," The . 

Glacial Man in Ohio 

Goodale, Dr. Lincoln, Notice of 

Grant, U. S., Chronology of Life 

Grant, Jesse R. , Notice of . 

Grant, U. S. , Boyhood of . 
Reminiscences of Parents of 
Analysis of Character of . 

Grape Culture at Martin's Ferry 

Graveyard, Ancient 

Great Indian Council . 

Greenville Treaties 

Greene, Mrs. , Captivity of . 

Grindstone Consumption, The 

Girty Brothers, Notice of 








Factory and Workshop Inspection 

Factories, Children in . 

Famous Fifth Ohio, The 

Farrar, Hon. Wm. M., Sketch of 

Feeble-Minded Youth, Institution for . 

Fee, Mary E., Notice of 

Female, Sharp-Shooting of a 

Flood, The Xenia 

Fins, The 

Fire Escapes 


First Great Northwestern Confederacy . 

First Anti-Slavery Speech in U. S. Con- 

Fink, Mike . . 

Fink, Capt. John, Notice of . . 

Foote, John A., and the Connecticut 

Force, Gen. M. F., Sketch of 

Ford, Gov. Seabury, Sketch of 

Forts : Amanda, 241 ; Barbee, 302 ; De- 
fiance, 540; Dillie's, 306; French 
Margarets, 282 ; Gower, 283 ; Green- 
ville, 530 ; Hamilton, 341 ; Harri- 
son, 393 ; Industry, 565 ; Jefferson, 
529 ; Jennings, 303 ; Junandat, 565 ; 
Recovery, 529 ; Winchester, 542 ; 
Sandusky . . . 

Forrer, Samuel, Sketch of . 

Fourierite Association, A 

Four Literary Men 

Frankensteins, The, Sketch of 

French Policy 

French Traders, 255, 282, 564, 584, 585, 

French Settle Gallipolis 

Funks, Fighting Family of . 

Fortieth Ohio Infantry . 

Forks of the Muskingum 

Four Little Maids 


Gallagher, William Davis, Sketch of 
Galloway, Samuel, Sketch of 








Halstead, Murat, Sketch of . . . 351 
Hamer, Gen. Thomas Lyon, Sketch of . 331 
Hammond, Charles, Sketch of . . 311 
Harrison, General, Anecdote of . .361 
Harrison Campaign Meeting . . 374" 

Harrison, Gen. , In terview with Tecumseh 392 
Harrison, Gen. W. H., Inimitable Tact 




Hardshell Baptists 
Harpers, Privations of the . 
Hayden Falls .... 
Hayes, ex- President Rutherford B.. 

Youth of .... 
Heatheringtons, The 
Hewitt, Moses, Captivity and Escape of 284 

Hinkson, Col., Notice of . . . 425 

Hitchcock, Judge Peter, Sketch of . 687 

Hoge, Rev. Dr. James, Sketch of . 649 

Horse-Thieves and Counterfeiters . .734 

House That Jack Built . . .323 

Howells, William Dean, Sketch of . 327 

Ho wells, William Dean, Notice of .718 

Howard, J. Quay, Sketch of . .184 

Hughes, Rev. Joseph S. , Notice of . 552 

Hunt, Josiah, The Indian Fighter . 698 

Hunter, Capt. Joseph, Notice of . . 588 

Hunter, Hocking H. , Notice of . . 597 
Huntington, Gov. Samuel, Sketch of . 505 

Hutchins, Capt. Thomas, Sketch of . 478 

Indian, Pleasing Feature in Character of 

the 609 

Game of Ball 294 

Customs 297 

Murders ...... 306 

Indians, Delaware, Notice of . 255, 548 
Indian Towns 242, 255, 293, 387. 466, o32, 

542, 553, 578, 608, 662, 692 
Indian Chiefs 242, 299, 391, 476, 532, 

543, 549, 571, 602, 609, 664 
' Industrial Home for Girls . . . 558 

Industrial Home for Boys - . 599 



Industrial Home for Boys, Visit to . 599 

Incription Rock . . . . . 586 


Jamieson, Milton, Notice of . . 421 

Jerome, John Baptiste, Notice of . 255 

Jerks, The . . . . . -279 

Johnny Cake, A Huge . . .278 

John, Capt., Ferocity of . . .602 

Johnson's Island 572 

Jurisdiction, Early Civil . . .122 


Kail, Mrs. Mary E., Sketch of . . 363 

Keifer, Gen. J. Warren, Sketch of . 406 

Kelly, Hon. Alfred, Sketch of . . 649 

Kelley's Island, Grape Culture of. . 585 

Kelley, Datus, Notice of 585 

Kenton, Gen. Simon, Adventures of . 375 

Anecdote of . 374 

Kilbourne, Col. James, Sketch of. .612 

Kilbourne, John, Sketch of . . .128 

Killbuck, Notice of . . . . 549 

Kinney, Col. Coates, Sketch of . .714 

Kingsburys, Sufferings of the . . 263 

Kirkwood, Capt. , Cabin of, Attacked . 314 

Kirtland, Jared Potter, Sketch of .511 

Knight, Prof. George W., Sketch of .137 

McKeever, Abbie C, Notice of . . 421 

MacLean, J. P., Sketch of . . . 349 

Medary, Samuel, Notice of . . .413 

Medill, Gov. William, Sketch of . . 597 

Milliken, John M., Sketch of . . 348 

Milliken, Thomas, Sketch of. . . 348 

Milliken, Col. Minor, Sketch of . . 356 

Miner and His Mule Partner, The % . 322 

Mines and Mining Besources of Ohio . 110 
Minter, Capt. John .... 552 

Missionaries . .301, 467, 578, 584 

Monstrous Apple-Tree .... 545 

Morehouse, Gov. A. P., Notice of . 558 

Morgan, Gen. John, Anecdote of . . 359 

Morgan's Baid Through Ohio . . 451 

Morris, Sr., Thomas, Sketch of . .413 

Mt. Pleasant . . . . . .590 

Mud Cottage of an Emigrant . . 463 

Murder, Execution of Indian for . . 497 

Mutiny, The Black Swamp . . .248 


Nash, Judge Simeon, Sketch of . . 681 
NaturaJ Gas Wells of Lancaster , . 592 
Niggering Corn 243 






Lands, Public, of Ohio . 

Lane, Judge Ebenezer, Sketch of 

Large Fruit Trees 

Latham, E. P., Sketch of 

Laws, The Black . ^ 

Leatherlips, Execution of 

Leatherwood God, The 

Lee, Gen. John Calvin, Notice of 

Leffel, James, The Inventor, Sketch of 

Leggett, Gen. Mortimer, Sketch of 

Lesquereux, Prof. Leo, Sketch of . 

Life Among the Indians of the Maumee 

Life in the Woods, Our Cabin, or 

Lombardy Poplars . 

Longstreth, Lorenzo, Notice of 

Lost Child, The ..... 

Loyal Legion, Sketch of, and Boll of Ohio 

Commandery . . . .155 

Lundy, Benj., Sketch of . . .311 
Lytle, Gen., Notice of . . . . 415 


Mad Ann Bailey, Heroine of Point Pleas- 
ant ...... 677 

Mann, Horace, Sketch of . . . 723 
Mansfield, E. D., Sketch of # . . 429 
Manufactures of Springfield, Origin and 

Growth of . . . .399 

Maple Sugar Industry . . . . 685 

Map, First, of Ohio . . . .612 

Mastodons, Bemains of . . . 293, 483 
McArthur, Gov. Duncan, Anecdote of 307 
McBride, James, Sketch of . . . 355 
McCooks, The Fighting . . .365 
McDonald, Senator J. E., Notice of . 349 
McDowell, Gen. Irvin, Sketch of . . 647 
McFarland, President, Notice of . . 354 

Ogontz, The Story of . . 

Ohio in New York Journalism 

Ohio, General Description of 

Ohio Society of New York . 

Ohio, Outline History of 

Ohio Officers, State and National 

Ohio History and Historical Men 

Ohio Biver Experiences . . . 

Ohio Flour, The First Sent East . 

Ohio Soldiers' and Sailors' Orphans' 

Home ... . . 

Ohio Soldiers' and Sailors' Orphans' 

Home, Notes on . 
Ohio Soldiers' and Sailors' Home 
Ohio State Fish Hatchery 
Oil-Field, Largest on the Globe . 

Oil Befineries 

O. K., Origin ot . . . . 
Oldest Methodist Church in Ohio 
Ordinance of 1787 . 

Orton, Prof. Edward, Sketch of . 

Paddy's Bun 

Paper-Mill, First in Ohio 

Past and Present of Columbus 

Payne, Sr. , Henry B. , Sketch of 

Penny royaldom 

Pensioner of the Bevolutionary Wa 

Perkins, Joseph, Sketch of 


Petroleum Nasby Characters . 

Penitentiary, Ohio 

Phenomenon, Singular 

Pioneer Engineers of Ohio 

Pioneer Trials 

Pipe, Capt. . ^ . 

Piqua, Destruction of . 

Plucky Pioneer Woman, A 

Plumb, Senator Preston B. , Notice of 










Poe, Adam and Andrew, The Indian 

Fighters 435 

Poems : Alone With Night and the Stars 236 

Centennial Ode 715 

Crown Our Heroes .... 363 
Drift Away . . . . . 421 
Epitaph of Reuben Miller . . .407 
Fifty Years Ago . . . .713 

Hills of Ohio, Song with Music . 296 

Lament for the Dead .... 432 
Marching Song of Sherman's Army . 596 

Only . 422 

Ohio 363 

Rain on the Roof . . . . 717 
Song of Bucyrus .... 484 
The Spotted Fawn . . . .714 
The Lassie Music . . . .355 

Pompey's Pillar 723 

Pontiac, Birth-place of . . . . 543 
Poor Man's Railroad ... .318 
Popejoy, Esq., Method of Dispensing 

Justice 601 

Powder-Mill Explosion . . . .702 
Powell, Judge Thomas W., Notice of . 558 
Purcell, Archbishop John B. , Notice of 339 


Quitman, John Anthony, Notice of . 558 

Railway Disaster, Ashtabula . . . 274 
Rankin, Rev. John, Sketch of . . 337 
Read, Prof. M. C, Sketch of . . 188 
Reese, Wm. J. , Notice of . . . 597 
Reid, Whitelaw, Sketch of . . .718 

Reilly, John 348 

Relic, Ancient 264 

Reminiscences of Dr. Watt and James 

Galloway . . . . . 704 
Reserve, Western . . . . 261, 565 
First Landing of Sur- 
veyors on . . 261 
Missionary in . . 279 
Settlement of . . 682 
Drouth in . . .683 
Reynolds, Jeremiah N., Romantic His- 
tory of .430 

River Beacons 239 

Rockefeller, John D 517 

Rosecrans, Gen. W. S. , Sketch of . 558 
Rouse, Mrs. R. E. C, Sketch of . .515 
Rudolph, Major, Fate and Cruelty of . 342 
RufFner Fight, The ... . 257 
Ruffner Family, Massacre of . . . 257 
Ruggles, Hon. Almon, Sketch of . . 583 
Russell, Addison P., Sketch of . . 429 


Sandstone Industry . . . . 525 
Sanitary Commission, Ohio's Work in . 188 
Schools, Graded, Beginning of . .142 
Scioto Company .... 612, 668 

Scotch-Irish, The 237 

Seitz, Enoch Berry, Sketch of . . 532 
Serpent Mound, The ... . 233 
Shannon, Gov. Wilson, Sketch of. .313 
Shaylor, Capt. , Escape of . # . . 529 
Shellabarger, Hon. Samuel, Notice of . 404 

Sherman, Senator John, Speech on Pot- 
tery Industry 

Sherman, Judge Charles, Sketch of 
Sherman, Gen. W. T., Sketch of 
Slave Hunters at Rankins 
Slave Rescue, The Ad. White Case 
Smith, Solomon, Sketch of 
Socialistic Society, A 
Society of Friends at Wapakonetta 
Soldier's Creed, The . 
Soldier's Widow, The . 
Spencer, Piatt R., Sketch of. 
Spiritualistic Community, A . 
Springs . . . 486, 554, 558, 584, 
Squirrels, A Grand Hunt for 
Stage-Coach Talk . 
Stanbery, Hon. Henry, Sketch of 
Notice of 
State Institutions at Columbus 
Starling, Lyne, Sketch of 
St. Clair, Gov. Arthur, Biography of . 
Steptoe, Rev. Stephen, Experience of . 
Stone, Amasa, Sketch of 
Strawberry Culture .... 
Strength, Sources of Ohio's . 
Sullivan t, Lucas, Sketch of . 
Sullivant, William, Sketch of 
Sullivant, Michael L. , Sketch of . 

Sullivant, Joseph 

Swan, Joseph R., Sketch of . 
Swayne, Chief Justice, Sketch of . 
Sweatland, Solomon, Driven Across Lake 

m Erie 
Symmes' Hole 
Symmes, Judge, Notice of 
Sycamores, The Twin . 


Tailor Justice, The .... 

Tarhe, The Crane 

Tecumseh . . 328, 374, 387, 391, 
Temperance Crusade, The Women's 
Thoburn, Bishop J. M., Sketch of 
Thomas, Capt., Death of 
Thrilling Adventure of Mary Robinson . 
Thurman, Judge Allen G. , Sketch of . 
Tile Drainage in Ohio . 
Tobacco, ' l White Burley ' ' 
Topography of Ohio 
Tornadoes ..... 374, 
Touching Incidenl, A . 
Tourgee, Albion W. , Sketch of . 
Townshend, Prof. N. S., Sketch of 
Trout Streams .... 
Tupper, Gen. E. W. : Anecdote of 
Tut tie, Hudson, Notice of . 



J 00 


Underground Railroad, First Station on .337 
Underground Railroad, The . . .418 


Vallandigham, Clement L. , Biography of 438 
Vallandigham Campaign . . 445 

Van Derveer, Gen. Ferdinand, Sketch of 349 
Vance, Gov. Joseph, Sketch of . . 382 
Van Tassel, Rev. Isaac, Notice of . . 664 




Vaughn, John C. , Notice of . . . 558 
Virginia Military Lands . . 223, 232 
Volunteers to Civil War, First Company 

of 337 

Voorhees, Senator Daniel W. , Notice of 349 


Wade, Benj. R, Sketch of . 271 

Wade, Jephtha H., Sketch of . . 519 
Wagoners, Attack on . . . . 342 
Walk-In-The- Water, First Steamboat on 

Lake Erie 585 

Ward, J. Q. A., Sketch of . . 383 

Washburn, Neil . . . . 411, 416 
Wayne, "Mad Anthony," Anecdotes of 225 
Welch, Judge J., Sketch of . . . 287 
Weller, Hon. J. B., Sketch of . . 348 

Wetzel, Lewis 308 

Wet Land . m . . . . .409 
Whingwy Pooshies, Grief of . . . 543 

Whiteeyes, Capt. , Death of . . . 435 
White Woman, Mary Harris, The . . 468 
Whittridge, Worthington, Sketch of . 405 
Whittlesey, Col. Charles, Sketch of . 519 
Wickedest Man in Ohio . . . 427 

Wilberforce University . . . .721 
Willich, Gen. August, Sketch of . . 303 
Wills' Creek, Whites Attacked near . 726 
Wilcox, Phineas Bacon, Sketch of . 658 
Windom, William, Notice of . . . 325 

Witch Story, A 413 

Wiwelipea, Oratory of . . . . 299 
Woods, John, Sketch of 348 

Woodmansee, James, Sketch of . . 349 
Wormlee, Dr. T. G. and Mrs., Sketch of 657 
Wright, Prof. G. Frederick, Sketch of. 90 


Zane's Trace . ... 588,681,728 
Zane, Elizabeth, Heroism of . .314 


VOL. I. 



Albany . 





Ashley . 


Athens . 




Beaver Dam 


Bell aire 




Berlin Heights 

Bethel . 




Boston . 







Canal, Winchester 




Chagrin Falls 



Chester Cross Bo ads 



Clifton . 

College Corner 








Crown City 
































Defiance 541 

Delaware 553 

Delphos 249 

Delta 667 


East Cleveland 
East Liverpool 
East Palestine 
Elida . 
Euclid . 





Felicity . 




Galena . 

Galion . 








Harlem Springs 





Huron . 


Jamestown . 
Jeromeville . 







. 725 
. 667 
. 340 
. 420 
. 327 
. 611 

. 563 

. 487 
. 677 
. 275 
. 330 
. 538 
. 528 
. 530 

. 346 

. 364 

. 260 
. 547 
. 339 
. 692 

. 584 

. 528 









Rome ....... 240 

Lafayette 251 

Roscoe . 470 


. 591 

Russellville 340 


. 362 


. 465 


Locust Grove 

. 242 
. 240 

Sabina 433 

Loudonville . 

. 260 

Salem . 

. 448 


. 420 


. 465 


. 567 


Sandy Springs 

. 240 

Manchester 280 

. 260 

Martin's Ferry 
Martinsville . 

. 325 
. 433 


South Charlestown 

. 358 
. 407 


. 384 
. 364 

Spencerville . 
Springfield . 

. 251 

. 397 

Middlefield . 

. 692 

Spring Valley 

. 725 

Middletown . 

. 349 

St. Clairsville 

. 308 



St. Mary's . 

. 302 

Milford . ! 

. 411 


. 563 


. 306 

Morristown . 

. 327 



. 420 

Union City 539 

Mutual . . 

. 386 

Urbana 371 


Utopia . 419 

Nelsonville . . . . . . . 292 


Neville . 

. 420 

New Bremen 

. 528 
. 305 

Venice . . . . . . . 584 

Vermillion 587 

New Carlisle . 

. 407 

Versailles . . . . .539 

New Harrisburg . 

. 364 


New Lisbon . 

. 437 

New Paris 

. 386 

Walker's 465 

New Richmond 

. 417 


. 295 

New Vienna . 

. 433 

Washington C. H. 

. 603 

North Lewisburg 

. 386 

Washington . 

. 730 


Washingtonville . 

. 466 

Wauseon . . . 

. .611 

Ohio City . . . . . .499 


. 464 

Olmstead Falls 

. 528 

West Chester 

. 358 


. 725 

West Cleveland 

. 528 


. 563 

Westerville . 

. 659 

Oxford . . 

. 353 


. 251 


West Union ... 

. 228 


. 415 

Parkman 692 

Wilmington . . 

. 424 

Patriot . 

. 681 

Winchester . 

. 240 


. 260 

Woodstock ... 

. 386 

Plain City 

. 660 


. 611 

Point Pleasant 

. 419 

Polk . 

. 260 


Port Williams 

. 434 

Xenia . . . . . . .700 


Ripley 335 


Rock Creek . 

. 282 

Yellow Springs 

. 722 


VOL. I. 


Andrews, Col. Lorin 

unteer . 
Ancient Map, Sandusky 
Apple Dale Tile Works 
Ashland, 1846 
Ashland, 1888 
Ashtabula, 1846 
Ashtabula, 1887 
Ashtabula Bridge 
Ashtabula Bridge, 
Athens Asylum for 

Ohio's First Vol- 

Ruins of 
the Insane 


Bailey, Mad Ann, Heroine of Point 

Pleasant ..... 679 

Bailey, Mad Ann, Cabin of . . . 680 

Batavia, 1846 410 

Beatty, Gen. John, Portrait of . .150 
Beautiful Beech at Athens . . .287 
Bellaire, 1887 . . . . . 321 
Blind Asylum, 1846 . . . 631 

Blind Asylum, 1888 . . . .632 
Boquet's Council with the Indians . 476 

Boquet, Surrender of Captives to . . 476 
Bower of the Lost Child . . .416 
Brough, Gov. John, Portrait and Auto- 
graph of . . . . .516 
Brush Electric Light Company's Works 509 
Buckeye, Leaf, Nut, Burr and Flower . 206 

Bucyrus, 1846 482 

Bucyrus, 1887 . . ■ . . .482 
Butler County Court-House, Hamilton . 344 

Cambridge, 1846 729 

Cambridge, 1887 729 

Carrollton, 1846 . . . . . 360 
Carrollton, 1887 . . . . . 360 
Cascade at Clifton . . . . . 725 

Catholic Church After the Cyclone . 606 
Central Insane Asylum, 1846 . .631 

Central Insane Asylum, 1888 . .631 

Chagrin Falls, 1846 . . . . 527 
Champion Mower Shops . . . 401 

Chardon, 1846 689 

Chardon, 1887 689 

Cheese-Factory, Interior of . . . 690 
Clark, Gen. George Rogers, Portrait and 

Autograph of .... 395 

Cleaveland, Gen. Moses, Portrait of . 511 
Cleveland Medical College, 1846 . . 499 
Cleveland, Superior Street, 1846 . .502 
Cockerill, Col. John A., Portrait of .231 

Columbus, J 846 617 

Columbus, 1887 618 

Conneaut in July, 1 796 . . . 262 

Coppock, Edwin, Monument of . . 450 
Copus Family, Monument to Memory of 259 


Cowles, Betsy M., Portrait of . . 281 

Cowles, Edwin M., Portrait of . .513 

Coshocton, 1846 469 

Coshocton, 1887 ... . .469 

Cottage of a German-Swiss Emigrant . 463 

Crusading Women of New Vienna . 428 

Cummings, Be v. E. H. , Portrait of . 408 

Dawes, Major E. C, Portrait of . .155 
Deaf and Dumb Asylum, 1846 . .631 
Deaf and Dumb Asylum, 1888 . .632 
Decline of Day on the Upper Ohio . 462 
Defiance, Fort . . . . .540 
Defiance, 1846 . . . . 541 

Defiance, 1887 . . . . .541 

Delaware, 1846 555 

Delaware, 1886 555 

Dennison, Gov. William, Portrait and 

Autograph of . . . .516 

Dorn, Hon. Henry, Portrait of . . 208 
Dow, Lorenzo, Portrait of . . .413 

Early Settlers Pounding Corn . . 244 
Edgerton, Hon. Alfred P., Portrait of . 547 
Edison, Thomas Alva, Portrait of . 580 

Edison, Thomas Alva, Birth-place of . 581 
Ewing Mansion, The .... 504 
Ewing, Hon. Thomas, Portrait and 

Autograph of .... 593 

Ewing, Gen. Thomas . . . .178 

Farrar, Hon. William, Portrait of . 200 

Fern Cliff . . . . . . 401 

Field of Derricks, Lima . . . 248 

First Court-House in Greene County . 695 
Forks of the Muskingum . . . 468 
Forrer, Samuel, Portrait of . . .119 
Frankenstein Homestead, The . . 404 
Franklin County Court-House . . 624 
French Settlers Cutting Down Trees . 675 
Friends' Yearly Meeting-House, Barnes- 

ville 325 

Galion, 1887 488 

Gallipolis, 1790 672 

Gallipolis, 1846 678 

Gallipolis, 1886 .. . . . . 678 

Garfield's Monument .... 508 

Geddes, James, Portrait of . . .119 

Geneva, 1888 276 

Geological Map of Ohio . . . .65 
Georgetown, 1846 . . . . . 330 
Giddings, Joshua R. , Portrait and Auto- 
graph of . . . . .269 
Giddings, Joshua R., Law Office of . 270 
Giddings' and Wade's Monuments . 269 




Glaciated Area of Ohio, Map of . .91 
Glaciated Area of North America, Map of 92 
Glaciated Area, Hamilton County, Map of 93 
Glaciated Area of New Jersey, Map of . 97 
Grant School-House, Georgetown . . 332 
Grant Homestead and Tannery . . 332 
Grant, Birth-place of . . . .419 
Grant, U. S., Portrait and Autograph of 333 
Grant, Jesse R., Portrait and Autograph 

of . . . . b . . .333 
Grant, Mrs. Hannah, Portrait and Auto- 

graph of 


Halstead, Murat, Portrait of . . . 352 
Halstead, Murat, Boyhood Home and 

Sycamore Grove at . . .352 

Halstead, Murat . . . . ^ . 352 
Hamer, Gen. Thomas Lyon, Portrait of 331 

Hamilton, 1846 345 

Hayden's Falls . . . . .650 
Hayes, President, Birth-place of . . 557 
Heatherington, Jacob, Portrait of . 323 

Hitchcock, Judge Peter, Homestead . 687 
House That Jack Built . . . .323 
Howard, J. Q., Portrait of . . .184 
Howells, William Dean, Portrait of . 327 
Howells, William Dean, Birth-place of . 327 
Hunter, Capt. Robert, Portrait of . 155 

Imbecile Youths, Asylum for . . 631 

Inscription Bock . . . . . 585 

Jack, the Mule 323 

Jefferson, 1846 . # ^ . , .267 
Johnson's Island Prison . . . 576 

Kail, Mrs. Mary E., Portrait of . . 363 

Kelly, Hon. Alfred, Portrait of : . 649 

Keifer, Gen. J. Warren, Portrait and 

Autograph of .... 406 

Kenton, Simon, Portrait of . . . 376 

Kenton, Simon, The Grave of . . 376 

Kinney, Col. Coates, Portrait of . .714 

Knight, Prof. Geo. W., Portrait of . 137 

Lancaster, 1846 591 

Lancaster, 1886 591 

Latham, E. P., Portrait of . . . 688 
Latham, E. P., Specimen of Handwriting 

of . . .. . . .688 

Lee, Homer, Portrait and Autograph of 178 

Lima, 1846 245 

Lima, 1887 . . # . . . 245 

Lundy, Benjamin, Portrait of . .312 

Manchester Landing .... 230 
Maple Sugar, Old-Time Way of Making 685 
Martin's Ferry, 1887 . . . .326 
McBride, James, Portrait of . . 355 

McCook, Major Daniel, Portrait of . 365 
McCook, Dr. John, Portrait of . . 365 
McCook, Martha L., Portrait of . # . 366 
McCook, Gen. Robert Latimer, Portrait 

of 367 

McCook, Brig. -Gen. Daniel, Portrait of 367 
McCook, Charles Morris, Portrait of . 368 
McCook, Brig. -Gen. Anson George, Por- 
trait of . . . . . .369 

McCook, Col. John James, Portrait of . 370 


McDowell, Gen. Irvin, Birth-place of . 648 
McKeever, Abbie C. Portrait of . .421 
Miami University, Oxford . . . 353 

Middletown, 1846 350 

Middletown, 1887 . . . . . 350 

Milan, 1846 578 

Millikin, Col. Minor, Portrait of . . 356 

Miners' Cottages 320 

Monnett Hall . . . . .556 
Morgan, Gen. John, Portrait and Auto- 
graph of 453 

Morgan, Gen. John, Surrender of . 453 
Morris, Senator Thomas, Monument of 414 
Mount Pleasant 590 

New Lisbon, 1846 
New Lisbon, 1886 



Ohio Boys' Industrial School . ^ . 598 

Ohio Penitentiary, Prisoners Marching in 631 
Ohio Penitentiary, 1846 . . . 644 

Ohio River Beacon .... 235 
Ohio State University . . . .621 
Ohio University, 1846 . . . . 286 
Ohio Wesleyan University . . . 556 
Ohio, Map of . . ; . . 8 
Orton, Prof. Edward, Portrait of . . 59 
Our Cabin, or Life in the Woods . . 316 

Paleolith from Abbeville, France . . 95 
Paleolith from Trenton, New Jersey . 96 
Pennyroyal Distillery, A 732 

Perkins, Joseph, Portrait of . . .514 
Perry's Den .... . 735 

Perrv Statue, Monumental Park, Cleve- 
land . . . . ' . .507 
Poison Crystals, Forms of 657 

Pompey's Pillar 723 

Pottery, Knowles, Taylor & Knowles, 

East Liverpool .... 460 
Purcell, Archbishop, Portrait of . . 340 
Purchase of the Ohio and Scioto Land 

Companies ..... 671 

Quarries at Berea 


E,ankin, Rev. John, Portrait of . .337 
Read, Prof. M. C, Portrait of . .188 
Reid, Whitelaw, Portrait and Autograph 

of 721 

Reid, Whitelaw, Birth-place of . . 721 

Ripley, 1846 336 

Rosecrans, Gen. W. S., Portrait and 

Autograph of. . . . . 559 
Rossville, View from Hamilton, 1846 . 345 
Rouse. Mrs., Portrait of . . .515 
Roy, Hon. Andrew, Portrait of . .110 
Ruggles, Hon. Almon, Portrait of . 583 

Salem, 1846 449 

Salem, 1887 . . r . . .449 
Salem Town Hall, Audience Room . 450 
Sandusky Harbor, 1846 . . . 569 

Sanduskv Harbor, 1888 . . . 57t"> 

Seal of Ohio 51 

Seitz. Enoch Berry, Portrait of . . 533 
Serpent Mound, Diagram of . . 232 

Serpent Mound, The Head of . . 234 
Serpent. Mound Park .... 233 




Serpent Mound, Skeleton Found in . 233 
Soldiers' and Sailors' Orphans' Home . 711 
Soldiers' and Sailors' Orphans' Home, 

Sitting-Room , . . .711 

Solitary Elm, The . . . .352 

Springfield, 1846 397 

Spencer, Piatt R., Portrait and Auto- 
graph of 277 

Sherman, Gen. W. T. , Portrait and 

Autograph of . . . . 593 

St. Clair, G-en. Arthur, Portrait and 

Autograph of .... 395 
St. Clairsville, 1846 . . . . 309 
State Capitol of Ohio . . . .615 
Stanbery, Hon. Henry, Portrait of .653 
Strata Along the Niagara River . . 98 
Surveys of Public Lands, Map . .134 
Swayne, Chief-Justice, Portrait of . 655 
Symmes, Judge J. C. , Autograph of . 347 
Symmes, Judge J. C, Monument to 
Memory of 347 

Tecumseh, Birthplace of . . .391 
Thurman, Hon. A. G., Portrait and 

Autograph of .... 559 
Tod, Gov. David, Portrait and Auto- 
graph of 516 

Tourgee, Judge Albion W., Portrait of 280 
Townshend, Dr. N. S., Portrait of . 100 
Twin Sycamores, The .... 730 

Urbana, 1846 
Urbana, 1886 


Vallandigham, Clement L., Portrait of . 439 

Vallandigham Homestead . . . 439 

Valley of the Cuyahoga . . . 504 

Viaduct, Cleveland . . . . 504 

Wade, Senator Benj. F., Portrait and 

Autograph of .... 269 

Wapakonetta, 1887 .... 295 
Ward, J. Q. A., Portrait of . . 383 

Washington C. H., 1846 . . .604 
Washington C. H., 1886 . . . 604 
Wauseon, Central View in . . . 662 
Wayne, Gen. Anthony, Portrait and 

Autograph of .... 395 

Wellsville, 1846 464 

West Union, 1846 . . . .229 

Wetzel's Springs 308 

White Sulphur Springs . . .559 

Whittlesey, Col. Charles, Portrait and 

Autograph of .... 522 

Whittlesey Homestead .... 522 
Wilberforce University . . . 722 

Willich, Gen. August, Portrait of . 303 

Willich, Gen. , Monument to Memory of 303 
Wilmington, 1846 .... 423 

Wilmington, 1886 . . . .423 

Wittenberg College .... 398 
Worthington Female Seminary, 1846 . 611 
Wright, Prof. G. Frederick, Portrait of 90 

Xenia, 1846 . . . . 701 

Xenia, 1886 701 



Outline History of Ohio 33 

General Description of Ohio Frank Henry Howe, 51 

Geography and Geology of Ohio Prof. Edward Orton, 59 

Glacial Man in Ohio Prof. G. FredericJc Wright, 90 

History of Agriculture in Ohio . . . . Prof. Norton S. Townshend, 100 

Mines and Mining Resources of Ohio . . . . . . Hon. Andrew Roy, 110 

Pioneer Engineers of Ohio Col Chas. Whittlesey, 119 

CivilJurisdiction of Ohio . . . Col Chas. Whittlesey, 122 

Sources of Ohio's Strength Col Chas. Whittlesey, 124 

Public Lands of Ohio .......... John Kilbourne, 128 

Public Land Surveys in Ohio . . . . . . Col Chas. Whittlesey, 133 

Educational Progress in Ohio Prof G. W. Knight, 137 

Ohio in the Civil War Gen. John Beatty, 150 

Ohio Officers, State and National .166 

Ohio Coinmandery of the Loyal Legion 155 

Ohio Society of New York 178 

A Glance at Ohio History and Historical Men J. Q. Howard, 184 

Ohio's Work in the United States Sanitary Commission . . Prof. M. C Read, 188 

Ohio, the Buckeye State Hon. Wm, M. Farrar, 200 

Workshop and Factory Inspection Frank Henry Howe, 208 

Ordinance of 1787 217 




The territory now comprised within the limits of Ohio was formerly a 
part of that vast region claimed by France, between the Alleghany and 
the Rocky mountains, first known by the general name of Louisiana. In 
1673, Marquette, a zealous French Missionary > accompanied with Monsieur 
Joliet, from Quebec, with five boatmen, set out on a mission from 
Mackinac to the unexplored regions lying south of that station. They 
passed down the lake to Green Bay, thence from Fox River crossed 
over to the Wisconsin, which they followed down to its junction with the 
Mississippi. They descended this mighty stream a. thousand miles to its 
confluence with the Arkansas. On their return to Canada, they did not 
fail to urge, in strong terms, the immediate occupation of the vast and 
fertile regions watered by the Mississippi and its branches. 

On the 7th of August, 1679, M. de la Salle, the French commandant of 
Fort Frontenac, on Lake Ontario, launched, upon Lake Erie, the Griffin, 
a bark of about 60 tons, with which he proceeded through the Lakes to 
the Straits of Michillimackinac. Leaving his bark at this place, he pro- 
ceeded up Lake Michigan, and from thence to the south west, till he 
arrived at Peoria Lake, in Illinois. At this place he erected a fort, and 
after having sent Father Lewis Hennepin on an exploring expedition, 
La Salle returned to Canada. In 1683, La Salle went to France, and, by 
the representations which he made, induced the French Government to 
fit out an expedition for the purpose of planting a colony at the mouth 
of the Mississippi. This expedition failed, La Salle being murdered by 
his own men. 

This disaster did not abate the ardor of the French in their great plan 
of obtaining possession of the vast region westward of the English colo- 
nies. A second expedition sailed from France, under the command of 
M. DTberville. This officer entered the mouth of the Mississippi, and 
explored the river for several hundred miles. Permanent establishments 
were made at different points ; and from this time the French colony west 
of the Alleghanies steadily increased in numbers and strength. Previous 
to the year 1725, the colony had been divided into quarters, each having 
its local governor, or commandant, and judge, but all subject to the 
superior authority of the council general of Louisiana, One of these 
quarters was established north west of the Ohio. 

At this period the French had erected forts on the Mississippi, on the 
Illinois, on the Maumee, and on the lakes. Still, however, the communi- 
cation with Canada was through Lake Michigan. Before 1750, a French 



post had been fortified at the mouth of the Wabash, and a communication 
was established through that river and the Maumee with Canada. About 
the same time, and for the purpose of checking the progress of the French, 
the Ohio Company was formed, and made some attempts to establish 
trading houses among the Indians. The French, however, established a 
chain of fortifications back of the English settlements, and thus, in a meas- 
ure, had the entire control of the great Mississippi valley. The English 
government became alarmed at the encroachments of the French, and 
attempted to settle boundaries by negotiations. These availed nothing, 
and both parties were determined to settle their differences by the force of 

The claims of the different European monarchs to large portions of the 
western continent were based upon the first discoveries made by their 
subjects. In 1609, the English monarch granted to the London Company, 
all the territories extending along the coast for two hundred miles north 
and south from Point Comfort, and " up into the land, throughout from sea 
to sea, west and north-west." In 1662, Charles II. granted to certain set- 
tlers upon the Connecticut all the territory between the parallels of lati- 
tude which include the present State of Connecticut, from the Atlantic to 
the Pacific ocean. The claims which Massachusetts advanced, during the 
revolution, to an interest in the western lands, were founded upon a 
similar charter, granted thirty years afterwards. 

When the king of France had dominions in North America, the whole 
of the late territory of the United States, north-west of the river Ohio, 
was included in the province of Louisiana, the north boundary of which, 
by the treaty of Utrecht, concluded between France and England in 171 3,. 
was fixed at the 49th parallel of latitude north of the Equator. After the 
conquest of the French possessions in North America by Great Britain, 
this tract was ceded by France to Great Britain, by the treaty of Paris, 
in 1763. 

The principal ground whereon the English claimed dominion beyond 
the Alleghanies was, that the Six Nations owned the Ohio valley, and had 
placed it with their other lands under the protection of England. Some 
of the western lands were also claimed by the British as having been 
actually purchased, at Lancaster, Penn., in 1744, at a treaty between the 
colonists and the Six Nations at that place. In 1748, the "Ohio Com- 
pany/' for the purpose of securing the Indian trade, was formed. In 
1749, it appears that the English built a trading house upon the Great 
Miami, at a spot since called Loramie's Store. In 175 1, Christopher Gist, 
an agent of the Ohio Company, who was appointed to examine the west- 
ern lands, made a visit to the Twigtwees, who lived upon the Miami river, 
about one hundred miles from its mouth. 

Early in 1752, the French having heard of the trading house on the 
Miami, sent a party of soldiers to the Twigtwees and demanded the 
traders as intruders upon French lands. The Twigtwees refused to deliver 
up their friends. The French, assisted by the Ottawas and Chippewas, 
then attacked the trading house, which was probably a block house, and 
after a severe battle, in which fourteen of the natives were killed and 
others wounded, took and destroyed it, carrying away the traders to 
Canada. This fort, or trading house, was called, by the English, Pickawil- 
lany. Such was the first British settlement in the Ohio valley, of which 
we have any record. 

After Braddock's defeat, in 1755, the Indians pushed their excursions as 
far east as the Blue Ridge. In order to repel them, Major Lewis, in Janu- 
ary, 1756, was sent with a party of troops on an expedition against the 
Indian towns on the Ohio. The point apparently aimed at, was the upper 
Shawanese town, situated on the Ohio, three miles above the mouth of 


the Great Kanawha. The attempt proved a failure, in consequence, it is 
said, of the swollen state of the streams, and the treachery of the guides. 
In 1764, Gen. Bradstreet, having dispersed the Indian forces besieging 
Detroit, passed into the Wyandot country by way of Sandusky Bay. He 
ascended the bay and river as far as it was navigable for boats, and there 
made a camp. A treaty of peace was signed by the Chiefs and head men. 
The Shawnees of the Scioto river, and the Delawares of the Muskingum, 
however, still continued hostile. Col. Boquet, in 1764, with a body of 
troops, marched from Fort Pitt into the heart of the Ohio country on the 
Muskingum river. This expedition was conducted with great prudence 
and skill, and without scarcely any loss of life, as treaty of peace was 
effected with the Indians, who restored the prisoners they had captured 
from the white settlements. The next war with the Indians was in 
1774, generally known as Lord Dunmore's. In the summer of that year, 
an expedition, under Col. M'Donald, was assembled at Wheeling, marched 
into the Muskingum country and destroyed the Indian town of Wapato- 
mica, a few .miles above the site of Zanesville. In the fall, the Indians 
were defeated after a hard fought battle at Point Pleasant, on the Virginia 
side of the Ohio. Shortly after this event, Lord Dunmore made peace 
with the Indians at Camp Charlotte, in what is now Pickaway country. 

During the revolutionary war, most of the western Indians were more or 
less united against the Americans. In the fall of 1778, an expedition 
against Detroit was projected. As a preliminary step, it was resolved that 
the forces in the west, under Gen. MTntosh, should move up and attack 
the Sandusky Indians. Preliminary to this, Fort Laurens, so called in 
honor of the President of Congress, was built upon the Tuscarawas, a 
short distance below the site of Bolivar, Tuscarawas county. The expe- 
dition to Detroit was abandoned and the garrison of Fort Laurens, after 
suffering much from the Indians and from famine, were recalled in August, 
1779. A month or two previous to the evacuation of this fort, Col. 
Bowman headed an expedition against the Shawnees. Their village, 
Chillicothe, three miles north of the site of Xenia, on the little Miami, was 
burnt. The warriors showed an undaunted front, and the whites were 
forced to retreat. In the .summer of 1780, an expedition directed against 
the Indian towns, in the forks of the Muskingum, moved from Wheeling 
under Gen. Broadhead. This expedition, known as " the Coshocton cam- 
paign," was unimportant in its results. In the same summer, Gen. Clark 
led a body of Kentuckians against the Shawnees. Chillicothe, on the 
Little Miami, was burnt on their approach, but at Piqua, their town on 
the Mad River, six miles below the site of Springfield, they gave battle to 
the whites and were defeated. In September, 1782, this officer led a 
second expedition against the Shawanese. Their towns, Upper and 
Lower Piqua, on the Miami, within what is now Miami county, were 
destroyed, together with the store of a trader. 

There were other expeditions into the Indian country from Kentucky, 
which, although of later date, we mention in this connection. In 1786, 
Col. Logan conducted a successful expedition against the Mackachack 
towns, on the head waters of Mad River, in what is now Logan county. 
Edwards, in 1787, led an expedition to the head waters of the Big Miami, 
and, in 1788, Todd led one into the Scioto valley. There were also 
minor expeditions, at various times, into the present limits of Ohio. 

The Moravian missionaries, prior to the war of the revolution, had a 
number of missionary stations within the limits of Ohio. The mission- 
aries, Heckewelder and Post, were on the Muskingum as early as 1762. 
In March, 1782, a party of Americans, under Col. Williamson, murdered 
in cold blood, ninety-four of the defenceless Moravian Indians, within the 
present limits of Tuscarawas county. In the June following, Col. Craw- 


ford, at the head of about 500 men, was defeated by the Indians, three 
miles north of the site of Upper Sandusky, in Wyandot county. He 
was taken prisoner, and burnt at the stake with horrible tortures. 

By an act of the Parliament of Great Britain, passed in 1774, the whole 
of the late north-western Territory was annexed to, and made a part of 
the province of Quebec, as created and established by the royal proclama- 
tion of the 7th of October, 1763. But nothing therein contained, relative 
to the boundary of the said province of Quebec, was in any wise to affect 
the boundaries of any other colony. 

The colonies having, in 1776, renounced their allegiance to the British 
king, and assumed rank as free, sovereign and independent States, each 
State claimed the right of soil and jurisdiction over the district of country 
embraced within its charter. The charters of several of the States 
embraced large portions of western unappropriated lands. Those States 
which had no such charters, insisted that these lands ought to be appro- 
priated for the benefit of all the States, according to their population, as 
the title to them, if secured at all, would be by the blood and treasure of 
all the States. Congress repeatedly urged upon those States owning 
western unappropriated lands, to make liberal cessions of them for the 
common benefit of all. 

The claim of the English monarch to the late north-western Territory 
was ceded to the United States, by the treaty of peace, signed at Paris, 
September 3, 1783. The provisional articles which formed the basis of 
that treaty, more especially as related to the boundary, were signed, at 
Paris, November 30, 1782. During the pendency of the negotiation 
relative to these preliminary articles, Mr. Oswald, the British commis- 
sioner, proposed the river Ohio as the western boundary of the United 
States, and but for the indomitable perseverance of the revolutionary 
patriot, John Adams, one of the American commissioners, who opposed the 
proposition, and insisted upon the Mississippi as the boundary, the proba- 
bility is, that the proposition of Mr. Oswald would have been acceded to 
by the United States commissioners. 

The states who owned western unappropriated lands, with a single 
exception, redeemed their respective pledges by ceding them to the United 
States. The State of Virginia, in March, 1784, ceded the right of soil and 
jurisdiction to the district of country embraced in her charter, situated to 
the north-west of the river Ohio. In September, 1786, the State of Con- 
necticut also ceded her claim of soil and jurisdiction to the district of 
country within the limits of her charter, situated west of a line beginning 
at the completion of the forty-first point degree of north latitude, one 
hundred and twenty miles west of the western boundary of Pennsylvania ; 
and from thence by a line drawn north parallel to, and one hundred and 
twenty miles west of said line of Pennsylvania, and to continue north until 
it came to forty-two degrees and two minutes north latitude. The State 
of Connecticut, on the 30th of May, 1800, also ceded her jurisdictional 
claims to all that territory called the " Western Reserve of Connecticut." 
The states of New York and Massachusetts also ceded all their claims. 

The above were not the only claims which had to be made prior to the 
commencement of settlements within the limits of Ohio. Numerous tribes 
of Indian savages, by virtue of prior possession, asserted their respective 
claims, which also had to be extinguished. A treaty for this purpose was 
accordingly made at Fort Stanwix, October 27, 1784, with the Sachems 
and warriors of the Mohawks, Onondagas, Senecas, Cayugas, Oneidas, and 
Tuscaroras; by the third article of which treaty, the said Six Nations 
ceded to the United States all claims to the country west of a line extend- 
ing along the west boundary of Pennsylvania, from the mouth of the 
Oyounayea to the river Ohio. 


A treaty was also concluded at Fort Mcintosh, January 21, 1785, with the 
Wyandot, Delaware, Chippewa, and Ottawa nations, by which the boundary 
line between the United States and the Wyandot and Delaware nations was 
declared to begin " at the mouth of the river Cuyahoga, and to extend up said 
river to the Portage, between that and the Tuscaroras branch of the Muskin- 
gum, thence down that branch to the crossing place above Fort Laurens, then 
westerly to the Portage of the Big Miami, which runs into the Ohio, at the 
mouth of which branch the fort stood which was taken by the French, in 1752 ; 
then along said Portage to the Great Miami, or Omee river, and down the south 
side of the same to its mouth ; then along the south shore of Lake Erie to the 
mouth of the Cuyahoga river, where it began." The United States allotted all 
the lands contained within said lines to the Wyandot and Delaware nations, to 
live and hunt on, and to such of the Ottawa nation as lived thereon ; saving and 
reserving for the establishment of trading posts, six miles square at the mouth 
of the Miami, or Omee river, and the same at the Portage, on that branch of 
the Big Miami which runs into the Ohio, and the same on the Lake of Sandusky 
where the fort formerly stood, and also two miles square on each side of the 
Lower Rapids of Sandusky river. 

The Indian title to a large part of the territory within the limits of Ohio 
having been extinguished, legislative action on the part of Congress became 
necessary before settlements were commenced ; as in the treaties made with the 
Indians, and in the acts of Congress, all citizens of the United States were pro- 
hibited settling on the lands of the Indians, as well as on those of the United 
States. Ordinances were accordingly made by Congress for the government 
of the Northwestern Territory, and for the survey and sale of portions of lands 
to which the Indian title had been extinguished. 

In May, 1785, Congress passed an ordinance for ascertaining the mode of 
disposing of these lands. Under that ordinance, the first seven ranges, bounded 
on the east by Pennsylvania, and on the south by the Ohio river, were surveyed. 
Sales of parts of these were made at New York, in 1787, the avails of which 
amounted to $72,974, and sales of other parts of said range were made at Pitts- 
burg and Philadelphia, in 1796. The avails of sales made at the former place 
amounted to $4344-6, and at the latter, $5,120. A portion of these lands were 
located under United States military land warrants. No further sales were 
made in that district until the Land Office was opened at Steubenville, July 1, 

On the 27th of October, 1787, a contract in writing was entered into between 
the Board of Treasury for the United States of America, of the one part, and 
Manassah Cutler and Winthrop Sargeant, as agents for the directors of the 
New England Ohio Company of associates, of the other part, for the purchase 
of the tract of land bounded by the Ohio, from the mouth of the Scioto to the 
intersection of the western boundary of the seventh range of townships then 
surveying ; thence by said boundary to the northern boundary of the tenth 
township from the Ohio; thence by a due west line to Scioto; thence by the 
Scioto to the beginning. The bounds of that contract were afterwards altered 
in 1792. The settlement of this purchase commenced at Marietta, at the mouth 
of the Muskingum river, in the spring of 1788, and was the first settlement 
formed within the limits of Ohio, An attempt at settlement within the bounds 
of Ohio had been made in April, 1785, at the mouth of the Scioto, on the site 
of Portsmouth, by four families from Redstone, Pa. ; but difficulties with the 
Indians compelled its abandonment. 

In October, 1787, Congress appointed Gen. Arthur St. Clair, an officer of the 
Revolution, Governor ; Winthrop Sargeant, Secretary ; and the Hon. Samuel 
Holden Parsons, James Mitchell Varnum, Judges, in, and over the Territory. 
The territorial government was organized, and sundry laws were made, or 
adopted, by the Governor and Judges Parsons and Varnum. In 1788 John 


Cleves Symmes was also appointed judge. The county of Washington, having 
its limits extended westward to the Scioto, and northward to Lake Erie, em- 
bracing about half the territory within the present limits of the State, was estab- 
lished by the proclamation of the Governor. 

On the 15th of October, 1788, John Cleves Symmes, in behalf of himself 
and his associates, contracted with the Board of Treasury for the purchase of 
a large tract of land situated between the Great and Little Miami river, and the 
first settlement within the limits of that purchase, and second in Ohio, was com- 
menced in November of that year, at Columbia, at the mouth of the Little 
Miami, five miles* above the site of Cincinnati. 

" A short time after the settlement at Marietta had commenced, an association 
was formed under the name of the Scioto Land Company. A contract was made 
for the purchase of a part of the lands included in the. Ohio Company's pur- 
chases. Plats and descriptions of the land contracted for, were, however, made 
out, and Joel Barlow was sent as an agent, to Europe to make sales of the lands 
for the benefit of the company ; and sales were effected of parts thereof to com- 
panies and individuals in France. On February 19, 1791, two hundred and 
eighteen of these purchasers left Havre de Grace, in France, and arrived in Al- 
exandria, D. C, on the 3d of May following. During their passage, two were 
added to their number. On their arrival, they were told that the Scioto Com- 
pany owned no land. The agent insisted that they did, and promised to secure 
to them good titles thereto, which he did, at Winchester, Brownsville, and 
Charleston (now Wellsburg.) When they arrived at Marietta, about fifty of 
them landed. The rest of the company proceeded to Gallipolis, which was laid 
out about that time, and were assured by the agent that the place lay within 
their purchase. Every effort to secure titles to the lands they had purchased 
having failed, an application was made to Congress, and in June, 1798, a grant 
was made to them of a tract of land on the Ohio, above the mouth of the Scioto 
river, which is called the ' French Grant' " 

The Legislature of Connecticut, in May, 1795, appointed a committee to 
receive proposals and make sale of the lands she had reserved in Ohio. This 
committee sold the lands to sundry citizens of Connecticut and other States, 
and, in September of the same year, executed to several purchasers deeds of 
conveyance therefor. The purchasers proceeded to survey into townships of 
five miles square the whole of said tract lying east of the Cuyahoga ; they 
made divisions thereof according to their respective proportions, and com- 
menced settlements in many of the townships, and there were actually settled 
therein, by the 21st of March, 1800, about one thousand inhabitants. A num- 
ber of mills had been built, ancj roads cut in various directions to the extent of 
about 700 miles. 

The location of the lands appropriate for satisfying military land bounty 
warrants in the district appropriated for that purpose, granted for services in the 
Revolutionary war, commenced on March 13, 1800; and the location of the 
lands granted to the Canadian and Nova Scotia refugees commenced February 
13, 1802. The lands east of the Scioto, south of the military bounty lands, 
and west of the fifteenth range of townships, were first brought into market, 
and offered for sale by the United States on the first Monday of May, 1801. 

The State of Virginia, at an early period of the Revolutionary war, raised 
two description of troops, State and Continental, to each of which bounties in 
land were promised. The lands within the limits of her charter, situate to the 
northwest of Ohio river, were withdrawn from appropriation on treasury war- 
rants, and the lands on Cumberland river, and between the Green and Tennes- 
see rivers on the southeasterly side of the Ohio, were appropriated forthese 
military bounties. Upon the recommendation of Congress, Virginia ceded her 
lands north of the Ohio, upon certain conditions ; one of which was, that in 
case the lands south of Ohio should be insufficient for their legal bounties to 


their troops, the deficiency should be made up from lands north of the Ohio, 
between the rivers Scioto and Little Miami. 

In 1783, the Legislature of Virginia authorized the officers of their respective 
lines to appoint superintendents to regulate the survey of the bounty lands 
promised. Richard C. Anderson was appointed principal surveyor of the lands 
of the troops of the continental establishment. An office for the reception of 
locations and surveys was opened at Louisville, Kentucky, August 1, 1784, and 
on the 1st of August, 1787, the said office was open for the reception of surveys 
and locations on the north side of the Ohio. 

In the year 1789, January 9th, a treaty was made at Fort Harmar, between 
Governor St. Clair and the Sachems and warriors of the Wyandot, Chippewa, 
Potawatomie, and Sac nations, in which the treaty at Fort Mcintosh was re- 
newed and confirmed. It did not, however, produce the favorable results anti- 
cipated. The Indians, the same year, assuming a hostile appearance, were seen 
hovering round the infant settlements near the mouth of the Muskingum and 
between the Miamies, and nine persons were killed within the bounds of 
Symmes' purchase. The new settlers became alarmed and erected block-houses 
in each of the new settlements. In June, 1789, Major Doughty, with 140 men, 
from Fort Harmar, commenced the building of Fort Washington, on a spot now 
within the present limits of Cincinnati. A few months afterwards, Gen. Har- 
mar arrived, with 300 men, and took command of the fort. 

Negotiations with the Indians proving unavailing, Gen. Harmar was directed 
to attack their towns. In pursuance of his instructions he marched from Cin- 
cinnati, in September, 1790, with 1,300 men, of whom less than one-fourth' were 
regulars. When near the Indian villages, on the Miami of the lake in the 
vicinity of what is now Fort Wayne, an advanced detachment of 310, consisting 
chiefly of militia, fell into an ambush and was defeated with severe loss. Gen. 
Harmar, however, succeeded in burning the Indian villages and in destroying 
their standing corn, and having effected this service, the army commenced its 
march homeward. They had not proceeded far when Harmar received intelli- 
gence that the Indians had returned to their ruined towns. He immediately 
detached about one-third of his remaining force, under the command of Col. 
Hardin, with orders to bring them to an engagement. He succeeded in this 
early the next morning ; the Indians fought with great fury, and the militia and 
the regulars alike behaved with gallantry. More than one hundred of the 
militia, and all the regulars except nine, were killed, and the rest were driven 
back to the main body. Dispirited by this severe misfortune, Harmar imme- 
diately marched to Cincinnati, and the* object of the expedition in intimidating 
the Indians was entirely unsuccessful. 

As the Indians continued hostile, a new army, superior to the former, was 
assembled at Cincinnati, under the command of Gov. St. Clair. The regular 
force amounted to 2,300 men ; the militia numbered about 600. With this 
army, St. Clair commenced his march towards the Indian towns on the Maumee. 
Two forts, Hamilton and Jefferson, were established and garrisoned on the route, 
about forty miles from each other. Misfortune attended the expedition almost 
from its commencement. Soon after leaving Fort Jefferson, a considerable 
party of the militia deserted in a body. The first regiment, under Major 
Hamtramck, was ordered to pursue them and to secure the advancing convoys 
of provisions, which it was feared they designed to plunder. Thus weakened 
by desertion and division, St. Clair approached the Indian villages. On the 
3d of November, 1 791, when at what is now the line of Darke and Mercer 
counties, he halted, intending to throw up some slight fortification for the pro- 
tection of baggage, and to await the return of the absent regiment. On the 
following morning, however, about half an hour before sunrise, the American 
army was attacked with great fury, as there is good reason to believe, by the 
whole disposable force of the northwest tribes. The Americans were totally 


defeated. Gen. Butler and upwards of six hundred men were killed. Indian 
outrages of every kind were now multiplied, and emigration was almost entirely 

President Washington now urged forward the vigorous prosecution of the 
war for the protection of the Northwest Territory ; but various obstacles re- 
tarded the enlistment and organization of a new army. In the spring of 1794 
the American army assembled at Greenville, in Darke county, under the com- 
mand of Gen. Anthony Wayne, a bold, energetic and experienced officer of the 
Revolution. His force consisted of about two thousand regular troops, and 
fifteen hundred mounted volunteers from Kentucky. The Indians had collected 
their whole force, amounting to about two thousand men, near a British fort,, 
erected since the treaty of 1783, in violation of its obligations, at the foot of 
the rapids of the Maumee. On the 20th of August, 1794, Gen. Wayne en- 
countered the enemy, and after a short and deadly conflict, the Indians fled in 
the greatest confusion, and were pursued under the guns of the British fort. 
After destroying all the houses and corn-fields above and below the British 
fort, on the Maumee, the victorious army returned to the mouth of Au Glaize„ 
where Wayne erected Fort Defiance. Previous to this action, various fruitless 
attempts had been made to bring the Indians to peace. Some of the messen- 
gers sent among the Indians for that object were murdered. 

The victory of Wayne did not at first reduce the savages to submission. 
Their country was laid waste, and forts were erected in the heart of their ter- 
ritory before they could be entirely subdued. At length, however, they became 
thoroughly convinced of their inability to resist the American arms and sued 
for peace. A grand council was held at Greenville, where eleven of the most 
powerful northwestern tribes were represented, to whom Gen. Wayne dictated 
the terms of pacification. The boundary established by the treaty at Fort 
Mcintosh was confirmed and extended westward from Loramie's to Fort Re- 
covery, and thence southwest to the mouth of the Kentucky river. The Indians 
agreed to acknowledge the United States as their sole protector, and never to 
sell their lands to any other power. Upon these and other conditions, the 
United States received the Indian nations into their protection. A large quan- 
tity of goods was delivered to them on the spot, and perpetual annuities, pay- 
able in merchandise, etc., were promised to each tribe who became a party to 
the treaty. 

While the war with the Indians continued, of course but little progress was 
made in the settlement in the west. The next county that was established after 
that of Washington, in 1788, was Hamilton, erected in 1790. Its bounds in- 
cluded the country between the Miamies, extending northward from the Ohio- 
river to a line drawn due east from the Standing Stone forks of the Great 
Miami. The name of the settlement opposite the Licking was, at this time,, 
called Cincinnati. 

At this period there was no fixed seat of government. The laws were 
passed whenever they seemed to be needed, and promulgated at any place 
where the territorial legislators happened to be assembled. In 1789 the first 
Congress passed an act recognizing the binding force of the ordinance of 1787,, 
and adapting its provisions to the federal constitution. At this period, the 
judges appointed by the national executive constituted the supreme court of 
the territory. Inferior to this court were the county court, courts of common 
pleas, and the general quarter sessions of the peace. Single judges of the 
common pleas, and single justices of the quarter sessions were also clothed 
with certain civil and criminal powers to be exercised out of court. 

In 1795 the governor and judges undertook to revise the territorial laws,, 
and to establish a system of statutory jurisprudence, by adoptions from the 
laws of the original States, in conformity to the ordinance. For this purpose 
they assembled in Cincinnati in June and continued in session until the latter 


part of August. The general court was fixed at Cincinnati and Marietta; 
other courts were established, and laws and regulations were adopted for 
various purposes. 

The population of the territory now continued to increase and extend. From 
Marietta, settlers spread into the adjoining country. The Virginia military 
reservation drew a considerable number of revolutionary veterans, and others, 
from that State. The region between the Miamies, from the Ohio far up 
toward the sources of Mad river, became chequered with farms, and abounded 
in indications of the presence of an active and prosperous population. The 
neighborhood of Detroit became populous, and Connecticut, by grants of land 
within the tract, reserved in her deed of cession, induced many of her hardy 
citizens to seek a home on the borders of Lake Erie. In 1796 Wayne county 
was established, including all the northwestern part of Ohio, a large tract in 
the northeastern part of Indiana, and the whole territory of Michigan. In 
July, 1797, Adams county was erected, comprehending a large tract lying on 
both sides of the Scioto, and extending northward to Wayne. Other counties 
were afterwards formed out of those already established. Before the end of 
the year 1798 the Northwest Territory, contained a population of five thousand 
free male inhabitants, of full age, and eight organized counties. 

The people were now entitled, under the ordinance of 1787, to a change in 
their form of government. That instrument provided that whenever there were 
five thousand free males, of full age, in the territory, the people should be au- 
thorized to elect representatives to a territorial legislature. These, when chosen, 
were to nominate ten freeholders of 500 acres, of whom the president was to 
appoint five, who were to constitute the legislative council. Representatives 
were to serve two, and councilmen five years. The first meeting of the terri- 
torial legislature was appointed on the 16th of September, 1799, but it was not 
till the 24th of the same month that the two houses were organized for busi- 
ness ; at which time they were addressed by Gov. St. Clair. An act was passed 
to confirm and give force to those laws enacted by the governor and judges, 
whose validity had been doubted. This act, as well as every other which 
originated in the council, was prepared and brought forward by Jacob Burnet, 
afterwards a distinguished judge and senator, to whose labors, at this session, 
the territory was indebted for some of its most beneficial laws. The whole 
number of acts passed and approved by the governor was thirty-seven. Wil- 
liam H. Harrison, then secretary of the Territory, was elected as delegate to 
Congress, having eleven of twenty-one votes. 

Within a few months after the close of this session, Connecticut ceded to the 
United States her claim of jurisdiction over the northeastern part of the ter- 
ritory; upon which the president conveyed, by patent, the fee of the soil to the 
governor of the State, for the use of grantees and purchasers claiming under 
her. This tract, in the summer of the same year, was erected into a new county 
by the name of Trumbull. The same congress which made a final arrangement 
with Connecticut, passed an act dividing the Northwestern Territory into two 
governments, by a line drawn from the mouth of the Kentucky to Fort Re- 
covery, and thence northward to the territorial line. East of this line, the 
government, already established, was continued ; while west of it another, sub- 
stantially similar, was established. This act fixed the seat of the eastern gov- 
ernment at Chillicothe ; subject, however, to be removed at the pleasure of the 

On the 30th of April, 1802, Congress passed an act authorizing the call of 
a convention to form a State constitution. This convention assembled at Chil- 
licothe, November 1st, and on the. 29th of the same month a constitution of 
State government was ratified and signed by the members of the convention. 
It was never referred to the people for their approbation, but became the fun- 
damental law of the State by the act of the convention alone ; and, by this act, 
Ohio became one of the States of the Federal Union. 


Besides framing the constitution, the convention had another duty to per- 
form. The act of Congress, providing for the admission of the new State into 
the Union, offered certain propositions to the people. These were, first, that 
section sixteen in each township, or, where that section had been disposed of, 
other contiguous and equivalent lands, should be granted to the inhabitants for 
the use of schools ; second, that thirty-eight sections of land, where salt-springs 
had been found, of which one township was situated on the Scioto, one section 
on the Muskingum, and one section in the United States military tract, should 
be granted to the State, never, however, to be sold or leased for a longer term 
than ten years; and third, that one-twentieth of the proceeds of public lands 
sold within the State, should be applied to the construction of roads from the 
Atlantic, to and through the same. These propositions were offered on the 
condition that the convention should provide, by ordinance, that all lands sold 
by the United States after the 30th day of June, 1802, should be exempt 
from taxation, by the State, for five years after sale. 

The ordinance of 1785 had already provided for the appropriation of section 
sixteen to the support of schools in every township sold by the United States ; 
and this appropriation thus became a condition of the sale and settlement of 
the western country. It was a consideration offered to induce purchases of 
public lands, at a time when the treasury was well-nigh empty, and this source 
of revenue was much relied upon. It extended to every township of land 
within the territory, except those in the Virginia military reservation, and 
wherever the reserved section had been disposed of, after the passage of the 
ordinance, Congress was bound to make other equivalent provision for the 
same object. The reservation of section sixteen, therefore, could not, in 1802, 
be properly made the object of a new bargain between the United States and 
the State ; and many thought that the salt reservations and the twentieth of 
the proceeds of the public lands were very inadequate equivalents for the pro- 
posed surrender of the right to tax. The convention, however, determined to 
accept the propositions of Congress, on their being so far enlarged and modified 
as to vest in the State, for the use of schools, section sixteen in each township 
sold by the United States, and three other tracts of land, equal in quantity, 
respectively, to one thirty-sixth of the Virginia reservation, of the United States 
military tract, and of the Connecticut reserve, and to give three per centum of 
the proceeds of the public lands sold within the State, to be applied under the 
direction of the legislature, to roads in Ohio. Congress assented to the pro- 
posed modifications, and thus completed the compact. 

The first General Assembly under the State constitution met at Chillicothe, 
March 1, 1803. The legislature enacted such laws as were deemed necessary 
for the new order of things, and created eight new counties, namely : Gallia, 
Scioto, Franklin, Columbiana, Butler, Warren, Greene and Montgomery. The 
first State officers elected by the assembly were as follows, viz. : Michael Bald- 
win, Speaker of the House of Representatives ; Nathaniel Massie, Speaker of 
the Senate ; William Creighton, Jr., Secretary of State ; Col. Thomas Gibson, 
Auditor; William McFarland, Treasurer; Return J. Meigs, Jr., Samuel Hun- 
tington and William Sprigg, Judges of the Supreme Court ; Francis Dunlavy, 
Wyllys Silliman and Calvin Pease, Judges of the District Courts. 

The second General Assembly convened in December, 1803. At this ses- 
sion, the militia law was thoroughly revised and a law was passed to enable 
aliens to enjoy the same proprietary rights in Ohio as native citizens. At this 
session, also, the revenue system of the State was simplified and improved. 
Acts were passed providing for the incorporation of townships, and for the 
establishment of boards of commissioners of counties. 

In 1805, by a treaty with the Indians at Fort Industry (site of Toledo), the 
United States acquired, for the use of the grantees of Connecticut, all that part 
of the western reserve which lies west of the Cuyahoga. By subsequent trea- 


ties, all the country watered by the Maumee and the Sandusky have been 
acquired, and the Indian title to lands in Ohio extinguished.* 

In the course of the year 1805 the conspiracy of Aaron Burr began to 
agitate the western country. The precise scope of the conspiracy does not 
distinctly appear. " The immediate object, probably, was to seize on New Or- 
leans and invade Mexico. The ulterior purpose may have been to detach the 
West from the American Union. In December, 1806, in consequence of a con- 
fidential message from the Governor, founded on the representations of an agent 
of the general Government deputed to watch the motions of Burr, the legisla- 
ture passed an act authorizing the arrest of persons engaged in an unlawful 
enterprise, and the seizure of their goods. Under this act, ten boats, with a 
considerable quantity of arms, ammunition and provisions, belonging to Burr's 
expedition, were seized. This was a fatal blow to the project." 

The Indians, who since the treaty at Greenville had been at peace, about the 
year 18 10 began to commit aggressions upon the inhabitants of the West. 
The celebrated Tecumseh was conspicuously active in his efforts to unite the 
native tribes against the Americans, and to arrest the farther extension of the 
settlements. His proceedings, and those of his brother, " the Prophet," soon 
made it evident that the West was about to suffer the calamities of another 
Indian war, and it was resolved to anticipate their movements. In 181 1 Gen. 
Harrison, then Governor of Indiana Territory, marched against the town of the 
" Prophet," upon the Wabash. The battle of Tippecanoe ensued, in what is 
now Cass county, Indiana, in which the Indians were totally defeated. This 
year was also distinguished by an. occurrence of immense importance to the 
whole West. This was the voyage, from Pittsburg to New Orleans, of the first 
steamboat ever launched upon the western waters. 

In June, 18 12, the United States declared war against Great Britain. Of 
this war the West was a principal theatre. Defeat, disaster and disgrace marked 
its opening scenes ; but the latter events of the contest were a series of splendid 
achievements. Croghan's gallant defence of Fort Stephenson ; Perry's victory 
upon Lake Erie ; the total defeat, by Harrison, of the allied British and sav- 
ages, under Proctor and Tecumseh, on the Thames; and the great closing 
triumph of Jackson at New Orleans, reflected the most brilliant lustre upon the 
American arms. In every vicissitude of this contest, the conduct of Ohio was 
eminently patriotic and honorable. When the necessities of the national Gov- 
ernment compelled Congress to resort to a direct tax, Ohio, for successive 
years, cheerfully assumed and promptly paid her quota out of her State treasury. 
Her sons volunteered with alacrity their services in the field ; and no troops 
more patiently endured hardship or performed better service. Hardly a battle 
was fought in the Northwest in which some of these brave citizen soldiers did 
not seal their devotion to their country with their blood. 

In 1 8 16 the seat of the State Government was removed to Columbus, the 
proprietors of the town having, pursuant to an agreement entered into, in good 
faith, erected the State-house and other public buildings for the accommodation 
of the legislature and the officers of State. 

" In January, 18 17, the first resolution relating to a canal connecting the 
Ohio river with Lake Erie was introduced into the legislature. In 18 19 the 

* Indian Treaties. — The Western Reserve tract west of the Cuyahoga river was secured by a 
treaty formed at Fort Industry (Toledo) in 1805. The lands west of Huron and Richland counties 
and north of the Indian boundary line [that is, the Greenville treaty line, that treaty being the one 
made by Gen. Wayne in August, 1795] to the western limits of Ohio, were purchased by the United 
States in 1818 by a. treaty made at St. Mary's, Lewis Cass and Duncan McArthur, commissioners. 
The lands so ceded were called the " New Purchase." By the terms of this treaty certain tracts or 
reservations were made within the purchased tract to the Wyandots, Delawares, Senecas, etc. These 
reservations were subsequently ceded to the United States ; the last by the Wyandots in 1842, they 
then being the only Indians remaining in the State. The next year they removed to Kansas, and 
numbered at that time about 700 souls. 


subject was again agitated. In 1820, on recommendation of Gov. Brown, an 
act was passed providing for the appointment of three canal commissioners, 
who were to employ a competent engineer and assistants, for the purpose of 
surveying the route of the canal. The action of the commissioners, however, 
was made to depend on the acceptance of Congress of a proposition on behalf 
of the State for a donation and sale of public lands lying upon and near the 
route of the proposed canal. In consequence of this restriction nothing was 
accomplished for two years. In 1822 the subject was referred to a committee 
of the House of Representatives. This committee recommended the employ- 
ment of an engineer, and submitted various estimates and observations to illustrate 
the importance and feasibility of the work. Under this act James Geddes, of 
New York, an experienced and skilful engineer, was employed to make the 
necessary examinations and surveys. Finally, after all the routes had been 
surveyed, and estimates made of the expense had been laid before the legisla- 
ture at several sessions, an act was passed in February, 1825, ' To provide for 
the internal improvement of the State by navigable canals/ and thereupon the 
State embarked in good earnest in the prosecution of the great work of in- 
ternal improvement." 

The construction of the canals gave new life to the progress of the State. 
Firstly, the work of their building supplied funds to the settlers along their 
lines and then opened a market for the product of agriculture. These in many 
sections had previously next to no cash value, and this, with the large amount 
of sickness incident to opening up a wilderness, had occasioned the settle- 
ments to languish. 

The total canal mileage in the State is now 7%% miles, and the reservoirs 
cover an area of 32,100 acres, or over fifty square miles. The total cost was 
about sixteen millions of dollars. 

Railroads soon followed. The first railroad west of New York State was the 
u Erie & Kalamazoo," which led from Toledo, Ohio, to Adrian, Michigan. It 
was opened with horse-power in the fall of 1836. A locomotive was put on 
in the following July, 1837, the first used in the West. The next railroad in 
Ohio was the Mad River & Lake Erie, which was incorporated in 1832, with a 
prospective route from Dayton via Springfield to Sandusky. Construction 
was begun in 1835, and in 1839 a portion opened sixteen miles from Sandusky 
to Bellvue, and the second locomotive in Ohio was used there. Ten years later, 
in 1 848, this road, in connection with the Little Miami Railway, which was built 
from Cincinnati to Springfield, formed the first through line across the State. 
The second through line from the lake to the Ohio was opened in 185 1 under 
the name of the Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati & Little Miami Railroad. 
The next year chronicled the opening of a third line from Cleveland to Pitts- 
burg. The railroads of Ohio had in 1887 developed to 9,849 miles of track, on 
which, with equipment, had been expended nearly 500 millions of dollars. 

In 1835 the long dispute between Ohio and Michigan in relation to the 
boundary line between them culminated in what was termed the " Toledo 
War." TBoth States assembled their troops, but before any opening of hostili- 
ties occurred peace commissioners from the President arrived on the ground, 
and the next year Congress decided in favor of Ohio, Michigan receiving as 
compensation for the relinquishment of her claims the large peninsula bounded 
by the three great lakes and so rich in mineral wealth. 

In the decade between 1830 and 1840 Ohio made surprising progress, owing 
largely to the development of her canal system. Her increase of population 
was 68 per cent, and she had become the third State of the Union with 1,519,- 
467 inhabitants. Cincinnati, her chief city, had a population of 46,338 ; Co- 
lumbus, 6,048 ; Cleveland, 6,071, and Dayton 6,067, which were the three next 
in order. 

Her manufacturing and commercial interests had received through that of 


her agriculture a vigorous start, and her mining began. The number of men 
employed was 620. 

In 1840 occurred the famous " Hard Cider and Log Cabin Campaign," 
which resulted in the election of General William Henry Harrison to the 
Presidency by the Whig party and of Thomas Corwin as Governor by a ma- 
jority of 16,000 over Wilson Shannon. Two years later Corwin was defeated 
by Shannon, who thus became the first Governor born on the soil. 

For the war with Mexico, declared in 1846, Ohio supplied four regiments of 
volunteers and a company over, in all 5,536 men, more than any other Northern 
State, of whom 57 were killed and wounded. One of the regiments, the 
Second, was commanded by Col. Geo. W. Morgan, of Mt. Vernon, later a 
brigadier-general in the war of the rebellion. 

In this same year, 1846, bituminous coal was introduced into Ohio as a fur- 
nace fuel at Lowellville, in Mahoning county, an event of prime importance to 
the development of the iron industry of the State and country. Its first suc- 
cess was the year before in an adjoining county in Pennsylvania. 

At this period the slavery question assumed such importance as to soon 
revolutionize the politics of the State. In the session of 1848-9 the legisla- 
ture was nearly equally divided between the Whigs and Democrats, with two 
Free Soilers, namely, Messrs. N. S. Townshend, of Lorain county, and John 
F. Morse, of Lake county, holding the balance of power. The repeal of the 
Black Laws,* which had long marred the statute books of Ohio, and their 
choice for a United States Senator, were the primary objects with the Free 
Soilers. Beside the election of a Senator, two judges were to be elected to 
the Supreme Bench. Mr. Morse made overtures to the Whigs, but there were 
some few from the southern counties who opposed the repeal of the laws and 
to Joshua R. Giddings, his choice for Senator, and hence he failed. Mr. 
Townshend was successful with the Democrats. They united with the Free 
Soilers, the Black Laws were repealed (in which vote most of the Whigs 
joined), Salmon P. Chase, the personal choice of Mr. Townshend, was elected 
to the Senate, and two Democratic judges to the Supreme Bench. 

This legislation provided schools for colored children. They were, however, 
in a certain sense Black Laws, inasmuch as a distinction was thereby shown 
between the races. This distinction was not entirely obliterated until the session 
of 1886-7, when they were repealed through the eloquent efforts of Benjamin 
W. Arnett, D. D., member-elect from Greene county. He was the first colored 
man in the United States to represent a constituency where the majority were 
white and the first to be foreman of a jury where all the other members were 

On May 6, 1850, the second constitutional convention, consisting of 108 
members, met at Columbus to revise and change the old constitution and adapt 
it to the changed condition of the commonwealth. It was in actual session in 
all about four and a half months. The adjournment was March 10 1851 
I he constitution was ratified by a majority of 16,288. William Medill its 
president, was elected the first Governor under it. 

On July 13, 1855, Free Soilers, Whigs, Democrats and Americans, opposed 
to the extension of slavery, met at the Town Street Methodist Church in Co- 
lumbus and held the first Republican State Convention. 

They elected John Sherman chairman and announced in their platform that 
they would resist the spread of slavery under whatever shape or color it may 
be attempted. They nominated Salmon P. Chase as their Governor The 
Whig party was from thenceforth no more. Mr. Chase was elected by a ma- 


jority of 15,651. His opposing Democratic candidate was Gov. Medill. Ex- 
Governor Trimble, the candidate of the American, or Know Nothing party, re- 
ceived 24,276 votes. In 1857 Mr. Chase was again re-elected Governor by 
1,503 majority over Henry B. Payne, the Democratic candidate. 
' The great measure of Mr. Chase's administration was his suggestion to the 
legislature to organize the militia. It seems as though his vision was pro- 
phetic of coming events. In 1858 a grand review was held of the newly-or- 
ganized military forces at Dayton, and rules and regulations governing military 
drills were printed and scattered among the militia, thereby creating a martial 
and patriotic spirit which afterwards burst out with almost uncontrollable en- 

" Slowly the nation was approaching the crisis of its history, and Mr. Chase 
marched abreast of all events that led to it. In October, 1859, J ohn Brown 
made his famous invasion of Virginia, and immediately after Gov. Henry A. 
Wise wrote to Gov. Chase, notifying him that Virginia would pursue abolition 
bands even into sister States to punish them. Mr. Chase dignifiedly replied 
that Ohio would obey the constitution and laws of the United States and dis- 
countenance unlawful acts, but under no circumstances could the military of 
other States invade Ohio territory. This was his last official declaration as 
Governor. In January, i860, his term closed, and he was a month later elected 
United States Senator."* 

William Dennison, the first of " the War Governors, succeeded Mr. Chase, 
being elected over Judge Rufus P. Ranney, his Democratic competitor, by a 
majority of 13,331 votes. The legislature was in session when the news was 
received of the fall of Sumter and sent a thrill through that body. In the 
midst of the excitement the shrill tones of a woman's voice resounded from 
the gallery: "Thank God! It is the death of slavery." They were the 
screaming tones of Abbie Kelly Foster, who for years had been noted as an 
anti-slavery lecturer of the most fiery denunciatory type. 

Ohio's response to the proclamation of President Lincoln, calling for 75,000 
of the militia of the several States, was immediate. From all parts of the 
State came proffers of services from tens of thousands, and on the 19th of 
April, only four days after the issuance of the call, the First and Second Regi- 
ments of Ohio Volunteers had been organized at Columbus and were on their 
way to Washington. The legislature simultaneously voted an appropriation 
of a million dollars for war purposes. 

Senator Garfield also offered a bill, which was passed, " to define and punish 
treason against the State." In his report Mr. Garfield said : " It is high time 
for Ohio to enact a law to meet treachery when it shall take the form of an overt 
act- to provide when her soldiers shall go forth to maintain the Union there 
shall be no treacherous fire in the rear." His bill was passed in consequence 
of the efforts of the Hon. C. L. Vallandigham, who was in Columbus, and, 
believing that the Union could not be sustained by force of arms, was vainly 
endeavoring to stem the patriotic fervor which led the Democratic members of 
the Assembly equally with the Republican to maintain the Government. 

Governor Dennison was soon enveloped " in a whirlpool of events ; but he 
proved himself equal to the emergency." Having contributed to the safety of 
Washington by the despatching thither of two regiments, his next attention 
was given to the southern border, along which for 436 miles Ohio was bounded 
by the slave States Virginia and Kentucky, and liable to invasion. The atti- 
tude of Virginia was most alarming. Her western mountains were a natural 
fortification admitting of perfect defence and behind which Richmond and the 

*Froir "A History of Ohio." inclusive of Biographical Sketches of the Governors and the Ordinance 
of 1787, by Daniel J. Ryan, Secretary of State. An excellent little compend. A. H. Smythe, pub- 
lisher, Columbus, 1888, l2mo. Price #1.00. 


whole South was secure and from whence they could make incursions into the 
free States. Less than eighty miles of free territory bordered Ohio on the east. 
The West Virginians who were loyal called for aid. The Ohio militia in pay 
of the State were pushed into West Virginia, gained the first victories of the 
war, and drove out the rebel troops. This being after the continued disasters 
at the East, electrified the nation. " Thus was West Virginia the gift of Ohio, 
through her State militia, to the nation at the outset of the war." Gov. Den- 
nison had ere this written, " Ohio must lead throughout the war," and she did. 
Geo. B. McClellan, who had general command in West Virginia, through a 
prestige obtained by the celerity of action and promptness of his subordinates, 
mainly Gen. Wm. S. Rosecrans, was soon called to the head of the Army of 
the Potomac and Gov. Dennison to the Cabinet of the nation. 

In 1861 David Tod, the second " War Governor," was elected by 55,000 
majority over Hugh. J. Jewett, the nominee of the anti-war, or regular Demo- 
cratic party of the State. The legislature was overwhelmingly Union Re- 

In September, 1862, occurred an event spoken of as the "Siege of Cincin- 
nati." Gen's. Kirby Smith and John Morgan, with united forces, entered 
Kentucky, with the Ohio border as the objective point. Cincinnati was de- 
fenceless as they approached toward it, when Gov. Tod called for volunteers 
from citizens, who, under the general name of " squirrel-hunters," for many 
brought their shotguns, flocked to the number of thousands from all parts of 
the State to the defence of their great and patriotic city. Major-Gen. Lewis 
Wallace was put in command. He proclaimed martial law over the three 
cities of Cincinnati, Covington, and Newport, and fortifications were thrown up 
on the Kentucky hills, on all the avenues of approach to the city, and full 
preparations made to meet the foe. The "squirrel-hunters," Home Guards of 
Cincinnati, with some newly-formed regiments, crossed the Ohio on a pontoon, 
marched out four miles, and there awaited for four days the attack of the 
enemy. There was some slight skirmishing of pickets, when the enemy, seeing 
the strength of force arrayed against them, withdrew. 

The next year, 1863, Mr. Vallandigham continuing to influence public 
sentiment in Ohio by the eloquent and fearless presentation of his peace views, 
tending to the aid and comfort of those in arms against the Union, was seized, 
tried by court-martial, and found guilty of disobedience of military orders, and 
sentenced to imprisonment during the war. Mr. Lincoln changed this sentence 
to transportation to his friends within the lines of the Southern Confederacy. 
He passed through these rapidly, and reaching Wilmington, North Carolina, 
June 17, where, taking a blockade-runner, he reached Canada, and established 
himself at Windsor, opposite Detroit, communicated with his friends in Ohio, 
and awaited events. 

This summer was made further notable by the raid of Gen. John Morgan 
through Ohio. With only about 2,000 horsemen he entered it on the Indiana 
border, passed within fourteen miles of Cincinnati, went through the entire 
southern part of Ohio, and, although over 50,000 men, mostly citizens, were in 
pursuit, he escaped capture until within a few miles of a crossing-place on the 
Ohio, in its southeasternmost county, on the Pennsylvania line. The object of 
this audacious raid was to distract attention from the movements of the Con- 
federates in Kentucky and Tennessee, and it accomplished it. 

On the 17th of June this year the Union Republican Convention met at 
Columbus, and nominated John Brough, an old-line Democrat, for Governor, 
he being of great popularity, and of such extraordinary executive ability as 
well as oratorical powers as to be thought more likely to carry the State than 
Mr. Tod, its then executive. 

The peace party nominated Mr. Vallandigham. His banishment had aroused 
so much sympathy for him — the " exiled hero " — that 'they were constrained 


to nominate him. And there on the border he counselled with his adherents, 
watched and directed the canvass. As it drew towards its close, when the 
speeches had all been made, and the issues fairly laid before the people, a few 
hours remained ere the depositing of the ballots, when a feeling of deep 
solemnity pervaded the entire commonwealth. The eyes of the whole nation 
were upon Ohio ; on her hung the death or salvation of the Union. If Ohio 
should prove recreant all was lost. 

Ohio was true; she always is. John C. Brough was elected Governor by 
the unprecedented majority of 101,099 votes. Of this the home majority was 
61,920, and the soldiers' majority 39,179. Out of 43,755 soldier votes only 
2,288 were given for Vallandigham. In multitudes of cases the sons in the 
army voted one way, while the fathers at home on their farms, secure from 
war's alarms, voted the other. The soldier's vote was a signal illustration of 
the noble principle that those who mostly do sacrifice for a righteous cause 
mostly do love it. 

Of the citizens who remained at home over 180,000 signified their preference 
for Vallandigham. Many sincerely regarded him as the subject of oppression ; 
they were patriotic, but despairing of success, and tired, sick at heart, of what 
seemed an idle effusion of blood and prolongation of suffering and misery. Still 
others there were, probably but a trifling number, who, in the malignancy of an 
evil nature, desired to see the triumph of the " slave power," that there might 
remain a class lower than themselves to tread and spit upon, a spirit that was 
illustrated by the riots at this era in New York, where an orphan asylum for 
colored children was given to the flames and black men shot dead in cold 
blood for no offence but the offence of color. 

Mr. Brough, the last of Ohio's War Governors, was the man for the most 
trying crisis. From the opposition to the war, Mr. Lincoln was fearful that 
another draft upon the people would result in failure, and more troops were 
imperative. Seeing this, Gov. Brough called a convention of the Governors 
of Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, and Wisconsin, which, with himself representing Ohio, 
met in convention, and on April 21, 1864, notified Mr. Lincoln that they could 
furnish him with 85,000 men for 100 days, without a dollar of bounty or a 
single draft. These were citizen volunteers, largely men advanced in years and 
with families, and holding responsible positions, the object of their brief services 
being mainly to garrison the forts, and thus relieve the veteran soldiers to 
reinforce Grant in Virginia, and enable him by weight of numbers of disciplined 
men to crush the rebellion. Of these Ohio supplied nearly half of the required 
number — over 30,000 men — National Guards, as they were called. The 
measure was most effective and their services most timely. It was a splendid 
contribution of the loyal West to the cause of the Union. Mr. Brough declined 
a renomination, and died in office. 

The arms'of Ohio's sons in the field were sustained by the work of Ohio's 
daughters at home. As Ohio's soldiers were the first to gain victories, so the 
women of Ohio were the first to organize aid societies. In five days after the 
fall of Sumter the ladies of the " Soldiers' Aid Society of Northern Ohio " 
organized at Cleveland, which eventually distributed food and clothing to the 
amount of a million of dollars. A similar organization was started in Cincin- 
nati, which was alike successful, and every church and Sunday-school in the 
State became tributary channels through which flowed gifts to sustain the 
soldiers in front. When the war closed more than one-half of her able-bodied 
men had taken up arms for the Union, and she had shown herself to have been 
the most efficient of all the States, supplying, as she had, the most successful 
generals and the largest number of able men in the Cabinet of the President 
and in the councils of the nation. 

This was but a natural outcome of the early history further detailed in these 


p-ges, and the quality of the varied people of Anglo-Saxon blood, who from 
the fringe of the Atlantic slope, from Virginia to New England, a hundred 
years ago first began to emigrate to its soil, dedicated while yet a wilderness 
to freedom. Unlike the emigrant to the prairie States farther West, starting 
earlier, they had greater difficulties to encounter from the savage and the 
wilderness. They grew strong by felling its vast forests and opening them to 
cultivation, and seeing progress year by year as they overcame obstacle after 
obstacle, until an entire race of men were born upon the soil, who, educated 
by continued success, were filled with the sentiment of invincibility that will 
put a people that possess it everywhere to the front — make them born leaders. 

Ohio to-day is in the very heart of the nation ; and, being on its great high- 
way, over which its commerce and travel flow, and where its people must 
mingle for an interchange and broadening of ideas, she must infallibly be national 
and broad in her policy and character. Her soil is of the richest, and there is 
no preponderating industry to give to her citizens a one-sided development. 
Agriculture, manufactures, mining, and commerce, the four great pursuits of 
man, she has in remarkable equipoise. To this should be added prominence 
in education. 

The unusually large numbers of small colleges, cheap and accessible every- 
where, have given multitudes the prime requisite of the higher education, that 
is, mental discipline, and the uses of the instruments of knowledge. These, 
with natural capacity, will ever enable their possessors to attain to the very 
summits. In instructors in learning she has produced a host, and to-day, in 
the department of religion, she shows an unsurpassed spirit of Christian enter- 
prise and self-sacrifice, leading all the States in the number of missionaries to 
heathen lands. 

The noble history of the State, the heroic character of her sons and daugh- 
ters so signally shown therein, the many eminent leaders she has produced in 
every department, remain an imperishable inspiration to the young now born 
upon her soil to further advance the commonwealth in everything that will in- 
ure to her moral and material grandeur. 


By Frank Henry Howe. 

Note. — In compiling this article the writer has drawn from the following sources of information : 
" Topographical and Historical Sketch of Ohio," Whittlesey; "Ohio Archaeological and Historical 
Quarterly," Vol. I; "Geography and Geology of Ohio," Orton; "History of Ohio," Ryan ; "Ohio, 
A Sketch of Industrial Progress," Short; "Ohio, A Century's Growth," Graham; "United States 
Census, 1880; " "Ohio Statistics, 1887." 

Primitive Baces. — Evidences of the existence 
of man in Ohio previous to the glacial period 
have been found, and evidences of a civiliza- 
tion in Ohi'o after the glacial period are 
abundant. The works of that race of people 
popularly called " the Mound-builders," con- 
sisting of earthworks, such as mounds, forts, 
effigies, etc., are said to number more than 
ten thousand in Ohio, and are more numer- 
ous in this State than in any other equal area 
in the world. The most important of these 
are the Serpent Mound, in Adams county, 
which in its convolutions is more than a 
thousand feet in length ; Fort Ancient, in 
Warren county, length of surrounding en- 
bankment about five miles and estimated to 
contain 628,800 cubic yards of material; Fort Hill, in Highland county, enclos- 
ing an area of thirty-five acres ; Graded Way, in Pike county ; fortifications at 
Newark, covering over 1000 acres. The largest mound in the State, at Miamis- 
burg, is sixty-eight feet in height and 800 feet in circumference at the base. 

In the mounds are found portions of human skeletons, frequently partly con- 
sumed by fire, with ornaments of shells, bone, stone, mica and copper. Along 
the water-shed in the central part of the State the works are not as numerous as 
in other parts and indicate that this was neutral ground between two tribes or 
races. The works in the northern part of the State, which extend eastward along 
Lake Ontario, by their character indicate a more warlike people than those in the 
southern part, whose works are largely altars, effigies, pyramids, etc., sacred in 
character and indicating a more numerous and industrious people. 

A marked difference exists in the shape of the skulls found in these mounds. 
Those in the north are generally low and long, while in the south they are mostly 
high and short, which furnishes additional evidence that there were two different 
tribes or races. The latest conclusion in regard to these Mound-builders is that the 
northern, or long-headed, conquered the southern, or short-headed, people ; that 
the two intermingled, the result of the amalgamation being the North American 
Indian. The Indians, however, have no knowledge of the origin of the mounds 
and earthworks and no traditions in support of this theory. The principal In- 
dian tribes of Ohio were the Delawares, Shawanese, Miamis, Wyandots,or Hurons, 
Ottawas, Senecas and Mingoes. It has been estimated that their entire popula- 
tion at the beginning of the Revolutionary war was only about 6,000, which was 
about one Indian to every seven square miles. 

Historical — The first explorations by Europeans in what is now Ohio were 
made by the French, La Salle's discoveries dating from 1667. Its territory was 
in dispute between the French and English until by the treaty of 1763 the French 
4 (5i) 


assigned the " Great West " to the English. In the spring of 1779 George Rogers 
Clark, in behalf of Virginia, wrested control of the region afterwards known as 
the Northwest Territory from the English by the defeat and unconditional sur- 
render of Gov. Hamilton at Fort Vincennes. 

By the treaty of 1783 Great Britain relinquished her right and interest in the 
Northwest Territory, and the United States assumed control, acknowledging the 
claim made by Virginia to 3,709,848 acres, near the rapids of Ohio, and a similar 
claim by Connecticut to 3,666,621 acres, near Lake Erie, which became known as 
the " Western Reserve." These claims were admitted as to ownership, but in no 
way as to jurisdiction. In 1787 Congress passed the ordinance creating the 
Northwest Territory, the first commonwealth in the world whose organic law 
recognized every man as free and equal. The first permanent settlement made 
under the ordinance was at Marietta, in 1788, by officers of the Revolutionary 
army. Gen. Arthur St. Clair was appointed by Congress the first Governor of 
the Northwest Territory. The early years of the Northwest Territory were har- 
assed by Indian warfare until, in 1794, when Gen. Anthony Wayne, at the u Bat- 
tle of Fallen Timbers," defeated them with terrible loss. The first territorial 
Legislature was organized in 1797 and chose Wm. Henry Harrison delegate to 
Congress. In 1800 Congress divided the Northwest Territory into two govern- 
ments, the seat of the eastern government being fixed at Chillicothe. November 
29, 1802, a constitution of State government was ratified and signed by the mem- 
bers of a convention authorized by act of Congress. February 19, 1803, the con- 
stitution was approved by Congress and Ohio recognized as^a State, the seven- 
teenth in order of admission. Edward Tiffin was elected the first Governor 
of Ohio. 

The seat of government was at Chillicothe until 1810, in Zanesville till 1812, and 
again in Chillicothe till 1816, when Columbus was made the permanent capital. 

Geographical. — Ohio is bounded on the north by Lake Erie and the State of 
Michigan, on the east by Pennsylvania and West Virginia, on the south by the 
Ohio river, which separates it from West Virginia and Kentucky, and on the 
west bv Indiana. It is situated between 38° 27' and 41° 57' north latitude, and 
80° 34'" and 80° 49' west longitude. Its greatest length from north to south is 
about 210 miles, and the extreme width from east to west about 225 miles. The 
area of Ohio is 40,760 square miles. In 1886 the number of acres cultivated was 
9,705,735 ; in pasture, 6,180,875 ; woodland, 4,854,473 ; lying waste, 604,699. 

The Ohio river extends along half of its east front and the whole of the south- 
ern boundary, bordering the State for a distance of 436 miles. The lake shore 
of the State is 230 miles, giving a total navigable front of 666 miles. The sur- 
face of the State is that of an undulating plateau, with an average elevation of 
about 200 feet above Lake Erie, which is 565 feet above the sea-level. The 
highest elevation, 1550 feet above mean tide, is near Bellefontaine, Logan county, 
the lowest land at the mouth of the Great Miami, a little less than 440 feet above 
tide. The main water-shed extends across the State from its northeastern corner 
to about the middle of its western boundary, dividing the State into two unequal 
slopes, of which the northern, much the smaller, drains into Lake Erie, and the 
southern sends its waters through the Ohio into the Gulf of Mexico. 

The northern part of the State gently slopes to Lake Erie; the central part is 
nearly a level plain, and the southern part uneven and hilly, caused by the 
excavative power of the streams flowing into the Ohio. The larger part of the 
State was originally well covered with timber. 

The Ohio River is formed by the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela 
rivers at Pittsburg, in the western part of Pennsylvania. Its entire length to the 
Mississippi, following its meanderings, is about 950 miles, while an air-line from 
Pittsburg to Cairo would only measure about 615 miles. Through a large part of its 
course it flows in an excavated trough from 400 to 600 feet below the adjacent hills. 
Its average descent is less than five inches to the mile. Its current ranges from 
two to five miles an hour, according to the season of the year. The average be- 
tween high and low water (times of freshets or droughts) is generally about sixty 
feet. At its lowest stage the river is fordable in several places between Cincin- 
nati and Pittsburg. The river has many islands, some of which are valuable for 
their fertility and very picturesque, while others, known as tow-heads, are sandy. 


The streams flowing south into the Ohio are the Muskingum, Scioto, Hocking 
and Little and Great Miamis. 

The Muskingum is formed by the confluence of the Tuscarawas and Walhond- 
ing rivers, which rise in the northern part of the State and unite at Coshocton. 
From this point it flows in a southeasterly direction, about 110 miles through a 
beautiful, fertile and populous region to the Ohio at Marietta, where it is about 
225 yards in width. It is navigated by steamboats as far up as Dresden, ninety- 
five miles from Marietta. 

The Scioto is a beautiful river, one of the largest streams which intersect the 
State. It rises in Hardin county and flows southeasterly to Columbus. There 
it receives its principal affluent, the Olentangy, after which its direction is 
southerly, till it enters the Ohio at Portsmouth. The Ohio and Erie canal fol- 
lows its valley for a distance of ninety miles. Its tributaries are, besides the 
Olentangy, or Whetstone river, the Darby, Walnut and Paint creeks. 

The Great Miami river rises in Hardin county, near the head-waters of the 
Scioto, and runs southwesterly, passing Troy, Dayton and Hamilton. It is a 
beautiful and rapid stream, flowing through a highly productive and populous 
valley in which limestone and hard timber are abundant. It is about 150 miles 
in length and empties into the Ohio at the'southwestern corner of the State. 

The chief rivers of the northern slope are the Maumee, Sandusky, Huron and 
Cuyahoga, all emptying into Lake Erie, and all but the first being entirely within 
the limits of the State. 

The Maumee rises in Indiana, but runs for about eighty miles in Ohio, and is 
navigable as far as Perrysburg, a distance of eighteen miies. 

The other three rivers have rapid courses and afford a large amount of valu- 
able water-power. 

Lakes.— A remarkable feature of Ohio is the almost entire absence of lakes or 
ponds. A very few small ones are only found in the northern part of the State. 
Lake Erie, which forms the northern boundary of Ohio, next to Ontario, is the 
lowest in mean elevation of the series of great North American lakes. It is 290 
miles in length and 57 miles in width at the widest part. There are no islands 
except in the west end and very few bays. Its greatest depth is off Long Point, 
312 feet. The shores are principally drift clay or hard pan, upon which the waves 
are continually encroaching. At Cleveland, from the first survey in 1796 to 1842, 
the encroachment was 218 feet along the entire city front. The coast is low, 
seldom rising above fifty feet at the water's edge. 

Lake Erie, like the other great American lakes, has a variable surface, rising and 
falling with the seasons, like great rivers, called the " annual fluctuation," and a 
general one, embracing a series of years due to meteorological causes, known as 
the u secular fluctuation." 

Its lowest known level was in February, 1819, rising more or less each year, 
until June, 1838, in the extreme to six feet eight inches. Reducing each year to 
«n average the difference between 1819 and 1838 was five feet two inches, and 
the average annual rise and fall, obtained by the mean of twelve years, one foot 
one and one-half inches. 

There are several important harbors and ports in Ohio, among which are 
Cleveland, Toledo, Sandusky, Port Clinton, Fairport and Ashtabula-. Valuable 
improvements have been made in some of these harbors at the expense of the 
general government. By means of the Welland canal, in Canada, vessels not 
exceeding 130 feet in measurement of keel, 26 feet beam, and 10 feet draught, 
can pass to and fro between Lake Erie and the Altantic Ocean. The first steam- 
boat was launched upon Lake Erie in 1818. 

The Climate of Ohio is one of extremes. Between the average summer and 
winter temperatures there is a difference of at least 40° Fahrenheit. In a central 
east and west belt the average winter temperature is 73°. Southern Ohio has a 
mean annual temperature of 54°, and Northern Ohio of 49°. Notwithstanding 
sudden and severe changes, the climate is proved by every test to be excellently 
adapted to both vegetable and animal life. The rainfall is generous and admir- 
ably distributed. The average total precipitation of Southern Ohio is forty -six 
inches ; of Northern Ohio, thirty-two inches ; of a large belt in the centra oi' the 
State occupying nearly one-half of its entire surface, forty inches. 


Natural Resources. — The southern slopes of the water-shed are very fertile,, 
specially adapted for grain, the bottom lands of the rivers growing prolific crops 
of corn ; the northern slopes are superior for grazing and dairy products, partic- 
ularly on the "■ Western Reserve," long famous for the latter. The uplands 
produce large crops of wheat. Fruit culture is a profitable industry, especially 
on the shores and islands of the western part of Lake Erie, where grape growing 
and wine making have assumed large proportions. Berry culture has been a 
source of much profit in the southern and southeastern parts of the State. The 
eastern and southeastern parts of Ohio contaiVi about 12,000 square miles of coal- 
producing strata. In most of the coal regions iron ore and fire clay are mined to 
a greater or less extent and support extensive furnaces and manufactories. 
Petroleum and natural gas are abundant and widely distributed. Other mineral 
productions are cement rock, gypsum, peat, salt, marl, lime and building stone. 
The sandstone quarries are among the best in the United States. 

The Population in Ohio in 1790 was 3,000; in 1800, 45,365; 1810, 230,760; 
1820,581295; 1830, 937,903; 1840, 1,519,467; 1850,1,980,329; 1860,2,339,511; 
1870, 2,665,260 ; 1880, 3,198,062 ; of which were male, 1,613,936 ; female, 1,584,- 
126 ; native, 2,803,119 ; foreign, 394,943 ; white, 3,117,920 ; colored, 79,900 ; Chinese, 
109; Indians, 130. 

Nativities of the People.— Of the population in 1880, 2,361,437 were born in Ohio ; 
in Pennsylvania, 138,163; Virginia, 51,647; West Virginia, 12,812; New York, 
64,J 38; Maryland, 20,091; Massachusetts, 10,854; Michigan, 11,403; Indiana, 
27,202; Illinois, 10,013; Kentucky, 32,492; New Jersey, 10,487; Connecticut, 
9,003 ; Vermont, 7,064. Of the foreign population there were born in the Ger- 
man Empire, 192,597; Austria, 1,681; Bohemia, 6,232; British America, 16,- 
146; England, 41,555 ; Ireland, 78,927 ; Scotland, 8,946 ; Wales, 13,763; France, 
60,131; Switzerland, 11,989 ; Holland, 2,455; Hungary, 1,477 ; Italy, 1,064;; 
Poland, 2,039; Sweden, 1,186. . . ' . 

Emigration from Ohio. — Born in Ohio, resident in Indiana, 186,391 ; in Illinois, 
136,884; Iowa, 120,495; Kansas, 93,396; Missouri, 78,938; Michigan, 77,053; 
Nebraska, 31,800; West Virginia, 27,535; Pennsylvania, 27,502; Kentucky,. 
27,115; Wisconsin, 20,512; California, 17,759; Minnesota, 15,560; Colorado, 
11,759; New York, 11,599; Texas, 7,949; Oregon, 6,201; Arkansas, 5,254; 
Tennessee, 5,035. 

Population of Cities of more than 10,000 inhabitants (census of 1880) : Akron,. 
16,512; Canton, 12,258; Chillicothe, 10,938; Cincinnati, 255,139; Cleveland, 
160,146; Columbus, 51,647; Dayton, 38,678 ; Hamilton, 12,122; Portsmouth, 
11,321 ; Sandusky, 15,838 ; Springfield, 20,730 ; Steubenville, 12,093 ; Toledo, 
50,137; Youngstown, 15,435; Zanesville, 18,113. 

Counties {which number 88) and County Seats. — Adams, West Union. ^ Allen, 
Lima. Ashland, Ashland. Ashtabula, Jefferson. Athens, Athens. Auglaize, Wa- 
pakoneta. Belmont, St. Clairsville. Brown, Georgetown. Butler, Hamilton. Car- 
roll, Carrollton. Champaign, Urbana. Clarke, Springfield. Clermont, Batavia. 
Clinton, Wilmington. Columbiana, New Lisbon. Coshocton, Coshocton. Craw- 
ford, Bucyrus. Cuyahoga, Cleveland. Darke, Greenville. Defiance, Defiance. 
Delaware, Delaware. Erie, Sandusky. Fairfield, Lancaster. Fayette, Washington 
C. H. Franklin, Columbus. Fulton, Wauseon. Gallia, Gallipolis. Geauga,, 
Chardon. Greene, Xenia. Guernsey, Cambridge. Hamilton, Cincinnati. Han- 
cock, Findlay. Hardin, Kenton. Harrison, Cadiz. Henry, Napoleon. High- 
land, Hillsboro. Hocking, Logan. Holmes, Millersburg. Huron, Norwalk. 
Jackson, Jackson. Jefferson, Steubenville. Knox, Mt. Vernon. Lake, Painesville.. 
Lawrence, Ironton. Licking, Newark. Logan, Bellefontaine. Lorain, Elyria. 
Lucas, Toledo. Madison, London. Mahoning, Youngstown. Marion, Marion. 
Medina, Medina. Meigs, Pomeroy. Mercer, Celina. Miami, Troy. Monroe, 
Woodsfield. Montgomery, Dayton. Morgan, McConnellsville. Morrow, Mt. Gilead. 
Muskingum, Zanesville. Noble, Caldwell. Ottawa, Port Clinton. Paulding, 
Paulding. Perry, New Lexington. Pickaway, Circleville. Pike, Waverly. Port- 
age, Ravenna. Preble, Eaton. Putnam, Ottawa. Richland, Mansfield. Ross, 
Chillicothe. Sandusky, Fremont. Scioto, Portsmouth. Seneca, Tiffin. Shelby, 
Sidney. Stark, Canton. Summit, Akron. Trumbull, Warren, Tuscarawas, New 
Philadelphia. Union, Marysville. Van Wert, Van Wert. Vinton, Mc Arthur. 



Warren, Lebanon. Washington, Marietta. Wayne, Wooster. Williams, Bryan. 
Wood, Bowling Green. Wyandot, Upper Sandusky. 

Principal Places.— Columbus, capital, site of prominent State institutions, large 
carriage and other manufactures, important railroad and centre of great coal- 
mining interests. Cincinnati, largest city in the State, noted for public spirit 
and public institutions, great commercial and manufacturing centre. Cleveland, 
second largest city, most important of the lake ports, notable for commerce and 
manufactures, specially iron and petroleum. Akron, seat of flour and woollen 
mills, paint and sewer-pipe manufactures. Toledo, commercial, manufacturing 
and railroad interests. Sandusky, largest fish-market in the world, wine-making, 
lime and lumber interests. Dayton, manufacturing centre, agricultural imple- 
ments, paper machinery and cars. Hamilton, manufacturing city, machinery, 
steam-engines, paper, etc. Springfield, seat of largest agricultural implement 
manufactures in the world, centre of productive wheat-growing region. Newark, 
prosperous mining centre and manufacturing city. Mansfield, centre of agricul- 
tural region, agricultural implement and other manufactures. Chillicothe, first 
seat of government of Ohio, centre of rich agricultural region, railroad repair- 
shops. Bellaire, emporium of farming and mining region," and especially nail 
and glass manufacturing. Canton, large agricultural implement, and iron man- 
ufactures, centre of rich wheat region. Xenia, twine and cordage manufactures 
and gunpowder mart. Findlay, manufacturing, natural gas and oil interests. 
Lima, petroleum and natural gas interests. Zanesville, manufacturing and espe- 
cially fire-clay products, mining centre. Youngstown, mining and iron manu- 
facturing. Ashtabula, growing iron and coal-shipping interests. East Liverpool, 
centre of great clay goods manufacturing region, next to Trenton, N. J., the 
greatest in the United States, producing one-third of all the clay goods. Ironton, 
centre of mining and a great iron manufacturing region. Portsmouth, an old 
manufacturing town. Steubenville, mining centre, glass, iron and fire-clay 

Commerce. — There are four ports of entry in Ohio, Cincinnati, Toledo, Sandusky 
and Cleveland. The total imports for the year ending June, 1886, were $2,531,903, 
and the exports were $1,363,968. In this aggregate no exports are credited to 
Cincinnati, the bulk of the amount having been from Toledo, one of the leading 
lake grain-shipping ports. The entrances at the three lake ports for the year 
ending June, 1886, were 834 vessels, of 137,171 tonnage; and the clearances were 
945 vessels of 180,027 tonnage. The number of vessels registered, enrolled and 
licensed was 257, of 102,416 tonnage. 

In 1880, Ohio had 24,529,226 acres, valuation $1,127,497,353, devoted to agri- 
culture. Of the population 297,495 people were engaged in farming pursuits. 
The number of farms was 247,189 ; the average value of cleared land per acre 
$47.53; and the value of forest land $41.37. 

Staple crops for 1885, U. S. Dept. Agriculture : 

Corn . 







































Other statistics drawn from the Ohio State Reports for 1887 give average wage 
of farm hands, per month, with board, $15.75; without board, per month, $21.35 : 


without board, per dav, $1.05. Broom corn, 1,809,349 lbs. ; flax, 137,112 bushels, 
seed, 1,951,406 lbs., rlax fibre; milk, 15,399,265 gals.; butter, 54,466,355 lbs.; 
cheese, 19,544,406 lbs.; sorghum, 467,772 gals.; honey, 2,113,479 lbs.; eggs, 
41,599,859 dozen; grapes, 26,649,211 lbs.; wine, 680,620 gals.; sweet potatoes, 
130,350 bushels ; apples. 23,609,037 ; peaches, 834,962 ; pears, 144,145 ; cherries, 
255,487; plums, 135,709 bushels ; wool, 19,702,329 lbs.; number of horses owned, 
725,814; cattle, 1,637,130; sheep, 4,277,463; hogs, 1,595,373; mules, 24,378. 

Railroads. — For the year 1887 total track mileage of railroads reported to the 
Ohio Commissioner of Railroads was 18,358, of which 9,849 miles are within the 
State. The amount of capital stock paid in was $512,344,549, of which $44,642,- 
612 was owned by 16,389 stockholders resident in Ohio. Total stock and debt 
of the entire line was $1,105,625,469, of which the proportion for Ohio was $557,- 
845,232. Cost of road and equipment of entire line, $1,007,145,278 ; proportion for 
Ohio, $471,763,561. The entire line had 3,769 locomotives, 130,061 cars, of which 
126,205 were freight, 1,597 passenger, and 612 express or baggage cars. The en- 
tire line transported 34,372,926 passengers, at an average cost per passenger 
of 2.179 cents per mile, and 85,739,801 tons of freight, at an average cost per ton 
of .707 cents per mile. The net earnings of the entire line were $18,795,072; 
operating expenses, $75,275,891 ; interest paid on funded and unfunded debt, $15,- 
188,403; dividends paid, $6,481,398. 

In 1887 there was in Ohio 49,008 miles of telegraph wire; 1,019 telegraph 
offices with 1,158 employees. [Electric light and motor and telephone wires not 

Canals—" The Miami and Erie system, being the main canal, from Cincinnati 
to Toledo, 250 miles, the canal from the junction to the State line 18 miles and 
the Sidney feeder 14 miles, making in all a total of 282 miles ; the Ohio Canal, 
extending from Portsmouth to Cleveland, a distance of 309 miles, together with 
25 miles of feeders, or a total of 334 miles ; the Hocking canal, 56 miles long, 
and the Walhonding, 25 miles ; the Muskingum Improvement, extending from 
Dresden to Marietta, a distance of 91 miles, is now under the control of the Gen- 
eral Government. So exclusive of the latter there is a total canal mileage of 697 
miles owned by the State of Ohio. The reservoirs are : Grand Reservoir in 
Mercer County, covering 17,000 acres ; the Lewistown in Logan County, 7,200 
acres; the Lorain in Shelby County, 1,800 acres; Six Mile in Paulding County, 
2,500 acres ; Licking in Licking County, 3,600 acres ; and the Sippo in Stark 
County, 600 acres, making a total in reservoirs of 32,100 acres. The Paulding 
Reservoir has lately been abandoned. The different canals with their reservoirs 
were built at a total cost of $15,967,650." 

Political— State, congressional and presidential electipns take place on the first 
Tuesday after the first Monday in November. The number of electoral votes is 
23. The Legislature consists of 33 Senators and 108 Representatives, both classes 
elected for two vears. The sessions are biennial, convening on the first Monday 
in January, without limit of time, but adjourned sessions practically make them 
annual. All the elective -officers are chosen for two years, except the Auditor, 
whose term is four years, Commissioner of Common Schools, Board of Public 
Works, Clerk of the Supreme Court, whose terms are three years, and Judges of 
the Supreme Court, whose terms are five years. The number of voters 826,577, 
of which 613,485 are native whites, 191,386 foreign whites and 21,706 colored. 
(Census of 1880.) All males twenty-one years of age, native or naturalized, are 
entitled to vote, provided they have resided one year in the State, thirty days m 
the county, and twenty days in the township or ward and have been registered 
before the day of election. Salary of the Governor $8,000 per year. The legal 
rate of interest is 6 per cent. ; by contract 8 per cent, 

fiance* —The amount of funded State debt Nov. 15, 1887, was $3,341 665. 
This sum consists of a loan of $600,000, bearing 4 per cent, interest, payable July 
1 1888; ten loans of $250,000 each, one payable each year from July 1, 1889, to 
July 1, 1898, bearing 3 per cent, interest, and one loan of $240,000, payable July 
1, 1899, also bearing 3 per cent, interest, and canal loan without interest of $1,665. 
' Irreducible State debt (trust funds), $4,526,716. 
The receipts, disbursements and balances for 1887 were as follows : 




Balances in the 

Treasury, Nov. 

16, 1886. 

.S s 

Jh CD 



Total receipts, 
including bal- 


during the fiscal 


Balances in the 
Treasury, Nov. 

15, 1887. 

General Revenue, 


State Com. Sch'l, 




*2, 853, 379. 57 


*3, 126, 174. 30 







The amount of taxable property assessed in 1887, was, real estate in cities, 
towns and villages, $464,681,331 ; real estate not in cities, towns and villages, 
$720,329,294 ; chattel property, $520,172,094. The rate of State tax was 29 cents 
on $100. In addition to the State tax there was levied in 1887, county taxes, 
$8,372,519; township, $1,099,963; school, $7,682,120; city, town and village, 
$7,606,025 ; special, $1,144,338. The debts of counties in 1887 were $6,892,745 
cities of the first and second class, $43,193,963 ; incorporated villages, $1,743,722 
townships, $557,883 ; special school districts, $2,455,330. The number of banks 
in 1887 was 429 with a capital of $46,568,211 of which 211 were national banks 
with a capital of $31,542,003. 

Colleges and Universities. 




Adelbert College, Western Keserve Univ. 

Antioch College 

Baldwin University 

Belmont College , 

Beverly College 

Buchtel College 

Calvin College 

Capital University . 

Denison University 

Franklin College 

German Wallace College 

Harlem Springs College ... 

Hebrew Union College 

Heidelberg College 

Hiram College 

Hopedale Normal College 

Kenyon College 

Marietta College 

Miami University 

Mount Union College 

Muskingum College 

National Normal University 

Oberlin College 

Ohio State University 

Ohio University 

Ohio Wesleyan University 

Otterbein University .... 

Rio Grande College 

Saint Joseph College 

Saint Xavier College 

Scio College 

The University of Wooster 

University of Cincinnati 

Urbana University.... 

Wilberforce University 

Wilmington College 

Wittenberg College 



Yellow Springs..... 


College Hill 



Brooklyn Village.. 



New Athens , 


Harlem Springs 








Mount Union 

New Concord 







Rio Grande 










Carroll Cutler 

Daniel A. Long 

William Kepler 

P. V. N. Myers 

L. C. Crippen 

O. Cone.. 

H. J. Ruetenik 

M. Loy 

Galusha Anderson 

J. G. Black 

William Nast 

John R. Steeves 

Isaac M.Wise 

George W. Willard 

G. H. Laughlin 

W. G. Garvey 

William B. Bodine 

John Eaton 

Robert W. McFarland.. 

O. N. Hartshorn 

F. M. Spencer 

Alfred Holbrook 

James H. Fairchild...y. 


William H. Scott.. 
Charles W. Super., 

Charles H. Payne ! 1842 

H. A. Thompson ! 1847 

A. A. Moulton.... ! 1876 

James Rogers .... ! 1873 

Edward A. Higgins 1831 

E.J. Marsh 1866 

Svlvester F. Scovel 1868 

Jacob D. Cox 1870 

Frank Sewall 1850 

S.T.Mitchell 1856 

James B. Unthank 1870 

S. A. Ort 1845 

Educational — In 1887 there were 12,589 school-houses in the State, valued at 

*This amount includes $80,000.00 advance draft drawn on the taxes collected for the fiscal 
year 1888. 



$29,287,749. Of 1,102,701 children of school age 767,030 were enrolled in the 
schools. There were 24,687 teachers employed, and an income for support of 
schools of $14,031,692 ; expenditures, $9,909,813, of which $6,252,518 was paid 
to teachers. School age from 6 to 21 years. Ohio has three State Colleges, Ohio 
State, Miami and Ohio Universities. The number of volumes in libraries in 

1886 was 991,086. 

The number of students in colleges and universities in 1887 was 1,613 males 
and 765 females ; instructors, 265. Total number of graduates, 6,317 males and 
1,821 females. Value of all property, including endowments, $6,998,592. In 

1887 there were also in Ohio 81 academies, normal, preparatory and other schools, 
with 5,635 male, 3,516 female students and 579 instructors. 

Manufactures. — The State Reports of 1887 gave Ohio 6,513 industrial establish- 
ments, employing 187,925 men and 29,281 women. Amount of capital invested, 
$196,113,670. Value of products, $344,245,690. 

The leading branches, as given by the United States census of 1880, are : 


Agricultural implements, 

Boots and shoes 

Brick and tile 

Carriages and wagons 

Clothing, men's 

Flour, etc 

Foundry, machine shops. 


Iron and steel 

Leather, tanned 

Liquors, distilled 

Liquors, malt 


Paper • 

Slaughtering, etc 

















Wages paid, 
















Value of 






Value of 
















Mining. — Ohio ranks second to Pennsylvania only in the production of bi- 
tuminous coal. The number of coal mines worked in Ohio in 1887 was 729, em- 
ploying 22,237 men. The total yield was 10,301,708 tons. The total amount of 
iron ore mined in 1887 was 377,465 tons ; fire-clay, 366,476 tons. During the year 
1885 there was produced of salt 530,000 barrels, about 300,000 barrels of cement, 
18,000 tons of mineral fertilizers, $500,000 worth of grindstones and 1,116,375 tons 
of limestone. 

Relative Rank. — Ohio ranks first in value of quarry products, value of farm 
lands, manufacture of agricultural implements, glycerine, number of brick and 
tile factories, number of churches, in receipts for school purposes. 

Second. In iron and steel manufactures, petroleum, natural gas, number of 
farms, tons of freight carried by railroads, miles of railroad track, butter and 
cheese establishments, bituminous coal mined, expenditures for school purposes, 
number of school teachers and average daily attendance of children at school. 

Third. In sheep, salt, wheat, population, in number of tanned leather and 
sawn lumber establishments, value of railroads and number of cars in use, capi- 
tal employed in railroads, number of dwellings, persons engaged in agriculture 
and in the professions, value of church property. 

Fourth. Tobacco raised, value of live stock, number of persons engaged in 
manufactures, total value of real estate, value of farm implements in use, print- 
ing and publishing. 

Fifth. Number of milch cows, swine, horses, cattle, hay, barley, corn, oats. 

Area. — Ohio ranks the twenty-fourth State in area. 



By EDWARD ORTON, State Geologist. 

Edward Orton, LL. D., was born at De- 
posit, Delaware county, New York, March 9, 
1829. His parents were Rev. Samuel G. 
Orton, D. D., and Clara Gregory Orton. The 
Ortons are first known in New England about 
1640, the name appearing in this year in the 
records of Charlestown, Massachusetts. 

Thomas Orton came to Windsor, Connecti- 
cut, in 1641 or 1642. From Windsor certain 
members of the family emigrated in the year 
1700 or thereabouts to the new settlements of 
Litchfield, which was then on the edge of the 
wilderness. There were thus two branches of 
the family — one at Windsor and one at Litch- 
field. The Litchfield Ortons lived for more 
than a century on what was known as Orton 
Hill, South Farms. They were well repre- 
sented in the Revolutionary war, but beyond < 
this do not appear to have taken prominent 
part in public life. They seem to have been 
a quiet, home-loving, fairly thrifty stock, pos- 
sessed of a good deal of family affection and 

Miles Orton, the father of the Rev. Samuel 
G. Orton, was a soldier in the war of 1812 and 
died soon after the war. 

Samuel G. Orton was born at Litchfield and 
was brought up on a farm until 20 years old, 
when , under the ministry of Dr. Lyman 
Beecher, he was encouraged to seek a liberal 
education. He was obliged to support him- 
self by his own labor both while preparing for 
college and during his entire course. He 

graduated at Hamilton College in 1822 and studied theology in New Haven. He was an honored 
minister in the Presbyterian Church for nearly 50 years; most of which time he spent in Western New 

Edward Orton passed his boyhood in his father's country home at Ripley, Chautauqua county, New 
York. He acquired here a knowledge of and life-long interest in country life, often working among 
the neighboring farmers for weeks and even months at a time. He was fitted for college mainly by his 
father, but spent one year in Westfield Academy and another in Fredonia Academy. He entered 
Hamilton College, the college where his father had graduated, as a sophomore in 1845 and graduated 
in 1848. He taught after graduation for a year in the academy of Erie, Penna. He entered Lane 
Theological Seminary, Cincinnati, in 1849, and was under Dr. Lyman Beecher's instruction. He 
withdrew from the seminary on account of a temporary failure of his eyes, but after a year or two spent 
on the farm and in travel he resumed the work of teaching, becoming a member of the faculty of the 
Delaware Institute, Franklin, Delaware county, N, Y. In college his chief interest had been in 
literary and classical studies, but in the institute he was set to teaching the natural sciences and a latent 
taste for these studies was soon developed. He pursued the studies of chemistry and the natural history 
branches with special interest, and to prepare himself better for teaching them took a six months' 
course in the Lawrence Scientific School of Harvard University, in 1852, studying under Horsford and 
Cooke and Gray, Finding that his theological creed was giving way under his later studies he sought 
to a vert the change by more thorough investigation in this department, and entered Andover Seminary to 
attend for a year Prof. Park's lectures on theology. The experiment was successful to the extent of arrest- 
ing the change in his views, but after a few years the process was resumed and ended in the replace- 
ment of the Calvinistic creed in which he had been brought up by the shorter statements of Unitarianism. 
In 1856 he, was called to the chair of natural science in the State Normal School of New York, at Albany. 
He held this position for several years,*resigning it to take charge of Chester Academy, Orange county, 
N. Y. After spending six years in this position he was called in 1865 to Antioch College, Yellow 
Springs, Ohio. He was first made principal of the preparatory department, then professor of natural 
history, and finally in 1872 president of the institution. This last position he held but for one year, resign- 
ing it in 1873 to accept the presidency of the Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College, now the State 
University, at Columbus. He was also made professor of geology in this institution at the same time. 
He held the presidency for eight years and retained the professorship of geology after resigning the 
former place. 

During his residence in Yellow Springs the State geological survey was organized under Newberry. 
Prof. Orton became in 1869 a member of the geological corps, being appointed thereto bv Governor 

( 59) 



R. B. Hayes. He was reappointed by Governor Noyes, and after Newberry's withdrawal from the 
field was appointed State geologist by Governor Foster and at a still later day by Governor Hoadly. 
This latter position he has held in conjunction with the professorship of geology in the State University. 

He was married in 1855 to Mary M. Jennings of Franklin, N. Y», who died in 1873. In 1875 he was 
married to Anna Davenport Torrey of Millbury, Mass. 

In addition to his geological work proper Prof. Orton has taken an active interest in the applica- 
tions of geology to agriculture and sanitary science and especially to the questions of water supply and 
sewerage of the towns of Ohio. 


The boundaries of Ohio, as fixed in the 
enabling act by which, in 1802, it was ad- 
mitted into the Union, were as follows : on 
the east the Pennsylvania line ; on the south 
the Ohio river to the mouth of the Great 
Miami river ; on the west a due north line 
from the mouth of the Great Miami ; on the 
north an east and west line drawn through 
the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan, 
running east after intersecting the meridian 
that makes the western boundary of the State 
until it intersects Lake Erie or the territorial 
line, and thence, with the same, through 
Lake Erie to the Pennsylvania line, 

The eastern, southern and western boun- 
daries remain unchanged ; the northern 
boundary has been slightly modified. As 
finally established by Congress in 1836 it con- 
sists of a direct line, or in other words of the 
arc of a great circle instead of a parallel of 
latitude, from the southern extremity of Lake 
Michigan to the most northerly cape of the 
Maumee Bay and thence northeast to the 
boundary line between the United States and 
Canada, and along this boundary to its inter- 
section with the western boundary of Penn- 

The change here indicated was provided 
for in the enabling act above referred to, and 
also in the constitution of Ohio which was 
established in 1802, but the cause that led to 
making it in 1836 was a dispute that had 
arisen between the State of Ohio and the 
Territory of Michigan as to jurisdiction along 
this border. The dispute assumed the char- 
acter of a war of small proportions and of 
short duration during the administration of 
Governor Lucas, of Ohio, an account of 
which is given elsewhere in this work. 

The territory of the State can be further 
defined as included between 38° 27' and 41° 
57' north latitude, and between 80° 34' and 
84° 49' west longitude ("American Clyclo- 
paedia," article Ohio). The longest north 
and south line that can be drawn in the State 
is about 210 miles ; the longest east and west 
line is about 225 miles. The area of Ohio, 
according to the most recent computations, is 
40,760 square miles (Compendium, 10th Cen- 
sus, II, 1413). 

Physical Features. 

The surface of the State is an undulating 
plain, the highest elevation of which thus far 
measured is found at a point in Logan 
county, three and a half miles northeast of 
Bellefbntaine, and which is locally known as 
Hogue's hill. The elevation of this highest 

land in Ohio is 1,550 feet above mean tide, 
counting Lake Erie 573 feet above mean tide. 
The lowest land in the State is found at its 
southwestern corner at the intersection of the 
valleys of the Ohio and the Great Miami 
rivers. Low water mark at this point is a 
little less than 440 feet above tide. The 
highest and the lowest elevations of the State 
are thus seen to be only 1,100 feet apart, but 
small as is this range the figures used in stat- 
ing it unless qualified would be misleading. 
In reality the areas less than 550 feet above 
tide or more than 1,300 feet above are 
insignificant. Practically the range of the 
State is reduced to about 750 feet. The 
elevations of a few places, variously dis- 
tributed through the State, are given below. 
The authorities for these figures are quite 
unequal in value, but they are the best we 
have : 

Feet above tide, 

Allen county, near Westminster 1,032 

Ashland county, Polk 1,241 

Ashtabula county, Andover 1,191 

Auglaize county, Bitler's 1,084 

Belmont county, Jacobsburg 1,330 

Butler county, northeast corner of Oxford 

township 1,033 

Carroll county, summit near Carrollton 1,153 

Champaign county, Mingo 1,238 

Clarke county, South Charleston 1,126 

Clinton county, summit near New Vienna... 1,169 

Columbiana county, Round Knob 1,417 

Columbiana county, Salem, highest point 1,334 

Crawford county, summit near Crestline 1,177 

Cuyahoga county, Royalton 1,272 

Darke county, Hollansburg 1,150 

Delaware county, Peerless 1,179 

Geauga county, Claridon 1,366 

Greene county, Jamestown 1,071 

Hardin county, Silver creek, summit 1,118 

Harrison county, Cadiz, court-house 1,270 

Highland county, Stultz's mountain ..1,325 

Holmes county, Millersburg, hills near 1,235 

Jefferson county, Bloomfield, hills near 1,434 

Knox county, Mount Liberty 1,215 

Lake county, Little mountain 1,248 

Licking county, Jacktown, hill near 1,235 

Logan county, Hogue's hill, near Bellefon- 

taine 1,540 

Mahoning county, Damascus 1,188 

Marion county, Caledonia 1,066 

Medina county, Wadsworth 1,349 

Monroe county, Jerusalem 1,300 ' 

Morrow county, Bloomfield, cemetery 1,149 

Perry county, Somerset 1,159 

Pike county, Font Hill 1,285 

Portage county, Limestone Ridge 1,248 

Preble county, Eldorado 1,178 

Richland county, highest hills 1,475 

Stark county, Wilmot, hill near 1,261 

Summit county, Silver creek .1,392 

Trumbull county, Mesopotamia 1,172 

Tuscarawas county, Mt. Tabor 1,348 

Wayne county, summits, northwest part 1,275 

It is scarcely necessary to add that in almost 



every one of the counties named above the 
highest land of the State is or has been claimed 
by residents of these counties. The figures 
given in this table show the highest recorded 
elevations, but not necessarily the highest 
elevations. They can, however, be made to 
indicate by proper combination the highest- 
lying districts of the State. 

The largest connected areas of high land 
extend from east to west across the central 
and northern central districts. In some 
limited regions of Central Ohio, especially 
along the ridge of high land just referred to, 
and also in a few thousand square miles of 
Northwestern Ohio, the natural drainage is 
somewhat sluggish, and, while the land is 
covered with its original forest growth, it in- 
clines to swampy conditions ; but when the 
forests are cleared away and the water-courses 
are open most of it becomes arable and all of 
it can be made so without excessive outlay by 
means of open ditches. 

The chief feature in the topography of 
Ohio is the main watershed which extends 
across the State from its northeastern corner 
to about the middle of its western boundary. 
It divides the surface of the State into two 
unequal slopes, the northern, which is much 
the smaller, sending its waters into Lake 
Erie and the Gulf of St. Lawrence, while the 
drainage of the other is directed to the Gulf 
of Mexico by the Ohio river. The average 
height of the watershed is about 1,100 feet 
above tide, but it is cut by three principal 
gaps, viz., those of the Tuscarawas, Scioto 
and Maumee rivers respectively. The eleva- 
tion is reduced in these gaps to about 950 
feet. They have been occupied by canals 
and railways for a number of years. 

The watershed depends on two diiferent 
lines of geological formation in diiferent por- 
tions of the State, to the eastward on bedded 
rocks which rise in a low arch along the line 
that the watershed follows, and to the west- 
ward by enormous accumulations of glacial 
drift the maximum thickness of which is more 
than 500 feet. 

Ohio owes but very little of the relief of its 
surface to folds of the rocks which underlie 
it. There are no pronounced anticlines or 
synclines in its structure. When successively 
lifted from the sea beneath which they were 
formed its several strata were approximately 
horizontal and also of approximately the same 
elevation. The present relief of the State is 
mainly due to erosive agencies. The original 
plain has been carved and dissected into com- 
plicated patterns during the protracted ages 
in which it has been worn away by rains and 
rivulets and rivers. Comparatively little of 
it now remains. In each river system there 
is one main furrow that is deepened and 
widened as it advances, and tributary to the 
main furrow are countless narrower and shal- 
lower valleys which in turn are fed by a like 
system of smaller troughs. Most of the 
streams have their main valleys directed 
through their entire extent to either the north 
or the south, adapting themselves thus to the 
two main slopes of the State, but occasionally 

a considerable stream will for a score or more 
miles undertake to make its way against the 
general slope. A sluggish flow necessarily 
characterizes such streams. Examples are 
found in Wills creek, a tributary of the 
Muskingum, and in Connotton creek, which 
flows into the Tuscarawas river. 

Fragments of the old plain still remain in 
the isolated " hills " or table-lands that bound 
the valleys and which, though often separated 
by intervals of miles, still answer to each 
other with perfect correspondence of altitude 
and stratification. They often occur in nar- 
row and isolated serpentine ridges between 
the streams. -These high lands rise to a 
maximum height of 600 feet above the rivers 
in the main valleys. Strictly speaking, there 
are no hills in Ohio, to say nothing of moun- 
tains, and there never have been any. The 
relief, as has been shown, results from val- 
leys carved out of the original plain. 

The glacial drift has had much to do in 
establishing the present topography, but its 
influence can be better stated at a later point 
in this review. 



The geology of Ohio, though free from the 
obscurity and complications that are often 
met with in disturbed and mountainous re- 
gions, is still replete with scientific and 
economic interest. It has occupied the at- 
tention of students of this science for more 
than half a century, and during this time 
there haye been a number of able men who 
have devoted many years of their lives to 
working out its problems. The State has 
also made large expenditures in carrying on 
geological investigations and in publishing 
the results of the same. It is still engaged 
in the work. 

Previous to 1836, not much was known in 
regard to the age and order of the rock for- 
mations of the State. In fact, the science 
of geology was then but little advanced in any 
part of the country. Hon. Benjamin Tappan 
published a few notes pertaining to the coal 
fields of Ohio, in Sillimarts Journal (after- 
wards the American Journal of Science and 
Arts), between 1820 and 1830, and Caleb 
Atwater included in his archaeological re- 
searches some geological observations. It 
was, however, to Dr. S. P. Hildreth, of 
Marietta, that we owe the first extended and 
connected accounts of the geology of any por- 
tions of our territory. His notes upon the 
salines or salt springs of the State and of the 
Ohio valley are full of interesting observa- 
tions, but the account begun by him in the 
American Journal of Science and Arts in 
1836 entitled ''Observations on the Bitumi- 
nous Coal Deposits of the valley of the Ohio, 
and the accompanying rock strata, with notices 
of the fossil organic remains and the relics 
of vegetable and animal bodies, illustrated 
by a geological map, by numerous drawings 
of plants and shells and by views of interest- 
ing scenery, ? ' is decidedly the most compre- 
hensive and important statement that had 



been made up to this time upon the geology 
of any part of the State. The descriptions 
and figures of fossils in this paper were made 
by Samuel George Morton, M.I)., of Phila- 

It was in this year also that the first steps 
were taken by the legislature to determine 
the geological structure and resources of the 
State. A resolution was passed on the 14th 
day of March, 1836, providing for the ap- 
pointment of a committee to report to the 
next legislature the best method of obtaining 
a complete geological survey of the State and 
the probable cost of the same. The com- 
mittee consisted of Dr. S. P. Hildreth, chair- 
man, Professors John Locke and J. H. Rid- 
dell and Mr. I. A. Lapham, all of whom were 
recognized as among the foremost students of 
geological science in the State. 

The report of this committee was promptly 
made and, in accordance with its recom- 
mendations, a survey of the State was forth- 
with ordered (March 27, 1837). The first 
geological corps was organized as follows : 

Prof. W. W. Mather, State Geologist. 
Dr. S. P. Hildreth. 
Dr. John Locke. 
Prof. J. P. Rutland. 
Col. J. W. Foster. 
Col. Chas. Whittjesley. 
Prof. C. Briggs, Jr. 

The work of this survey was brought to an 
abrupt termination at the end of the second 
year of field work, the principal cause of dis- 
continuance being the embarrassed condition 
of the State treasury, which in turn was owing 
to the financial panic of 1837. Though the 
duration of this survey was short, its results 
were of very great importance and value. A 
solid foundation had been laid on which ob- 
servations could be intelligently carried on in 
every portion of the State. Several of the 
members of the old corps, and prominent 
among them, Col. Charles Whittlesley, main- 
tained not only their interest, but their field 
work as well, though in a fragmentary and 
disconnected way, and from year to year work 
was done which could finally be utilized in a 
more thorough study of the subject. We 
owe very much to the members of this corps 
for their contributions to our knowledge of 
Ohio geology. 

The second survey was ordered by the legis- 
lature in 1869, and there was fortunately 
placed at the head of it Professor J. S. 
Newberry, LL. D., widely recognized as the 
ablest geologist that Ohio has yet produced. 
Dr. Newberry brought to his task the results 
of many years of study of the structure of 
Ohio and also a wide experience in other 
fields. To his sagacity in interpreting both 
the stratigraphical and paleontological record 
of the State, science is under great obliga- 
tions. The assistant geologists appointed 
with Dr. Newberry were Prof. E. B. An- 
drews, Prof. Edward Orton and Mr. J. H. 
Klippart Prof. T. G. Wormley was ap- 
pointed chemist of the survey. Active work 

on the survey was discontinued at the end of 
five years from the date of beginning, but the 
publication of results was kept up for a much 
longer time. In fact, some of the results of 
Dr. Newberry's work are yet unpublished. 
Two reports of progress, 1869 and 1870, 
and four volumes of Geology are the pub- 
lished results of this survey. Two of these 
volumes are double, the second parts being 
devoted to paleontology (Vols. I. and II.). 

In 1881 the survey was again revived, 
under the direction of Prof. Edward Orton, 
with special reference to the completion of 
the work in economic geology. Two volumes, 
viz., vols. V. and VI., have been already 
issued in this series. Prof. N. W. Lord was 
appointed chemist to the survey under the" 
reorganization, and has done all of the work 
in this important department. 

I. Geological Scale. 
A brief review of the scale and structure 
of the State will here be given, but before it 
is entered upon, a few fundamental facts per- 
taining to the subject will be stated. 

1. So far as its exposed rock series is con- 
cerned, Ohio is built throughout its whole 
extent of stratified deposits or, in other 
words, of beds of clay, sand and limestone, in 
all their various gradations, that were de- 
posited or that grew in water. There are in 
the Ohio series no igneous nor metamorphic 
rocks whatever ; that is, no rocks that have 
assumed their present form and condition 
from a molten state or that, subsequent to 
their original formation, have been trans- 
formed by heat. The only qualification which 
this statement needs pertains to the beds of 
drift by which a large portion of the State is 
covered. These drift beds contain bowlders 
in large amount, derived from the igneous 
and metamorphic rocks that are found around 
the shores of Lakes Superior and Huron, but 
these bowlders are recognized by all, even by 
the least observant, as foreign to the Ohio 
scale. They are familiarly known as "lost 
rocks " or " erratics. ' ' 

If we should descend deep enough below 
the surface we should exhaust these stratified 
deposits and come to the granite foundations 
of the continent which constitute the surface 
rocks in parts of Canada, New England and 
the West, but the drill has never yet hewed 
its way down to these firm and massive beds 
within our boundaries. 

The rocks that constitute the present sur- 
face of Ohio were all formed in water, and 
none of them have been modified and masked 
by the action of high temperatures. They 
remain in substantially the same condition in 
which they were formed. 

2. With the exception of the coal seams 
and a few beds associated with them and of 
the drift deposits, all the formations of Ohio 
grew in the sea. There are no lake or river j 
deposits among them, but by countless and 
infallible signs they testify to a marine origin. 
The remnants of life which they contain, 
often in the greatest abundance, are decisive 
as to this point. 



3. The sea in which or around which they 
grew was the former extension of the Gulf 
of Mexico. When the rocks of Ohio were 
in process of formation, the warm waters and 
genial climate of the Gulf extended without 
interruption to the borders of the great lakes. 
All of these rocks had their origin under such 

4. The rocks of Ohio constitute an orderly 
series. They occur in widespread sheets, the 
lowermost of which are co-extensive with the 
limits of the State. As we ascend in the 
scale, the strata constantly occupy smaller 
areas? but the last series of deposits, viz. , those 
of the Carboniferous period, are still found to 
cover at least one-fourth of the entire area of 
the State. Some of these formations can be 
followed into and across adjacent States, in 
apparently unbroken continuity. 

The edges of the successive deposits in the 
Ohio series are exposed in innumerable natural 
sections, so that their true order can gener- 
ally be determined with certainty and ease. 

5. For the accumulation and growth of this 
great series of deposits, vast periods of time 
are required. Many millions of years must 
be used in any rational explanation of their 
origin and history. All of the stages of this 
history have practically unlimited amounts of 
past time upon which to draw. They have , 
all gone forward on so large a scale, so far as 
time is concerned, that the few thousand 
years of human history would not make an 
appreciable factor in any of them. In other 
words, five thousand years or ten thousand 
years make too small a period to be counted 
in the formation of coal, for example, or in 
the accumulation of petroleum, or in the 
shaping of the surface of the State through 
the agencies of erosion. 

The geological scale of the State is repre- 
sented in the accompanying diagram (page 6). 
The order, of the series is, of course, fixed and 
definite, but the thickness assigned to the 
several elements depends upon the location 
at which the section is taken. The aggregate 
thickness of the entire series will reach 5,000 
feet, if the maximum of each stratum is 
taken into the account, but if the average 
measurements are used, the thickness does 
not exceed 3,500 feet. The principal ele- 
ments of the scale, which extends from the 
Lower Silurian to the upper Carboniferous or 
possibly the Permian, inclusive, are * given 
below, and the geological map appended 
shows how the surface of the State is dis- 
tributed among the principal formations. A 
brief review of these leading elements will be 
given at this point. 

1. The Trenton Limestone. 

The Trenton limestone is one of the most 
important of the older formations of the 
continent. It is the first widespread lime- 
stone of the general scale. It extends from 
New England to the Rocky mountains, and 
from the islands north of Hudson's bay to 
the southern extremity of the Allegheny 
mountains in Alabama and Tennessee. 

Throughout this vast region it is found ex- 
posed in innumerable outcrops. It gives rise 
as it decays to limestone soils which are some- 
times of remarkable fertility, as, for example, 
those of the famous Blue Grass region of 
Central Kentucky, which are derived from 
it. It is worked for building stone in hun- 
dred of quarries, and it is also burned into 
lime and broken into road metal on a large 
scale throughout the regions where it occurs. 
But widespread as are its exposures in out- 
crop, it has a still wider extension under 
cover. It is known to make the floor of 
entire States in which it does not reach the 
surface at a single point. 

It takes its name from a picturesque and 
well-known locality in Trenton township, 
Oneida county, New York. The West 
Canada creek makes a rapid descent in this 
township from the Adirondack uplands to 
the Mohawk valley, falling 300 feet in two 
miles by a series of cascades. These cascades 
have long been known as Trenton Falls, and 
the limestone which forms them was appro- 
priately named by the New York geologists 
the Trenton limestone. The formation, as 
seen at the original locality, is found to be a 
dark-blue, almost black limestone, lying in 
quite massive and even beds, which are often 
separated by layers of black shale. Both 
limestone and shale contain excellently pre- 
served fossils of Lower Silurian age. By 
means of these fossils, and also by its strati- 
graphical order, the limestone is followed 
with perfect distinctness from Trenton Falls 
to eyery point of the compass. It is changed 
to some extent, in color and composition, as it 
is traced in different directions, but there is 
seldom a question possible as to its identity. 
The Trenton limestone forms several of the 
largest islands in whole or in part in the 
northern portion of Lake Huron, as the 
Manitoulin islands and Drummond's island. 
It dips from this region to the southward, 
but it is found rising again in outcrop in the 
valley of the Kentucky river. Its presence 
underneath the entire States of Ohio and 
Michigan, and especially under Western 
Ohio, has always been inferred, since the 
geology of these States was first worked out. 
But it is only recently that it has come to be 
clearly recognized as one of the surface forma- 
tions of Ohio. 

The lowest rocks in the State series have 
long been known to be exposed in the Point 
Pleasant quarries of Clermont county. It is 
upon the outcrop of these rocks that the 
humble dwelling stands in which Ulysses S. 
Grant first saw the light. The claim that 
these beds in reality belong to and represent 
the Trenton limestone of Kentucky was first 
made by S. A. Miller, Esq., of Cincinnati, 
and the same view was afterward supported 
by the late Wm. M. Linney of the Kentucky 
Geological Survey, but the demonstration of 
the fact comes in an unexpected way. In the 
extensive underground explorations that have 
been going forward in Northern Ohio for the 
last few years, the Trenton limestone has 
been unmistakably identified as the firm 









z . 































3oo— 26oo 




- too 












DO- 000 

NIAGARA Series. 

MEDINA Shales 












QejoJojg icc I Map of Ohio 



6 7 

limestone that is found at a depth of 1,000 
to 2,000 feet below the surface, invariably 
covered with about 300 feet of black shale, 
containing the most characteristic fossils of 
the Utica shale. As this limestone has been 
followed southward, it has been found steadily 
rising, coming gradually nearer to the surface, 
and the rate has been found to be such from 
the nearest determination that it would cor- 
respond very well with the formation that 
crops out in the Ohio valley at Point 

As seen there the Trenton limestone is a 
light or grayish-blue limestone, quite crystal- 
line in structure, massive in its bedding and 
fossiliferous. Its general composition is as 
follows : 

Carbonate of lime, 75 to 85 % 

Carbonate of magnesia, 1 to 5 % 

Alumina and oxide of iron, 2 to 8 % 
Insoluble residue, 10 to 15 % 

It is not, in this phase, a porous rock. 

The most surprising discovery ever made 
in Ohio geology qomes from this formation. 
In 1 884 it was found to be at Findlay a source 
of high pressure gas and later a great reposi- 
tory of petroleum. These discoveries have 
made the name of the Trenton limestone a 
household word throughout Ohio, Indiana 
and Michigan. These discoveries will be 
briefly described on a subsequent page. 

2. The Utica Shale. 

The immediate cover of the Trenton lime- 
stone is a well-known stratum of black shale 
300 feet in thickness, which, from its abun- 
dant outcrops in the vicinity of Utica, re- 
ceived from the New York geologists the 
name of Utica shale. 

This stratum has been proved to be very 
persistent and widespread. It is sparingly 
fossiliferous, but several of the forms that it 
contains are characteristic, that is, they have 
thus far been found in no other stratum. 
The first of the deep wells that was drilled in 
1884 in Findlay revealed, at a depth of 800 
feet, a stratum of black shale containing the 
most characteristic fossil of the Utica shale, 
viz., Leptobolus insignis, Hall, and it was 
thus positively identified with the last-named 
formation. This bed of shale has the normal 
thickness of the Utica shale in New York, 
viz., 300 feet, and with the other elements 
involved, it extended and continued the New 
York series into Northern Ohio in a most 
unexpected and, at the same time, in a most 
satisfactory way. 

The^ Utica shale, thus discovered and de- 
fined, is a constant element in the deep wells 
of Northwestern Ohio. Its upper boundary 
is not always distinct, as the Hudson river 
shale that overlies it sometimes graduates 
into it in color and appearance ; but as a rule 
the driller, without any geological preposses- 
sions whatever, will divide the well section in 
his record so as to show about 300 feet of 
black shale at the bottom of the column or 
immediately overlying the Trenton lime- 

stone. This stratum holds its own as far as 
the southern central counties. In the wells 
of Springfield, Urbana and Piqua it is found 
in undiminished thickness, but apparently 
somewhat more' calcareous in composition. 
From these points southward the black shale 
thins rapidly. It is apparently replaced by 
dark -colored limestone bands known as pep- 
per and salt rock by the driller. 

From these and similar facts it appears 
that the Utica shale is much reduced and 
altered as it approaches the Ohio valley, and 
is finally lost by overlap of the Hudson river 
shale in this portion of the State and to the 

3. The Hudson River Group. 
The very important and interesting series 
now to be described appears in all the pre- 
vious reports of the geological survey under 
another name, viz., the Cincinnati group. It 
is unnecessary to review here the long dis- 
cussions pertaining to the age of this series, 
or the grounds on which the changes in the 
name by which it is known have been based. 
The return to the older name here proposed 
is necessitated by the discoveries recently 
made in our underground geology, to which 
reference has already been made. 

The Hudson river group in Southwestern 
Ohio consists of alternating beds of limestone 
and shale, the latter of which is commonly 
known as blue clay. The proportion of lime 
and shale vary greatly in different parts of 
the series. The largest percentage of shale 
occurs in the 250 feet of the series that begin 
50 or 75 feet above low water at Cincinnati. 
The entire thickness of the series in South- 
western Ohio is about 750 feet. The divi- 
sion of the series into lower and upper is 
natural and serviceable. ^ The lower is known 
as the Cincinnati division and the upper as 
the Lebanon division. The Cincinnati divi- 
sion has a thickness of 425 to 450 feet, and 
the Lebanon division a thickness of about 
300 feet. The divisions are separated on 
both paleontological and stratigraphical 
grounds. Both divisions abound in ex- 
quisitely preserved fossils of Lower Silurian 
time ; and in fact the hills of Cincinnati and 
its vicinity have become classical grounds to 
the geologists on this account. 

As the series takes cover to the northward 
and eastward it retains for a time the same 
characteristics already described, but as it is 
followed farther it rapidly becomes less cal- 
careous. The limestone courses are thinner 
and fewer, and the entire series comes to be 
counted shale. 

The Hudson river group occupies in its 
outcrop about 4,000 square miles in South- 
western Ohio, but it is doubtless coextensive 
with the limits of the State. The shales of 
the series contain in outcrop large quantities 
of phosphates and alkalies, and the soils to 
which they give rise are proverbial for their 

The presence of 1 these fine-grained and im- 
pervious shales in so many separate beds 
forbids the descent of water through the 



formation. In its outcrop the formation has 
no water supply, and, as found by the driller, 
it is always dry. It gives rise to frequent 
"blowers" or short-lived accumulations of 
high-pressure gas when struck by the drill, 
as has been found in the experience in many 
towns of Western Ohio within the last two 
years, and it also yields considerable amounts 
of low-pressure shale gas which proves fairly 

4. The Medina Shale. 
A stratum of non-fossiliferous shale, often 
red or yellow in color and having a thickness 
of ten to forty feet, directly overlies the 
uppermost beds of the Hudson river group 
at many points in Southwestern Ohio. The 
occurrence of 50 to 150 feet of red shale in 
most of the recent deep borings in North- 
western Ohio at exactly the place in the gen- 
eral column where the Medina should be, and 
so much nearer to the known outcrops of the 
formation that its continuity with these was 
hardly to be questioned, this fact, taken in 
connection with the occurrence of like beds of 
red shale holding the same relative position 
in several deep borings in the central portions 
of the State, serves to give warrant for count- 
ing the Medina epoch duly represented in the 
outcropping strata of Southwestern Ohio. It 
occurs here only in included sections, its thin 
and easily eroded beds never being found as 
surface formations for extensive areas. There 
is good reason to believe that the Medina 
formation is coextensive with the limits of 
the State, except in the regions from which 
it has already been removed. 

5. The Clinton Limestone. 

The Clinton group of New York appears 
as a surface formation in Ohio only in ihe 
area already named. It forms a fringe or 
margin of the Cincinnati group through eight 
or ten counties, rising above the soft and 
easily eroded rocks of this series, and of the 
previously named Medina shale, in a conspicu- 
ous terrace. It is everywhere a well-charac- 
terized limestone stratum. It is highly 
crystalline in structure, and is susceptible of 
a good polish. In some localities it is known 
as a marble. A considerable part of it, and 
especially the upper beds, are almost wholly 
made up of crinoidal fragments. In thick- 
ness it ranges between ten and fifty feet. Its 
prevailing colors are white, pink, red, yellow, 
gray and blue. At a few points it is replaced 
by the hematite ore that is elsewhere so char- 
acteristic of the formation. The ore in Ohio 
is generally too lean and uncertain to possess 
economic value, but it was once worked for a 
short time and in a very small way in a 
furnace near Wilmington, Clinton county. ^ 

The limestone contains a notable quantity 
of indigenous petroleum throughout most of 
its outcrop, but no very valuable accumula- 
tions of oil or gas have been found in it thus 
far. It is the source of the low-pressure 
gas of Fremont (upper vein), and also of 
the gas at Lancaster from 1,962 feet below 
the surface, and at Newark from 2,100 feet 

below the surface. In fact, a small but 
fairly persistent flow is maintained from this 
horizon in several of the gas-producing dis- 
tricts of Northern Ohio. In a single instance 
in Wood county it is proving itself an oil 
rock. A well near Trombley, drilled to this 
horizon, has been flowing twenty to thirty 
barrels of oil for a number of months, the 
oil being referable to this formation. 

In outcrop the stratum is quite porous as 
a rule, and the water that falls upon its un- 
covered portions sinks rapidly through them 
to the underlying shale (Medina), by which 
it is turned out in a well-marked line of 

In composition, the limestone, in its out- 
crops in Southern Ohio, is fairly constant. 
All of its most characteristic portions con- 
tain eighty to eighty-five per cent, of car- 
bonate of lime, and ten to fifteen per cent, of 
carbonate of magnesia. At a few points, 
however, it is found as the purest carbonate 
of lime in the State. Under cover, to the 
northward, it is much more magnesian m 
composition, being indistinguishable from the 
Niagara. It also becomes shaly and change- 
able in character at many points. As it be- 
comes shaly the thickness is much increased. 

It is everywhere uneven in its bedding, be- 
ing in striking contrast in this respect with 
the formations below it and also above it. 
The beds are all lenticular in shape, and 
they extend but a few feet in any direction. 
They seldom rise to one foot in thickness. 

The uneven bedding, the crystalline and 
crinoidal characters, the high colors, and par- 
ticularly the red bands and the chemical 
composition, combine to make the Clinton 
limestone an exceedingly well-marked stratum 
throughout Southwestern Ohio, and from the 
hints yielded by the drill in Northwestern 
Ohio, it seems to have something of the same 
character there, especially so far as color is 
concerned. It becomes more shaly and much 
thicker to the eastward. It carries bands of 
red shale almost universally throughout the 
northern central and central parts of the 

The limestone is directly followed at a 
number of points in the territory occupied 
by it by a stratum of very fine-grained, blu- 
ish-white clay, containing many fossils dis- 
tributed through it, the fossils being crystal- 
line and apparently pure carbonate of lime. 
A similar bed of white clay is reported at 
the same horizon, by the drillers in Northern 
Ohio, and the drillings show the presence of 
fossils of the same characters. This clay 
seam can be designated the Clinton clay, but 
it merges in and is indistinguishable from.the 
lowest element in the next group. The 
Clinton, in its outcrops, is entirely confined 
to Southern Ohio. 

6. The Niagara Group. 
The Clinton limestone is followed in as- 
cending order by the Niagara group, a series 
of shales and limestones that has consider- 
able thickness in its outcrops and that occu- 
pies about 3,000 square miles of territory 



in Ohio. The lowest member is the Niagara 
shale, a mass of light-colored clays, with 
many thin calcareous bands. It has a thick- 
ness of 100 feet in Adams county, but it is 
reduced rapidly as it is followed northward, 
and in Clarke and Montgomery counties it is 
not more than ten or fifteen feet thick. 
Still further to the northward, as appears 
from the records of recent drillings, the 
shale sometimes disappears entirely, but in 
the great majority of wells, especially in 
Hancock and Wood counties, it is a constant 
element, ranging from five to thirty feet. 
Wells are often cased in this shale, but a 
risk is always taken in doing so. 

In Montgomery, Miami and Greene coun- 
ties the shale contains in places a very valu- 
able building-stone, which is widely known as 
the Dayton stone. It is a highly crystalline, 
compact and strong stone, lying in even beds 
of various thickness, and is in every way 
adapted to the highest architectural uses. It 
carries about ninety- two per cent, of carbon- 
ate of lime. The Niagara shale is, as a rule, 
quite poor in fossils. It is apparently desti- 
tute of them in many of its exposures. 

The limestone that succeeds the shale is 
an even-bedded, blue or drab, magnesian 
stone, well adapted at many points to quar- 
rying purposes. It is known in Ohio by 
various local names, derived from the points 
where it is worked. There are several sub- 
divisions of it that are unequally developed 
in different portions of the State. Like the 
shale below it, this member is thickest in 
Southern Ohio. It cannot be recognized as 
a distinct element in the northern part of the 
State, either in outcrop or in drillings. It 
may be that its horizon is not reached in any 
natural exposures of the formation in this 
part of the State. 

The uppermost division of the formation 
is the Guelph limestone, which differs very 
noticeably in several points from the Niagara 
limestone proper. It obtains its name from 
a locality in Canada, where it was first stud- 
ied and described. It has a maximum thick- 
ness in Southern Ohio of 200 feet. It differs 
from the underlying limestone in structure, 
composition, and fossils. It is either massive 
or very thin-bedded, rarely furnishing a build- 
ing stone. It is porous to an unusual extent. 
It is generally very light in color, and is 
everywhere in the State nearly a typical 
dolomite in composition. It yields lime of 
great excellence for the mason's use. 

Unlike the previously named divisions of 
the Niagara, the Guelph limestone is as well 
developed in Northern as in Southern Ohio 
in all respects. Not more than forty feet are 
found in its outcrops here, but the drill has 
shown several times this amount of Niagara 
limestone, without giving us all of the data 
needed for referring the beds traversed to 
their proper subdivisions. What facts there 
are seem to point to the Guelph as the main 
element in this underground development of 
the formation in this portion of the State. 

The Hillsboro sandstone is the last element 
in the Niagara group. It is found in but 

few localities, and its reference to the Niagara 
series in its entirety is not beyond question. 
In Highland county it has a thickness of 
thirty feet in several sections. It is composed 
of very pure, even-grained, sharp silicious 
sand. Other deposits of precisely the same 
character are found in the two next higher 
limestones of the scale at several points in 
the State. 

The Hillsboro sandstone is sometimes built 
up above all the beds of the upper Niagara 
limestone, but again, it is, at times, inter- 
stratified with the beds of the Guelph divis- 
ion. In the latter case it is itself fossiliferous, 
but when found alone it seems destitute of 
all traces of life. These sandstones in the 
limestone formations suggest in their pecu- 
liarities a common origin. They consist of 
unworn and nearly perfect crystals, in con- 
siderable part. 

The Salina group has appeared in all the 
recent sections of the rocks of the State, but 
in the light of facts obtained within the latest 
explorations, it can no longer be counted a 
distinct or recognizable element in the Ohio 

7. The Lower Helderberg or Water- 
lime Formation. 

The interval that exists between the Ni- 
agara and the Devonian limestones is occupied 
in Ohio by a very important formation. It 
is filled with a series of beds, which are in 
part, at least, the equivalents of the Water- 
Jime of New York. 

The name is unhappily chosen. Strictly 
applicable to only an insignificant fraction of 
the beds of this series in New York, we are 
still obliged to apply the designation Water- 
lime, with its misleading suggestions, to all 
deposits of the same age throughout the 

Though the last to be recognized of our 
several limestone formations, the Waterlime 
occupies a larger area in Ohio than any 
other, its principal developments being found 
in the drift-covered plains of the northwestern 
quarter of the State. It has also a much 
greater thickness than any other limestone, 
its full measure being at least 600 feet, or 
twice the greatest thickness of the Niagara 

It can be described as, in the main, a 
strong, compact, magnesian limestone, poor 
in fossils, and often altogether destitute of ■ 
them for considerable areas, microscopic 
forms being excepted. It is, for the most 
part, drab or brown in color ; but occasionally 
it becomes very light-colored, and again it is 
often dark blue. It is brecciated throughout 
much of its extent, the beds seeming to have 
been broken into sometimes small and some- 
times large angular fragments affer their 
hardening, and then to have been re-cemented 
without further disturbance. In addition to 
this, it contains an immense amount of true 
conglomerate, the pebbles, many of which 
are bowlders rather than pebbles, being all 
derived from the rocks of the same general 
age. The surface of many successive layers 



at numerous points are covered with sun- 
cracks, thus furnishing proof of having been 
formed in shallow water near the edge of the 
sea In such localities the beds are usually 
quite thin, and are also impure in composi- 
tion. In these respects it suggests the con- 
ditions of the Onondaga salt group of New 
York. These features are very characteristic 
ones. A rude concretion al structure is also 
quite distinctive of the beds of this age. The 
Waterlime in Ohio everywhere contains pe- 
troleum in small quantity, which is shown 
by the odor of freshly broken surfaces. No 
noteworthy accumulations of oil or gas have 
thus far been found within it. At some 
points it carries considerable asphalt, distrib- 
uted through the rock in shot-like grains, or 
in sheets and films. Thin streaks of car- 
bonaceous matter traversing the rock parallel 
to its bed-planes are one of the constant 
marks of the stratum in Ohio. It is gener- 
ally thin and even in its bedding ; but in 
some localities it contains massive beds. At 
some points it is remarkable for its evenness, 
and great value is given to the formation on 
this account, when combined with other qual- 
ities already named. It is frequently a nearly 
pure dolomite in composition, and accord- 
ingly it yields magnesian lime of high quality 
and is extensively burned in the State, rival- 
ing in this respect the Guelph beds of the 

In Southern Ohio it has a maximum thick- 
ness of 100 feet, and here it reaches its high- 
est quality in all respects ; but in Central and 
Northern Ohio it attains the great thickness " 
previously reported. There also it contains 
several distinct types of limestone rock. A 
considerable part of it is very tough, strong, 
dark-blue limestone, while other portions are 
white, porous, and soft. 

Its fossils are referable, in type at least, to 
the age of the Waterlime, as already stated. 
The most characteristic forms are the crusta- 
cean named Eurypterus, which was found by 
Newberry on the islands of Lake Erie, and 
which has not been reported elsewhere in the 
State ; and the bivalve crustacean Leperditia . 
There are points in the State, however, where 
the stratum contains a considerable fauna, 
and perhaps ground may be found for remov- 
ing some of the higher beds that are now in- 
cluded in it into a distinct division, viz., the 
Shaly limestone of the Lower Helderberg 
series. Greenfield, Highland county, and 
Lima may be named as localities near which 
especially fossiliferous phases of the Water- 
lime can be found. 

The Sylvania Sandstone. 

A remarkable series of deposits of ex- 
tremely pure glass sand has long been known 
in Lucas and Wood counties of Northern 
Ohio. ^ The best known beds are those of 
Sylvania and Monclova, northwest and south- 
west of Toledo. 

The Sylvania sandstone has been hitherto 
Teferred to the Oriskany period, but a careful 
study of the section in which it is included 
renders this reference inadmissible. Its 

position is about 150 feet below the Upper 
Helderberg limestone or somewhat above the 
middle line of the Lower Helderberg division. 

8. The Upper Helderberg Limestones. 

All of the limestone of Devonian age in 
Ohio has been generally referred to the Cor- 
niferous limestone of New York, but on some 
accounts the more comprehensive term used 
above is counted preferable. A two-fold di- 
vision of the series is possible and proper 
in Ohio, the division being based on both 
lithology and fossils. The divisions are known 
as the lower and upper, respectively, or as the 
Columbus and Delaware limestones. The 
upper division is sometimes called the San- 
dusky limestone. The maximum thickness 
of the entire series in Ohio is seventy-five to 
one hundred feet. 

In chemical composition, the Corniferous 
limestone is easily distinguishable from all that 
underlie it. It is never a true dolomite in 
composition, as the Waterlime and Niagara 
limestones almost always are. The composi- 
tion of the typical, heavy-bedded lower Cor- 
niferous may be taken as seventy per cent, 
carbonate of lime and twenty-five per cent, 
carbonate of magnesia. The higher beds of 
the Columbus stone regularly yield ninety-one 
to ninety-five per cent, carbonate of lime. 
The upper division, or the Delaware stone, is 
much less pure in Central Ohio than the lower, 
a notable percentage of iron and alumina, as 
well as silica, generally being contained in it. 
It is, therefore, seldom or never burned into 
lime. In Northern Ohio, on the contrary, it 
is often found very strong and pure lime- 

Both divisions, but particularly the lower 
one, carry occasional courses of chert, that 
detract from the value of the beds in which 
they occur. The chert is found in nodules 
which are easily detached from the limestone 
for the most part. In some conditions in 
which the chert occurs, fossils are found in it 
in a remarkably good state of preservation. 

Throughout the entire formation Devonian 
fossils abound in great variety and in great 
numbers. They are often found in an excel- 
lent state of preservation. The oldest verte- 
brate remains of the Ohio rocks are found in 
the Corniferous limestone, a fact which gives 
especial interest to it. The uppermost bed 
of the lower or Columbus division is, in many 
places, a genuine t4 bone bed ; " the teeth and 
plates and spines of ancient fishes^ largely of 
the nearly extinct family of ganoids, consti- 
tuting a considerable portion of the substance 
of the rock. Corals of various types are also 
especially abundant and interesting in this 
limestone. In fact, the formation is the most 
prolific in life of any in the Ohio scale. 

With this formation the great limestones 
of Ohio were completed. While they are 
built into the foundations of almost the entire 
State, they constitute the surface rocks only 
in its western half. The Upper Silurian and 
Devonian limestones of our scale, which were 
formerly known as the Cliff limestone, have 
an aggregate thickness of 750 to 1,150 feet 



where found under cover, and though differ- 
ences exist among them by which, as has 
already been shown, they can be divided into 
four or more main divisions, there is still no 
reason to believe that any marked change 
occurred in the character of the seas during 
the protracted periods in which they were 
growing. The life which these seas contained 
was slowly changing from age to age, so that 
we can recognize three or more distinct faunas 
or assemblages of animal life in them. Dif- 
ferences are also indicated in the several strata 
as to the depth of the water in which they 
were formed, and as to the conditions under 
which the sedimentary matter that enters into 
them was supplied, but no marked physical 
break occurs in the long history. No part 
of the entire series indicates more genial con- 
ditions of growth than those which the De- 
vonian limestone, the latest in order of them 
all, shows. It is the purest limestone of 
Ohio. Foot after foot of the formation con- 
sists almost exclusively of the beautifully pre- 
served fragments of the life of these ancient 
seas. In particular the corals and crinoids 
that make a large element in many of its beds 
could only have grown in shallow but clear 
water of tropical warmth. 

The change from the calcareous beds of this 
age to the next succeeding formation is very 
abrupt and well marked, as much so, indeed, 
as any change in the Ohio scale. 

10. The Ohio Shale. 

(Cleveland Shale, Erie Shale, Huron Shale.) 

A stratum of shale, several hundred feet 
in thickness, mainly black or- dark-brown in 
color, containing, especially in its lower por- 
tions, a great number of large and remarkably 
symmetrical calcareous and ferruginous con- 
cretions, and stretching entirely across the 
State from the Ohio valley to the shores of 
Lake Erie, with an outcrop ranging in breadth 
between ten and twenty miles, has been one 
of the most conspicuous and well-known 
features of Ohio geology since this subject 
first began to be studied. It separates the 
great limestone series already described, which 
constitutes the floor of all of Western Ohio, 
from the Berea grit, which is the first sand- 
stone to be reached in ascending the geologi- 
cal scale of the State. 

This great series of shales was formerly 
divided into three divisions, as indicated 
above, but a larger knowledge of the system 
makes it apparent that no definite boundaries 
can be drawn through the formation at large. 
The lower part is chiefly black, the middle 
contains many light colored bands and the 
upper beds again are often dark, but the sec- 
tions obtained from top to bottom in the 
drilling of deep wells at various points in the 
State show alternations of dark and light 
colored bands not once but scores of times. 
The three-fold division formerly made is not 
only unsupported, but is misleading and ob- 
jectionable. The terms are used to cover 
different phases of one and the same forma- 

The mineral basis of all these shales, 
whether black, brown, blue, gray or red, is 
essentially one and the same thing, viz., a 
fine-grained clay, derived from the waste of 
distant land. As supplied to the sea basin it 
was originally blue or gray, but a small per- 
centage of peroxide of iron goes a great way 
in coloring such deposits red, and in like 
manner, organic matter in comparatively 
small amount gives them a dark or black 
color. The organic matter that colors these 
shales was probably derived in large part, as 
Newberry has suggested, from the products 
of growth and decay of sea- weeds by which 
these seas were covered, like the Sargasso 
seas of our own day. 

These organic matters seem to have ac- 
cumulated along the shores and in shallow 
water in greater quantity than in the deeper 
seas. Hence, if the section of these shale 
deposits is taken near the old shore-lines, or 
where shallow water occurred, a larger pro- 
portion is black than if the more central 
areas are examined. The only land of Ohio 
at this time was to be found in and along the 
Cincinnati axis, a low fold that had entered 
the State from the southward at the close of 
Lower Silurian time, and that had been 
slowly extending itself northwards through 
the succeeding ages. Southwestern Ohio was 
already above water, a low island in the 
ancient gulf. But the shales on their western 
outcrop, where they are largely black, are ex- 
actly equivalent in age to the alternating beds 
of black and blue shale, the latter bein^ in 
large excess, that were forming at this time 
in the central parts of the basin, viz., in 
Eastern Ohio. The color of the shales is, in 
this view, an accident, and cannot be safely 
used as a ground of division. The entire 
shale formation that we are considering seems 
to have beenlaid down without physical break 
or interruption. It must have required an 
immensely long period for its accumulation. 
This is shown not only by the fineness and 
uniformity of the materials which compose it, 
and which could not have been rapidly sup- 
plied, and by the great thickness of the for- 
mation in Eastern Ohio, but also by the geo- 
logical equivalents of the shale in the general 
column which furnish even more convincing 
proof as to its long continued growth. _ The 
Ohio shale, as Newberry has shown, is cer- 
tainly the equivalent in the general scale of 
the Genesee slate, the Portage group and the 
Chemung group, the last named being itself 
a formation of great thickness and extent. 
In other words, the shales of our column 
bridge the interval between the Hamilton 
proper and the Catskill group, and in the 
judgment of some geologists, a wider interval 
even than that named above. As Newberry 
was the first to show, the oil sands of Penn- 
sylvania are banks of pebble rock that are 
buried in the eastern extension of the Ohio 
shale, but which make no sign within our 
own limits. 

The shales are, for the most part, poor in 
fossils, except in those of microscopic size, 
but among the few that they contain are the 



most striking and remarkable not only of the 
scale of Ohio, but of all Devonian time as 
well. Reference is here made to the great 
fishes which have been described by Newberry 
and which constitute so interesting a chapter 
of geological history. Some of them belong 
to the basal beds of the shale formation, and 
others near the summit. The first were found 
at the centres of the great concretions already 
named as characteristic of the formation. 
These fossils are interesting both on account 
of their enormous size and of their peculiar 
combination of points of structure that are 
widely separated now. 

Brief mention must be made of the vege- 
table fossils of the shales. 

Fossil wood, derived from ancient pine trees 
of the genus Dadoxylon, is quite common in 
the lower beds (Huron). The wood is silici- 
fied and the original structure is admirably 
preserved. This wood is sometimes found, 
like the fish remains already noted, at the 
i hearts of the concretions, but occasionally 
large sized blocks are found free in the shale. 
On account of its enduring nature it is often 
found in those beds of glacial drift that have 
been derived largely from the destruction of 
the shales. 

, Strap-shaped leaves, presumably of sea- 
weeds, are occasionally found upon the sur- 
faces of the shale layers. Sometimes they 
form thin layers of bright coal which deceive 
the ignorant. Fossil rushes, of the genus 
Calamites, are also occasionally met with. 

But the forms already named are of small 
account, so far as quantity is concerned, when 
compared with certain microscopic fossils that 
.are, with little doubt, of vegetable origin, 
and which are accumulated in large amount 
throughout the black beds of the entire shale 
formation, composing, sometimes, a notable 
percentage of the substance of the rock, and 
apparently giving origin, to an important ex- 
tent, to the bituminous character of the 

The leading forms of these microscopic 
fossils are translucent, resinous discs, ranging 
in long diameter from one -thirtieth to one- 
two-hundredth of an inch. Several varieties 
have already been noted, depending on the 
size, particular shape and surface markings 
of these bodies. The facts pertaining to them 
have of late been more widely published, and 
the attention of geologists in various parts of 
the world has been called to these and similar 
forms, and thus there is the promise of a 
Speedy enlargement of our knowledge in re- 
gard to them. Sir William Dawson now con- 
siders the common forms to be themacrospores 
of rhizocarps allied to Salvinia of the present 
day. The sporocarps containing these ma- 
crospores in place have recently been dis- 
covered. This identification would refer these 
bodies to floating vegetation on the surface 
of the seas in which the shales were formed, 
and is thus directly in line with the sagacious 
interpretation of Newberry, who many years 
,ago attributed the origin of these black shales 
to Sargasso seas. 

This shale is the undoubted source of most 

of the natural gas and petroleum of North- 
eastern Ohio. It is the probable source, under 
cover, of a considerable part of these highly 
valued substances in Western Pennsylvania. 
It gives rise to "surface indications "of gas 
and oil throughout the whole extent of its 
outcrops and thus very often misleads ex- 
plorers, since the indications do not stand in 
any case for large accumulations of either 
substance. The most that is to be expected 
of gas-wells m this formation is a domestic 
supply. A single well will furnish gas enough 
for the heat and light of one or more families 
and often the supply will be maintained for 
many years. In- the parts of the State where 
the shales make the surface rocks, it will no 
doubt be found possible to secure from them 
valuable additions to our stores of light and 
heat for a long while to come. A farm in 
such territory will come to be valued on this 
account in something of the same way that it 
would be if it carried a seam of coal. 

11. The Waverly Group. 
The important mass of sediments of Sub- 
carboniferous age, which is known in Ohio 
and in some adjoining States as the Waverly 
group, comes next in the column. The name 
Waverly was given to these strata by the 
geologists of the first survey, from the fact 
that at Waverly, in the Scioto valley, excellent 
sandstone quarries were opened in them, the 
products of which were quite widely distrib- 
uted throughout Central and Southern Ohio, 
as far back as fifty years ago. Associated 
with the sandstone at this locality, and every- 
where throughout the district, were several 
other strata that were always counted as 
members of the group by the geologists who 
gave the name. In fact, the boundaries were 
made definite and easily applicable. The 
Waverly group extended, by its definition 
and by unbroken usage in our early geology, 
from the top of the great black shale (Cleve- 
land shale), to the Coal Measure conglom- 
erate. This latter element was, in a part of 
the field, confused with the Waverly con- 
glomerate, afterwards recognized and defined 
by Andrews, until a recent date, it is true, 
but the intent of the geologists is apparent, 
and many of their sections were complete and 
accurate. If the term Waverly is to be re- 
tained in our classification, and it bids fair to 
be, every interest will be served by recogniz- 
ing and retaining the original boundaries. 

11a. The Bedford Shale. 
This stratum, which makes the base of the 
Waverly series, consists of forty to sixty feet, 
in the main composed of red or blue shales, 
but which sometimes contain fine-grained 
sandstone courses. The latter are in places 
valuable. They are represented by the Inde- 
pendence bluestone of Northern Ohio. The 
shales are mainly destitute of fossils, aside 
from the burrows of sea worms which are 
found on the surfaces of most of the layers 
and often with great sharpness of outline. 
All the layers are likely to be ripple-marked, 
the sculpturings of this sort being very sym- 



metrical and continuous for layer after layer 
through many feet of the formation. 

Mb. The Berea Grit. 

We have reached in our review the Berea 
grit, the second element of the Waverly series, 
and not only the most important member of 
the series, but by far the most important 
single stratum in the entire geological column 
of Ohio. Its economic value above ground 
is great, but it is greater below. In its out- 
crops it is a source of the finest building stone 
and the best grindstone grit of the country, 
and when it dips beneath the surface it be- 
comes the repository of invaluable supplies 
of petroleum, gas, and salt-water. Its per- 
sistence as a stratum is phenomenal. Seldom 
reaching a thickness of fifty feet, its proved 
area in Ohio, above ground and below, is 
scarcely less than 15,000 square miles, and 
beyond the boundaries of Ohio it extends 
with continuity and strength unbroken into 
at least four other adjacent States. As a 
guide to the interpretation of our series, and 
especially as a guide in our subterranean 
geology, it is invaluable. 

The stratum was named by Newberry from 
the village of Berea, Cuyahoga county, where 
the largest and most important quarries of 
the formation are located. The name is the 
most appropriate that could have been se- 
lected for this stratum, and inasmuch as it 
has priority in all fields, it ought to be made 
to supersede all others. 

The Berea grit, as seen in outcrop, is a 
sandstone of medium grain in Northern Ohio, 
and of fine grain from the centre of the State 
southward. In Northern Ohio it contains 
one pebbly horizon over a considerable area, 
but the seam is thin and the pebbles are 
small. The stratum is sometimes false- 
bedded and sometimes remarkably even in 
its bedding-planes. Its main beds, or sheets, 
have a maximum thickness of six feet, but 
this is an unusual measure and is seldom 
reached. It ranges in thickness from 5 to 
170 feet, and it very rarely fails altogether 
from the sections in which it is due. 

Like the Bedford shale below it, it stands 
for an old shore-line, many of its surfaces 
being ripple-marked, and worm-burrows 
abounding in its substance. 

It is poor in fossils, but not entirely desti- 
tute of them. It grows finer grained and 
more impure as it is followed southward. In 
Southern Ohio it is known as the Waverly 

The Berea grit is the lowest or main oil- 
sand of the Mackburg field. It is also the 
gas-rock of Wellsburg, and that part of the 
Ohio valley, and is without doubt one of the 
main oil- and gas-rocks of Western Pennsyl- 

lie. The Berea Shale. 

A bed of dark or black shale, fifteen to 
fifty feet thick, makes the constant and im- 
mediate cover of the Berea grit throughout 
its entire extent inOhio. The shale is highly 
fossiliferous, and is rich in bituminous mat- 

ter, the amount sometimes reaching twenty 
per cent. It is a source of petroleum ona 
small scale, as is shown by the fact that in 
Southern Ohio an important ledge of sand- 
stone that belongs just above it is often found 
saturated with a tar-like oil derived from this 
source. It was first recognized by Andrews, 
who described it under the name of the Wa- 
verly black shale. It constitutes an invalu- 
able guide in our subterranean geology. 

lie?. The Cuyahoga Shale. 

This formation consists of light-colored, 
argillaceous shales, which are often replaced 
with single courses of fine-grained sandstone, 
blue in color, and in Southern Ohio weather- 
ing to a brownish-yellow. As a constant 
characteristic, there are found through the 
shales flattened nodules of impure iron ore, 
concretionary in origin, and often having 
white calcareous centres. 

In thickness it ranges from 150 to 400 feet. 
It is one of the most homogeneous and per- 
sistent formations in the column of the State 
throughout most of its extent. Everywhere 
through the State there is found at or near 
the base of this division a number of courses 
of fine-grained stone. These courses are 
sometimes separated from each other by beds 
of shale, or they may be compacted into a 
single stratum. The individual courses also 
vary greatly in thickness, and in color and 
general characters. Throughout Southern 
Ohio, and particularly in Boss, Pike, and 
Scioto counties, the stratum yields freestone. 
It is best known from its outcrops on the 
Ohio river at Buena Vista, where it has long 
been ve^ extensively worked for Cincinnati 
and other river markets. The Buena Vista 
stone, at its best, is one of the finest building 
stones of the country. The same horizon 
yields excellent stone near Portsmouth, Lucas- 
ville, and Waverly. It is known as the 
Waverly brown stone at the latter point. 

Northward, through the State, stone of 
more or less value is found in the bottom 
courses of the Cuyahoga, but in Trumbull 
county, near Warren, the horizon acquires 
extreme importance as the source of the finest 
natural flagging that is found in our markets. 

It would have been well if the thirty or 
forty feet containing these courses had been 
cut off from the Cuyahoga shale, in which 
case the division thus formed would have 
been appropriately named the Buena Vista 

We. The Logan Group. 

(The Olive Shales of Read. The Logan Sandstone 
of Andrews. The Waverly Conglomerate of 

The divisions of the Waverly series in 
Northern Ohio happened to be made at a 
point where the section is abnormal and in- 
complete. By atrophy or by overlap, the 
upper member of the series is wanting in the 
Cuyahoga valley, or is at least very inade- 
quately represented there. The missing mem- 
ber is, in volume, second only to the Cuyahoga 
shale, among the divisions of the Waverly. 



It is much richer in the fossils of the Subcar- 
boniferous than any of the other members. 
In composition it is varied and striking, one 
of its elements being a massive conglomerate 
not less than 200 feet in its largest sections, 
which extends in unbroken outcrop through 
at least a dozen counties of Ohio. No good 
reason can be found for dividing the Waverly 
series at all if a member like this is to be left 
without a name, or is to be merged with an 
unlike and incongruous division from which 
it is as sharply differentiated as any one 
stratum of Ohio is from any other. 

The real, though not the formal, separation 
of this group from the underlying shale is 
due to the late Prof. E. B. Andrews, and 
constitutes one of his most important con- 
tributions to our knowledge of Ohio geology. 
He was the first to show that the great con- 
glomerate of Hocking, Fairfield, and Licking 
counties is Subcarboniferous in age, and he 
further called attention to a highly fossilifer- 
ous, fine-grained sandstone overlying the con- 
glomerate, to which he gave the name of 
Logan sandstone, from its occurrence at 
Logan, Hocking county. Up to this time this 
conglomerate had been universally counted 
as the Coal Measure conglomerate. Read 
made known the existence of a heavy body 
of shale, which he called Olive shales, over- 
lying the conglomerate, and replacing the 
Logan sandstone in Knox, Holmes, and 
Richland counties. 

As both conglomerate and sandstone have 
their typical outcrops at Logan, no better 
name can be found for the formation which 
must include conglomerate, sandstone, and 
shale, than that here adopted, viz., Logan 

The maximum thickness of the Logan 
group is not less than 400 feet. Its average 
thickness is perhaps 200 feet. 

A typical or representative section of this 
group is scarcely possible, but the most char- 
acteristic and persistent part of the series is 
the conglomerate that is found at the bottom. 
At all events, coarse rock, if not always tech- 
nically conglomerate, is generally found here. 
Pebbles do not make a conspicuous part of 
the rock when it takes a conglomeritic phase 
in all cases. The most characteristic feature 
of the pebbles is their small and uniform 
size. The larger pebbles are generally flat. 

Its best developments are in Hocking, Fair- 
field, Ross, Vinton, Licking, Knox, and 
Wayne counties, which constitute the north- 
western arc of the sea-boundary of Ohio in 
Subcarboniferous time. South of Ross county 
it loses most of its pebbles, and south of the 
Ohio it becomes the knobstone of Kentucky. 
In Northeastern Ohio the Logan group is also 
destitute of pebbles, and perhaps the con- 
glomerate element proper does not appear 
here at all. 

Diverse as these elements are, they are 
blended and interlocked in the Logan group, 
leaving it in stratigraphy and fossils a well- 
defined and easily followed series throughout 
all parts of the territory in which it is due, 
except in possibly a small area in Northern 

Ohio, as ahead}' noted, and even here there 
is no difficulty in recognizing the presence of 
this series. The several elements are, how- 
ever, of smaller volume than elsewhere. 

Under cover, throughout Southeastern 
Ohio, the series is in the highest degree per- 
sistent and regular ; much more uniform, in- 
deed, than in its outcrops. It consists of 200 
feet or more of prevailingly coarse rock, 
almost everywhere pebbly in spots, but inter- 
rupted with sheets of shale, yellowish and 
reddish colors being the characteristic ones. 
It has considerable interest in connection with 
gas, oil, and salt-water in Ohio, being the 
reservoir of the brines of the Hocking and 
Muskingum valleys, and furnishing in the 
latter large supplies of gas in the early days 
of salt manufacture in the State. 

12. The Subcarboniferous Limestone. 

This element is of comparatively small ac- 
count as a surface formation in Ohio, but it 
gathers strength to the southeastward of its 
outcrops, and is shown in many well records 
as a stratum fifty or more feet in thickness. 
It was recognized as a member of our geo- 
logical column by the geologists of the first 
survey, but Andrews was the first to assign 
it to its proper place and to show its true 
equivalence. He named It the Maxville 
limestone, from a locality in southwestern 
Perry county. 

The limestone, in its best development, is 
a fairly pure, very fine-grained, sparingly 
fossiliferous rock. It breaks with a con- 
choidal fracture. In fineness and homogeneity 
of grain it approaches lithographic stone, and 
has been tested ^ in the small way for this 
special use. It is seldom even and regular 
in its bedding. Its color is light-drab or 
brown, and often it is a beautiful building 
stone, though somewhat expensive to work. 
The fire-clay found at this horizon in Southern 
Ohio is one of the most valuable deposits of 
this sort in our entire scale. The limestone 
is found in outcrop in Scioto, Jackson, Hock- 
ing, Perry, and Muskingum counties. It is 
reported in the well records of Steubenville, 
Brilliant, Macksburg, and at several other 
points in the Ohio valley. 

13-17. The Conglomerate and the 
Coal Measures. 

These two divisions can be properly consid- 
ered under one head, inasmuch as they have 
common sources of value. Their aggregate 
thickness is not less than 1,500 feet, and they 
cover more than 10,000 miles of the surface 
of Ohio. The beds of coal, iron ore, fire- 
clay, limestone, and cement rock that they 
contain render insignificant the contributions 
made by all other formations to the mineral 
wealth of the State. In the combined sec- 
tion of the conglomerate and lower coal 
measures, which contains from 500 to 800 
feet of strata, the following named coal seams 
are found : 

Upper Freeport, 
Lower Freeport, 



Upper (Middle) Kittanning, 

Lower Kittanning, 

Upper Clarion, 

Lower Clarion, 

Upper Mercer, 

Lower Mercer, 



A few sporadic seams are omitted from the 

All of these seams belong to the bituminous 
division. Thus far they are chiefly worked 
in level- free mines and very little coal is taken 
from seams less than three feet in thickness. 
The average thickness in the important fields 
is five feet and the maximum (a small area 
of a single district) is thirteen feet. All of 
the seams enumerated are worked, but they 
have very unequal values. The Middle 
Kittanning seam is by far the first. It is 
known as the Nelsonville coal, the Hocking 
Valley coal, the Sheridan coal, the Coshocton 
coal, the Osnaburg coal, etc. The Upper 
Freeport seam ranks next in value. It is 
mined at Salineville, Dell Roy, Cambridge 
and in the Sunday Creek and Monday Creek 
valleys on a large scale. 

In proportion to its area the Sharon coal is 
the most valuable of the entire series. It is 
the standard for comparison of all the open- 
burning coals of the Allegheny coal-field. 
Both this seam and the Middle Kittanning 
seam are used in the raw state for the manu- 
facture of iron, a fact which sufficiently 
attests their purity and general excellence. 

In the remaining divisions of the coal 
measures there are ten or more seams that 
are sometimes of workable thickness, but 
with one notable exception they are less 
steady and reliable than those of the lower 
measures. The exception is the Pittsburg 
coal, which is, all things considered, the most 
important seam of the entire coal-field to which 
it belongs. It is especially valued for the 
manufacture of gas and the production of 
steam. Its northern outcrop passes through 
nine counties with an approximate length of 
175 miles, the sinuosities not being counted. 
The area commonly assigned to it in Ohio 
exceeds 3,000 square miles, but the seam has 
been proved for only a small part of the area 
claimed. Ohio is deficient in coking coals 
of the highest quality. Its best coals are 

Ohio ranks second in the production of 
bituminous coal in the United States at the 
present time, being inferior to Pennsylvania 
alone in this respect. The output for 1887 is 
given by the State mine inspector as 1 0, 301 , 708 
tons of 2,000 pounds. 

The coal measures of Ohio are important 
sources of iron ore and fire-clay as well as of 
coal, as is true of coal measures generally. 

Iron ore is mined in the Ohio coal-fields at 
a dozen or more horizons, but there are three 
or four that monopolize most of the interest 
and importance. The ferriferous limestone 
ore of the Hanging Rock district is a thin 
but valuable seam. The iron manufactured 

from it has unusual strength and excellence 
and is applied to the highest uses, such as 
the manufacture of car-wheels and machine- 
castings. The ore seam does not average 
more than twelve inches in thickness. The 
thickest beds of ore in the State are the 
blackband deposits of Tuscarawas, Stark and 
Carroll counties. A maximum of twenty 
feet is here attained. Blackband of good 
quality and in large amounts is also found in 
a number of other counties. The block ores 
of the Mercer horizon rank next in value 
among the sources of iron in the State. The 
total amount mined annually exceeds 500,000 

In iron and steel manufacture and working 
Ohio ranks second only to Pennsylvania, the 
value of the annual production being counted 

The clays of the coal measures are the 
basis of a large and rapidly growing manu- 
facture of fire-brick, stoneware, earthenware, 
sewer pipes, fire-proofing, paving blocks and 
paving brick. In all these manufactures 
Ohio stands far in advance of any other 

The salt manufacture of the State has been 
large, but is now a depressed and decaying 
industry. The annual yield is now less than 
500,000 barrels. In connection with its salt 
production Ohio furnishes a notable percent- 
age of all the bromine made in the world. 
The figures have been as high as 50 per cent. 
The brine of the Tuscarawas valley is richer 
in bromine than any other known in the 
world. It yields about three-fourths of a 
pound of bromine to every barrel of salt. 

In the total value of its quarry products 
Ohio ranks easily first among the States of 
the Union. The census of 1880 credits the 
State with an annual value of more than 
$2,500,000 in this division. The output of 
Ohio quarries is rapidly increasing. Its sand- 
stones, especially the products of the great 
stratum already described as the Berea Grit, 
hold the first place among the building stones 
of this class in the country at large. In 
durability, strength, attractive colors and in 
general adaptation to architectural effects 
they leave little to be desired. Red sand- 
stones, both dark and light, that are suscepti- 
ble of excellent use in the ornamental way, 
are also abundant in the Subcarboniferous 
deposits of our scale. The grindstone grits 
of the State, taken from the several horizons 
already named, furnish by far the largest 
contribution to this important use that is 
made by any single State. 

The petroleum and gas that our rocks con- 
tain and upon which such extreme value is 
coming to be placed will be discussed at better 
advantage on a subsequent page. 

18. The Glacial Drift. 
Over the various bedded rocks of at least 
two-thirds of Ohio are spread in varying 
thickness the deposits of the drift, the most 
characteristic and important of which is the 
bowlder clay. This frequently contains in 
its lower portions large accumulations of 

7 6 


vegetable matter, the remains of coniferous 
forests that occupied the country before the 
advent of the drift, or at some interglacial 
stage of its duration. Peat bogs are some- 
times found buried in like manner in or under 
the bowlder clay. The deposits of latest 
age in this great series consist of stratified 
clays, sands and gravels. The maximum 
thickness of drift beds that has thus far been 
found in the State is 530 feet. This meas- 
urement was obtained from Saint Paris, 
Champaign county." Depths of 300 and 400 
feet are no longer unusual. The average 
thickness of these accumulations in North- 
western Ohio exceeds 100 feet. They exer- 
cise a controlling influence upon the relief, 
drainage, soils and water supply of the regions 
which they occupy. They have filled the 
valleys of earlier drainage systems and in 
many cases have obliterated all traces of 
their existence, thus restoring to large por- 
tions of the State the uniformly level sur- 
face which prevailed in them when they 
were first elevated above the waters of the 

The bowlder clay or till is filled with 
bowlders of northern origin, derived from 
the highlands of Canada and intervening dis- 
tricts. Some of them contain 2,000 cubic 
feet above ground. They can in many cases 
be referred to particular localities and some- 
times to particular ledges from a score of 
miles to 400 miles distant. 

The stratified drift contains vast accumula- 
tions of sand, gravel and clay, all of great 
economic value. Brick clays of good quality 
are everywhere accessible. These stratified 
beds constitute a natural filter for surface 
water to a great extent. The rainfall de- 
scends slowly through them until the im- 
pervious bowlder clay is reached. The depth 
of the surface of this last named deposit, in 
large areas of the State, determines the 
depth of the ordinary wells of these areas. 
Sometimes, however, a water supply is de- 
rived from seams of sand and gravel within 
the bowlder clay or immediately below it. 
Such a supply is to quite an extent protected 
from surface impurities. 

The terminal moraine that marks the 
boundary of the glacial deposits is fairly dis- 
tinct throughout the State. Soils and vegeta- 
tion unite to emphasize it, as well as special 
accumulations. It passes through the coun- 
ties of Columbiana, Stark, Wayne, Rich- 
land, Holmes, Licking, Fairfield, Ross, 
Highland, Adams and Brown, crossing the 
Ohio river into Kentucky from the latter 
county but returning to the north side of the 
river again in Southeastern Indiana. As a 
result of this temporary obstruction of this 
great water way it has been pointed out that 
the waters of the Ohio must have been 
dammed back so as to form a large lake, in- 
cluding the valley proper and its tributaries 
as far at least as Pittsburg. The barrier 
appears to have given way in such a manner 
as to reduce once and again the level of the 
intercepted waters abruptly. Such a mode 
of retreat, at least, would explain the succes- 

sive terraces that border the main streams at 
the present time. 

II. Geological Structure. 

The geological scale of the State has now 
been briefly treated. An equally brief 
account must be added of its structure. By 
this term is meant the present arrangement 
or disposition of the strata as effected by all 
the movements of the earth's crust in which 
they have had a part, and by which they may 
have been bent into arches or troughs or left 
in terrace-like monoclines. 

The geological structure of Ohio is as 
simple as that of almost any other 40,000 
square miles of the earth's surface. All of 
its strata except a small portion of the coal 
measures were deposited in the waters of an 
ancient arm of the sea, of which the present 
Gulf of Mexico is the dwarfed and diminished 
remnant and representative. Its most fossil- 
iferous limestones, as the Corniferous, for ex- 
ample, stand for clear waters of tropical 
warmth. Its conglomerates and sandstones 
required strong currents for their transporta- 
tion from distant shores. Its shales must 
have been deposited in seas of at least moder- 
ate depth, large areas of which, as well as all 
of the shores, were covered with sargasso-like 
masses of sea- weed. 

These strata seem to have been deposited 
on a fairly regular and level floor, and they 
have never been subjected to very great dis- 
turbance ; that is, they have nowhere been 
raised into mountains nor depressed into 
deep valleys, but still they have been warped 
and distorted to some extent in the course 
of their long history. 

The Cincinnati Anticlinal. 

As soon as the geology of the Mississippi 
valley began to be studied, it became appa- 
rent that there had been in early time an ex- 
tensive uplift of the older rocks in the central 
parts of Tennessee and Kentucky and in 
Southwestern Ohio, which had exerted a 
profound influence on all the subsequent 
growth of the regions traversed by and 
adjacent thereto. This uplift has received 
several designations, but the name given to 
it by Newberry, viz. , the Cincinnati anticlinal, 
will here be adopted, inasmuch as this geolo- 
gist has furnished by far the most careful 
and connected account that has yet been 
given of it. 

It is to be recognized, however, that this 
structural feature has in it little or nothing 
of the character of an anticlinal or arch, as 
these terms are commonly understood. There 
is no roof- shaped arrangement of the strata 
whatever, but they are spread out in a nearly 
level tract, 100 miles or more in breadth. 
The slopes within the tract are very light, 
and are quite uniform in direction, and the 
boundaries of the tract are well defined, as a 

The Trenton limestone, as has already 
been shown, makes the floor of Western 
Ohio. By means of the deep drilling that 
is now in progress throughout this part of 



the State we have obtained soundings to this 
limestone floor so extensive that we are 
already able to restore approximately its 

This underground disposition of the Tren- 
ton limestone becomes very significant in 
connection with the Cincinnati uplift. In 
fact, it is the Cincinnati uplift ; # and the 
study of the facts pertaining to it will be 
found to throw more light on this earliest 
and most important structural feature of the 
State than can be obtained from any and 
from all other sources. The results are 
altogether unexpected. 

It appears that in Lower Silurian time a 
low fold, extending in a general northeast 
direction, entered Ohio from the southward 
and continued its advance across the State 
during immense periods of time. It has 
heretofore been believed that the fold as it 
extended across the State held its original 
northeasterly direction, but it now becomes 
evident that in its earlier stages in Ohio it 
advanced to the northwest instead, extending 
into Northern Central Indiana, so far as its 
main body was concerned. From this point 
an off-shoot of smaller area was directed into 
Ohio, the boundaries of which are found to 
be very irregular, and in connection with 
which some surprising facts in Ohio geology 
have come to light. With these same facts 
extraordinary economic interest has been 
found to be associated. 

The easterly or southeasterly dip of the 
rocks that begins at the margin of the tract, 
now described as the Cincinnati axis, con- 
tinues through the subsequent history of the 
State, and constitutes the most important 
physical feature of its geology. All of the 
Subearboniferous and Coal Measure strata, in 
particular, are affected by it. The southerly 
element of it gradually increases as we pass 
to Northeastern Ohio, and it is probable .that 
the dip becomes due south at some points in 
this portion of the State. Beyond the limits 
of Ohio, in Pennsylvania and West Virginia, 
the corresponding strata descend sharply 
toward the westward. These facts considered 
together mark out the limits of the arm of 
the sea in which; and around which, the 
northern extension of the Appalachian coal- 
field was built up, the Cincinnati axis form- 
ing its western boundary. These uniform 
and continuous southeasterly dips can be ex- 
plained by the steady growth of the land to 
the westward, after the fashion already de- 
scribed. The dip is at right angles to the 
constantly advancing border of the sea. It 
seldom exceeds thirty feet to the mile, or but 
little more than half of one degree, in the 
large way, but it is alternately sharpened and 
reduced, so that for short distances a much 
greater fall, or much less, may be found. 

The facts of our present topography seem 
to point to an original equality of elevation 
of those portions of the State that were suc- 
cessively brought under this uplifting force. 
The western outliers of all of the formations 
are, at the present time at least, at approxi- 
mately the same elevation above the sea. 

The statements already made as to the ex- 
ceeding regularity of the geological structure 
of Ohio need no qualification, but this regu- 
larity of the State, as a whole, is not incon- 
sistent with the existence of a few minor 
folds and arches, distributed especially 
through the eastern half of our territory. 

In the southeastern quarter are a few anti- 
clinal arches, all of which, however, are very 
gentle and low, and none of which can be 
traced for many miles in the direction in 
which they extend. They involve all of the 
strata that belong in the district in which 
they are found. A modification of the arch 
resulting in a terrace-like arrangement of the 
strata is one of the most important phases 
of the structure in this portion of the State. 
Among the arches, all of which are very 
feeble, the Fredeficktown and Cadiz arches, 
which are probably one and the same, may be 
named, and also the Cambridge anticline. 
The Macksburg oil field affords an excellent- 
example of the terrace structure. 

To sum up the statements now made, we 
know but comparatively few arches in Ohio, 
and these few are moderate in slope and 
small in height. Fuller knowledge of our 
geology will doubtless give us a larger number 
of these low folds, but there is little proba- 
bility that any sharp and well-defined an ti- 
clinals have altogether escaped notice. Those 
that remain to be discovered will agree with 
those already known, in breaking up the 
monotony of our series by the suspension or 
occasional reversal of the prevailing dip and 
in requiring close and accurate measurements 
for their detection. 

By untrained observers, the water-sheds of 
our drainage channels are often mistaken for 
anticlinals. If anticlinals traverse the series 
where these identifications are made, they 
may well serve to divide the drainage systems 
from each other, but such ' w divides ' ' do hot 
by any means require these structural acci- 
dents as the conditions on which they depend. 
Anticlinals must be demonstrated, not in- 

There are but few districts known in Ohio 
in which disturbances are to be found that 
fairly deserve the name of faults. In the 
northeast corner of Adams county, and in 
adjacent territory, there are a number of 
square miles throughout which the strata 
are really dislocated. The Berea grit is found 
in contact with the Niagara shale in some in- 
stances. The throw of such faults must be at 
least 400 feet. Faults of this character in 
Ohio geology are as unusual and unexpected 
as trap dykes in Northern Kentucky, the lat- 
ter of which have been recently reported by 

III. Petroleum and Natural 
These subjects, and especially the latter, 
have recently acquired such widespread in- 
terest and importance in the country that a 
separate section will here be given to their 

The introduction of natural gas on the 



large scale is of comparatively recent date. 
It was begun in Pittsburg and in the region 
around it a dozen years since, but it is only 
within the last six years that it has made 
a deep impression upon the country at large. 

The cheapness of the new fuel, the economy 
resulting from several different factors in its 
use, the improvement of product in a number 
of lines of manufacture, all combine to give a 
decided advantage to the centres that have 
been fortunate enough to secure it, and to 
make competition seem almost hopeless to 
the towns that are without it. 

In consequence, an earnest and eager search 
for natural gas has been begun throughout 
entire States, and vast amounts of money have 
been used in carrying forward these explora- 
tions. Next to Western Pennsylvania North- 
western Ohio has scored the most signal suc- 
cess and, following the experience of Ohio, 
Eastern Indiana has also found one of the 
most valuable fields of the country. 

The production of petroleum and gas in 
Ohio will be briefly described in this section, 
but, preceding this description, a few state- 
ments will be made as to the theories of 
origin and accumulation of these substances 
which seem best supported. 

Origin of Petroleum and Gas. 

It is not necessary to consider the origin 
of natural gas and petroleum separately. 
They have a common history. They are pro- 
duced from the same sources, accumulated 
by similar agencies, and stored in the same 
reservoirs. In order of formation, petroleum 
is probably first. It is the more complex in 
composition and thus nearer to the organic 
world from which it is derived. Gas is the 
same substance on the downward road to the 
simplicity of inorganic compounds. No pro- 
cess is known by which gas is built up into 
oil, but the breaking up of petroleum into 
gaseous products is seen to be constantly go- 
ing forward in nature, and it is also effected 
in the large way artificially. 

Petroleum never exists free from gas, but 
it is sometimes asserted that gas is found that 
has no connection with petroleum. This 
claim is probably a mistaken one, and if the 
dryest gas could be followed throughout its 
underground reservoirs, it is altogether prob- 
able that accumulations of oil would be 
found along the line in every case. There is 
no horizon known that produces either sub- 
stance to the entire exclusion of the other. 

As already implied, petroleum and gas are 
derived from the organic world. Both vege- 
table and animal substances have contributed 
to the supplies, and these separate sources 
give different characters to their products, as 
will be presently shown. There are certain 
other theories in regard to the origin of petro- 
leum, it is true, which have been advanced 
by eminent chemists, but which do not match 
at all well with the geological facts involved. 
These last-named theories refer petroleum to 
peculiar decompositions and recom positions, 
chiefly of water and carbonic acid, which are 
supposed to be carried on at considerable 

depths in the earth, where these substances 
are brought into contact with metallic iron 
or with the metallic bases of the alkalies at 
high temperatures. Never were more arti- 
ficial or unverifiable theories presented for 
the explanation of natural phenomena, and 
it is surprising that they should have obtained 
any currencV whatever. Something might 
be said for them, perhaps, if we had no other 
possible way of accounting for the facts to 
which they refer, but when they are compared 
with the theories of organic origin they have 
no standing-ground. The truth is, we are 
constantly manufacturing from animal and 
vegetable substances in the large way, both 
gas and oil that are fairly comparable in both 
chemical and physical characteristics, with 
the natural products. Further, we find vege- 
table substances passing by natural processes 
into petroleum and allied compounds, so that 
there is no need whatever to invent a strained 
and fantastic theory based on remote chemi- 
cal possibilities, in order to cover the ground. 
These chemical theories teach that the pro- 
cess of oil and gas formation is a continuous 
one, and no reason is apparent why stocks 
may not be maintained from such a source 
even when they are drawn upon. Perhaps it 
is this feature that has recommended these 
theories more than any other. Any doctrine 
that gives us unwasting supplies of force is 
sure to be popular as long as it can find the 
semblance of justification, as witness the hold 
that the claims for perpetual motion have on 
the public mind. 

The petroleum and gas of shales and sand- 
stones are in the main derived from, vegetable 
matter, and as the principal stocks are found 
in sandstones, vegetable matter may be said 
to be the chief source. The oil and gas of 
limestones are presumably derived from 
animal matter, inasmuch as the limestones 
themselves are known to be, in the main, a 
product of animal life. 

The vegetation principally employed in 
this production is of the lower kinds, sea- 
weeds and . other allied groups being al- 
together the most conspicuous elements. 
The animal life represented in limestone oil 
and gas is also of the lower groups. Plants 
may have been associated also with animal 
matter in the formation of limestone oil, to 
some extent. 

How was Petroleum Formed? 

To the question, How were these bodies 
formed out of organic matter f there are 
various answers. 

They are most commonly referred to the 
agency of distillation. Destructive distilla- 
tion consists in the decomposition of animal 
or vegetable substances at high temperatures 
in the absence of air. Gaseous and semi- 
liquid products are evolved, and a coke or 
carbon residue remains behind. The " high 
temperatures" in the definition given above 
must be understood to cover a considerable 
range, the lower limit of which may not ex- 
ceed 400 or 500 degrees F. 

Petroleum and gas on the large scale are 



not the products of destructive distillation. 
If shales, sandstones, or limestones holding 
large quantities of organic matter, as they 
often do, and buried at a considerable depth, 
should be subjected to volcanic heat in any 
way, there is no reason to doubt that petro- 
leum and gas would result from this action. 
Without question, there are such cases in vol- 
eanic districts, but the regions of great petro- 
leum production are remarkably free from 
all igneous intrusions, and from all signs 
of excessive or abnormal temperatures. 
All claims for an igneous origin of these 
substances are emphatically negatived by 
the condition of the rocks that contain 

There is a statement of the distillation 
theory that has attained quite wide accept- 
ance, which needs to be mentioned here. It 
is to the eiFect that these substances, oil and 
gas, have resulted from what is called ' ' spon- 
taneous distillation at low temperatures, ' ' and, 
by low temperatures, ordinary temperatures 
are meant. # It does not, however, appear on 
what facts in nature or upon what artificial 
processes this claim is based. Destructive 
distillation is the only process known to 
science under the name of distillation, which 
can account for the origin of oil or gas, and 
this does not go on at ordinary or low tempera- 
tures. A process that goes on at ordinary 
temperatures is certainly not destructive dis- 
tillation. It may be chemical decomposition, 
but this process has a name and place of its 
own, and does not need to be masked under 
a new and misleading designation, such as 
spontaneous distillation. No help can come 
to us, therefore, from the adoption of the 
spontaneous distillation theory. 

It seems more probable that these sub- 
stances result from the primary chemical de- 
composition of organic substances buried 
with the forming rocks, and that they . are 
retained as petroleum in the rocks from the 
date of their formation. It is true that our 
knowledge of these processes is inadequate, 
but there are many facts on record that go to 
show that petroleum formation is not a lost 
art of nature, but that the work still goes on 
under favorable conditions. It is very likely 
true that, as in coal formation, the conditions 
most favorable for large production no 
longer occur, but enough remains to show the 
steps by which the work is done. 

The " spontaneous distillation " theory has 
probably some apparent support in the fact 
that must be mentioned here, viz. : that where 
petroleum is stored in a rock, gas may be 
constantly escaping from it, constituting, in 
part, the surface indications that we hear so 
much of in oil fields. The Ohio shale, for 
example, is a formation that yields along its 
outcrops oil and gas almost everywhere, but 
no recent origin is needed for either. The 
oil may be part of a primitive store, slowly 
escaping to the day, and the gas may be con- 
stantly derived from the partial breaking up 
of the oil that is held in the shales. The 
term "spontaneous distillation" might, with 
a little latitude, be applied to this last-named 

stage, but it has nothing to do with the origin 
of either substance. 

While our knowledge of the formation of 
petroleum is still incomplete and inadequate, 
the following statements in regard to it are 
offered as embodying the most probable 
view : 

1. Petroleum is derived from vegetable 
and animal substances that were deposited in 
or associated with the forming rocks. 

2. Petroleum is not in any sense a product 
of destructive distillation, but is the result of , 
a peculiar chemical decomposition by whi<* T ' 
the organic matter passes at once into this or 
allied products. It is the result of the pri- 
mary decomposition of organic matter. 

3. The organic matter still contained in the 
rocks can be converted into gas and oil by 
destructive distillation, but, so far as'we know, 
in no other way. It is not capable of fur- 
nishing any new supply of petroleum under 
normal conditions. 

4. Petroleum is, in the main, contem- 
poraneous with the rocks that contain it. It 
was formed at or about the time that these 
strata were deposited. 

The Distribution of Petroleum and 


Contrary to a commonly received opinion, 
petroleum and gas are very widely distributed 
and very abundant substances. The drill can 
scarcely descend for even a few hundred fee* 
at any point in Ohio, without showing the 
presence of one or both of them. The rocks 
of the State series can be roughly divided 
into three great groups — limestones, sand- 
stones and ^ shales. Petroleum is found 
abundantly in each of these groups. The 
percentage ^ is small, but the aggregate is 
large. It is equally, or at least generally 
diffused throughout certain strata, while in 
others it is confined to particular portions or 
beds. An example of the first case is found 
in the Ohio shale. The Ohio Shale, Cleve- 
land — Erie—Huron, of earlier reports, con- 
sists of a series of homogeneous, fine-grained 
deposits, black, blue and gray in color, 300 
feet thick on their western outcrop in Central 
Ohio, but more than 1,800 feet thick under 
cover in Eastern Ohio. This entire forma- 
tion is petroliferous, as is proved by an ex- 
amination of drillings that represent the 
whole section. The black bands are prob- 
ably most heavily charged. The chemist 
of the survey, Professor N. W. Lord, finds 
two-tenths of one per cent, of petroleum, as 
such, present in these bands, and is certain 
from the nature of the processes that he was 
obliged to employ that the entire amount is 
not reported. But, estimating the percent- 
age to be but one-tenth of one per cent, in 
place of two-tenths, and calculating the thick- 
ness of the shale at its minimum, viz. , 300 
feet, we find the total stock of petroleum 
held in the shale to be 1,560,000 bbls. to the 
square mile, or nearly twice as large amount 
as has ever been obtained from any square 
mile of the Pennsylvania fields. 

Of the limestones of the State the Water 



lime, or Lower Helderberg limestone, is prob- 
ably the most heavily and persistently charged 
with petroleum. Drillings taken from this 
stratum, at a depth of 400 to 500 feet below 
the surface in the trial-well lately sunk at 
Columbus, are found by Professor Lord to 
have the same amount of free petroleum that 
the black shale contains, viz. , two-tenths of 
one per cent. The limestone also has the 
same thickness that is assigned to the shale 
on its outcrop, viz., 300 feet. The figures, 
therefore, duplicated those already given. 
The total amount of oil from these two 
sources exceeds 3,000,000 bbls. to the square 

All the other great limestones of our series 
carry petroleum, at least in certain beds. 
The Clinton limestone is often an oil-bearing 
rock, and the show of its outcrop has led to 
the sinking of a number of wells in search of 
oil, in past years. The Niagara limestone is 
highly bituminous in places. Asphaltic 
grains, films and masses constitute as much 
as 4 or 5 per cent, of its substance at several 
points in the State. The Corniferous lime- 
stone is also distinctly bituminous in some of 
its beds. The limestones of the Cincinnati 
group also carry a determinable amount of 

As for sandstones, all know that it is in 
them that the main stocks of petroleum have 
thus far been found, but there is good reason 
to believe that these stocks are not native in 
the sandstones, but have been acquired by 
them subsequent to their formation. This 
point will be considered further, under an- 
other head. 

Modes of Accumulation of Petroleum 


In the accumulation of petroleum, two 
stages are to be noted, viz. : a primary and 
a secondary stage. The first is concerned 
with the retention of petroleum in the rocks, 
and might have been with equal propriety 
treated under the preceding head. The 
second stage is concerned with the origin and 
maintenance of the great stocks of oil and 
high-pressure gas, in which all the value at- 
tached to these substances lies. Both are 
connected with the composition of the rock 
series in which oil and gas are found, and the 
latter is also greatly affected by the arrange- 
ment and inclinations of the rock masses, or, 
in other words, by their structure. 

The primary accumulation of petroleum, or 
its retention in the rocks in a diffused or 
distributed state, seems to be connected with 
the composition of the series to a great degree. 
The great shale formation of Devonian and 
Subcarboniferous ages that separates the 
Berea grit from the Devonian limestone, the 
western edge of which shale formation out- 
cropping in Central Ohio is know as the Ohio 
shale (Cleveland, Erie, Huron), is unmis- 
takably the source of the greatest accumula- 
tions of oil and gas, so far found, in the 
country. It holds thus far, as decided, a 
superiority to all other sources, as the Ap- 
palachian coal-field does to all other sources 

of fossil fuel. The accumulation of petroleum 
in this great shale formation is no accident. 
It depends on two factors, viz. : the abun- 
dance of vegetable matter associated with the 
shales in their formation, which is attested 
by the large amount still included in them, 
and upon the affinity of clay for oil. The 
last-named point is an important one. Clay 
has a strong affinity for oil of all sorts, and 
absorbs it and unites with it whenever the 
two substances are brought into contact. 
Professor Joseph Leidy made the interestiag 
observation a number of years since, that the 
bed of the Schuylkill river in Philadelphia, 
below the gas works, was covered with an 
accumulation of the oily matters that are 
always formed in the process of gas-making. 
As these substances are lighter than water 
and float upon its surface naturally, it was at 
first sight hard to understand how they could 
have been carried to the river bed, but it was 
soon learned that the clay of the river water 
absorbed the oils as they were floating along, 
and finally sank with them to the river floor. 
In a similar way we may suppose the primary 
accumulation of petroleum in the shales to 
have been in part accomplished. The oil set 
free by vegetable decomposition around the 
shores or beneath the waters of a sargasso 
sea, would be arrested by the fine-grained 
clay that was floating in the water, and would 
have sunk with it to the sea floor, forming 
this homogeneous shale formation that we 
are now considering. Sand would have no 
such collecting power. 

The distribution of petroleum through 
limestone is not as easily explained, but it 
may be in part dependent on the presence of 
the same element, viz., clay. In almost all 
limestones there is a percentage of clay pres- 
ent, and frequently it rises to a conspicuous 
amount. Oil is held in both magnesian lime- 
stones and in true limestones in Ohio. The 
magnesian limestones are largely in excess in 
the series of the State, and it so happens 
that all of the most petroliferous strata are 
magnesian in composition, but this fact is 
probably without significance in this connec- 

Petroleum distributed through shales or 
limestones in the low percentages already 
named, although the total amount held may 
be large, is of no economic value. Like other 
forms of mineral wealth, it must be concen- 
trated by some natural agencies before it can 
become serviceable in any way. This brings 
us to consider the secondary accumulation of 
petroleum already referred to, by means of 
which all the great stocks have been formed 
and maintained. This constitutes one of the 
most important subjects in the entire history 
of petroleum. The sources of oil and gas are 
very widespread, as has already been shown, 
but the concentrated supplies are few and far 
between. To learn the horizons and locations 
of these supplies is the condition of most suc- 
cessful operations in the production of oil and 
gas, and it is in this field that the most im- 
portant practical applications of geology to 
these subjects are to be found. 


Oil Groups. 

As the experience of the last thirty years 
has abundantly shown, an oil or gas series 
always consists of two elements, viz. , a porous 
rock, or reservoir, overlain by a close and fine- 
grained impervious rock or cover. A third 
element must always be added to make out 
the logical series, viz., an underlying or asso- 
ciated source of oil and gas.^ It is obvious 
that the last-named element is first in order 
and in importance, but for reasons already 
given in part, and for others that are not 
hard to find, practically we have less to do 
with it than with the two former elements. 
It will be borne in mind that the sources of 
petroleum are well-nigh universal, and also 
that they have no economic value, and are 
therefore seldom penetrated by the drill. 
The search generally terminates in the reser- 
voir. The great sources of the Ohio scale are, 
as already implied, shales and limestones, 
both more or less bituminous. These sources 
have done their work wherever large accumu- 
lation is found, and where no accumulations 
exist the petroleum occurs, as already shown, 
in large but valueless stocks distributed 
through the body of the strata. 

The Reservoir. 

The reservoirs must be porous rocks. In 
all of the experience in the great fields of 
Pennsylvania and New York, the rocks in 
which the large stocks of oil and gas were 
found were, without exception, sandstones or 
conglomerates. To them the driller early 
gave the name of " oil- sands," and this name 
is in universal use. The grain and thickness 
of these sandstones are found to be important 
factors in their production. Other things 
being equal, the coarser the grain and the 
thicker the stratum, the greater is its produc- 
tion found to be. Mr. J. F. Carll, of the 
Pennsylvania Geological Survey, our highest 
authority in regard to petroleum production, 
has shown that an oil-sand can hold one-tenth 
of its bulk of oil, and he believes that it may 
contain under pressure as much as one-eighth 
of its bulk. This would give 1£ inches of oil 
to every foot of the oil-sand. 

Taking the most productive portions of the 
latter in the Venango field to be fifteen feet, 
we find in that district a possible capacity of 
9,600,000 barrels per square mile, an amount, 
it is needless to say, vastly in excess of any 
production ever known. — " Second Pennsyl- 
vania Survey, Oil Regions," III., pp. 252- 

The driller places great reliance on the oil- 
sand, and learns to draw conclusions and 
make forecasts from its character more than 
from any other single element that he en- 

Within the last few years we have found 
in Ohio a reservoir of high-pressure gas and 
large oil-wells, in a rock of altogether differ- 
ent character from the oil-rocks already de- 
scribed. The new oil- and gas-rock of North- 
western Ohio is a magnesian limestone or 
dolomite, of a good degree of purity. It is 

as porous, apparently, as the sandstones and 
conglomerates of the Pennsylvania series, 
this character being due in the limestone to 
the imperfect interlocking of the dolomite 
Crystals. The dolomite constitutes but a 
small portion of the Trenton limestone in 
which it is found. The normal character of 
this great sheet is that of a true carbonate of 
lime, but it appears that, in a limited terri- 
tory, the upper portions of the stratum have 
been transformed into dolomite. The trans- 
formation seldom extends more than a score 
or two of feet below the surface, and is often 
confined to five or ten feet. Sometimes a 
cap of true limestone, five or ten feet in thick- 
ness, overlies the dolomite, and sometimes 
the latter occurs in two or more sheets, sepa- 
rated from each other by the normal rock. 
The Trenton limestone is not itself a porous 
or reservoir rock in any sense of the word. 
It is only these replaced beds that have this 

Besides sandstones and limestones, shales 
also serve to a small extent as receptacles of 
accumulated oil and gas in Ohio. The char- 
acter of the containing rock in these cases is 
not well known. Generally, the gas is of 
light pressure, but it is a fairly persistent 
supply that is found in these rocks. The 
belt of shales along the shore of Lake Erie 
gives the examples of this sort of accumula- 
tion and supply. These shales, where pro- 
ductive of gas, are found to consist of hard 
and light-colored bands, interstratified with 
dark bands, the gas appearing to be found 
when the harder bands are penetrated. The 
production of oil from these sources is always 
small, but, as already stated, fair amounts of 
gas are sometimes derived from them. 

Petroleum and gas are not the only sub- 
stances that are found in these reservoirs. 
Salt-water is almost an invariable accompani- 
ment of both. The oil-rocks are salt-rocks as 
well, in some parts of their extent. The dis- 
tribution of these three substances in the 
same stratum is connected with facts of 
structure, as will presently be shown. These 
reservoirs have been described as porous of 
necessity. The porosity insures a large 
amount of lateral permeability, a fact of great 
importance in the distribution of these sub- 
stances. The reservoir is often common for 
large areas. All the wells in a field may find 
the same pressure of gas or oil, even though 
their production may be very unequal. 

The Cover. 

Inasmuch as the three elements — source, 
reservoir, and cover — are all indispensable, it 
is not necessary to compare their relative im- 
portance. It is, however, true that the first 
and second conditions of accumulation are 
met more frequently than the third. The 
cover of every productive oil-rock is a large 
body of fine-grained, impervious clay shale — 
the finer and more nearly impervious the 
better. Whenever such a body of shale is 
found in the Ohio scale, the rock directly 
underlying, if a sandstone or limestone, is 



found to contain, in some portions, accumu- 
lations of gas and oil. The stocks may be too 
small to be valuable, but the presence of the 
shale cover seems to insure some concentra- 
tion in these situations. There are threft 
points in the Ohio series of rocks where such 
shale covers occur, viz., at the surface of the 
Trenton limestone, where 800 to 1,000 feet 
of shales and intercalated beds of limestone 
of the Medina, Hudson river, and Utica 
epochs are found, at the surface of the Cor- 
niferous limestone, which is covered by 300 
to 1,800 feet of the Ohio shale, and at the 
surface of the Berea grit, which is overlain 
by the best cover of the entire series, viz., 
the close-grained and nearly homogeneous 
Cuyahoga shale, 300 to 500 feet in thickness. 
Two of these, the first and the last, constitute 
the two main horizons of oil and gas in Ohio. 
The third is not notably productive thus far 
in Ohio, but it is the source of a small supply 
in other States. 

The composition of an oil-producing series 
is thus seen to be essential to its functions. 
The order already pointed out cannot be de- 
parted from, but there must always be (1) an 
impervious cover ; (2) a porous reservoir ; 
and underneath the reservoir, the source is to 
be found. , 

Structure as Affecting Oil and Gas 

But this order of arrangement is not enough 
in itself to insure any large concentration of 
oil or gas at any particular place. One other 
factor must be introduced, viz., structure. 
The strata which constitute the geological 
scale of the State nowhere lie, for any consid- 
erable extent, in horizontal planes. They 
are all more or less inclined. Sometimes 
they are bent into low folds or arches, and 
sometimes, though very rarely, there are 
abrupt descents and fractures. As a rule the 
dip, or angle of inclination to the horizon, of 
Ohio rocks is very small. It is better ex- 
pressed as a fall of so many feet to the mile, 
than by angular measurements, which very 
seldom rise to one degree. Both the rate 
and the direction of the descent are uniform 
over large areas. The average dip for impor- 
tant portions of the State is between twenty 
and thirty feet; the direction depends, of 
course, upon the part of the State which is to 
be considered. 

The movements of the strata here referred 
to have exerted a very important influence on 
the concentration of oil and gas in the reser- 
voirs already described. If one of these sand- 
stone strata, filled with salt-water, oil, and 
gas, and freely permeable laterally and hori- 
zontally for even miles at a time, were to be 
thrown into a system of low folds, what effect 
would this movement have upon the contents 
of the stratum ? Would not a separation of 
gas, oil, and water be sure to follow, the gas 
finding its way to the summits of the arches, 
and the salt-water sinking to the bottoms of 
the troughs? Such a result would be in- 
evitable under the conditions assumed. 

The summits of the folds are called anti- 

clinals, and the troughs synclinals. The 
lines of direction of the anticlinals are called 
their axes. The influence of these facts of 
structure on gas and oil accumulation has 
been long recognized, or at least asserted, but 
there is not full agreement as to the part that 
it plays in the great fields among the geolo- 
gists who have given most study to the sub- 

The facts that have come to light in the 
recent investigations of these subjects in 
Ohio seem to show the paramount influence 
of structure upon oil and gas accumulation. 
In the old fields, and in the new alike, irregu- 
larities of dip, involving change of direction, 
suspension, or unusual increase, have been 
found connected with the large production 
of both oil and gas in every instance where 
careful examination has been made. The 
composition of the series involved is identical 
for many thousand square miles, but so long 
as uniformity of dip is maintained, there is 
no valuable accumulation. As soon, how- 
ever, as this uniformity is broken in upon, 
the valuable stocks of gas and oil come to 

The "belt lines," in which the practical 
oil-well driller and operator of the main field 
puts so much confidence, so far as they stand 
for facts in nature, are probably structural 
lines. A map of the various centres of petro- 
leum in the old field shows that they all ex- 
tend in the northeasterly course which the 
main structural features of this part of the 
continent follow. The driller believes fortune 
to lie in the 45° or 22 J line which leads out in 
a northeast or southwest direction from each 
centre of production. Experience justifies, 
to a certain extent, his confidence. The pro- 
ductive gas territory upon which Pittsburg 
now depends is limited to the summits of a 
few well-marked anticlinals, which all have a 
northeasterly trend. In regard to the latter, 
question can scarcely be raised. The pre- 
dominant influence of structure is obvious. 
It seems probable that a careful enough system 
of measurements will show like lines of modi- 
fied dip to traverse the great oil fields of 
Pennsylvania and New York. 

The occurrence of gas and oil in almost all 
rocks that have a heavy shale cover would 
seem to result from exchanges affected 
by gravity. The oil is associated with salt- 
water in the stratum that contains it. There 
would be a constant tendency for the oil to 
reach a higher level at the expense of the 
water. It ascends through all the substance 
of the rock until it reaches the impervious 
roof, where it is gradually concentrated. On 
the same principle, the separation of the gas 
from the oil is effected. 

Some of the points that have been made 
under this head may be briefly restated, as 
follows : 

1. Clay is largely connected with the pri- 
mary accumulation of petroleum. The natural 
affinity that it has for substances of this class 
would lead to its combination with them 
wherever found. The great shale formation 
of Eastern Ohio, New York and Pennsyl- 



vania is the main source of the petroleum 
and gas of these regions. Clay does its work 
in this regard by reason of its chemical con- 

2. As clay is the main agent in the primary 
accumulation of petroleum, sand takes a sim- 
ilar place in its secondary accumulation, or its 
concentration in valuable stocks. It does this 
by virtue of its physical character. A sand- 
stone is a porous rock. Such sandstones as 
are found overlying or imbedded in the great 
shale formation are sure to become recepta- 
cles of oil. 

3. Clay has another office in this connection 
to perform, and this office is dependent on 
its physical character. The sandstone stratum 
last described would become a receptacle of oil 
in any case, but if roofed with a sufficient 
thickness of clay shale by which its contents 
could be sealed and preserved, it would be- 
came a reservoir of oil or gas. ^ All of the 
stocks of the old fields are held in sandstone 
or conglomerate reservoirs. 

4. Limestone has been found, more clearly 
in Ohio, perhaps, than elsewhere, to replace 
sandstone in oil accumulation. All the phe- 
nomena of high-pressure stocks of oil and 
^as have recently been found in the Trenton 
limestone of Northern Ohio, but the pres- 
ence and office of the shale cover are seen to 
be the same here as in the other fields. The 
term limestone in this connection is used with 
due care and precision. It is limestone, not 
u oil-sand" in the limestone, that contains 
Findlay gas and Lima oil. Pure magnesian 
limestone is the driller's " oil-sand" in these 

5. Widely diffused as are oil and gas in the 
paleozoic rocks of Ohio and adjacent States, 
so wide that the distribution of them may, 
without error, be styled universal, and widely 
extended as are the series of rocks that afford 
in their composition and relations the proper 
conditions for storage, it is still seen that their 
accumulation in profitable quantity depends 
on what might be called geological accidents. 
It is only or mainly along lines of structural 
disturbance that the great stocks are found. 

The Rock Pressure of Gas. 

The facts pertaining to the closed pressure 
of gi'eat gas- wells are among the most striking 
in the whole range of mining enterprise. To 
be appreciated, a high-pressure gas- well must 
be seen and heard. The gas issues from it 
with a velocity twice as great as that of a 
bullet when it leaves a rifle. Sets of drilling- 
tools, nearly 100 feet long, and weighing 
2,000 pounds, are lifted out of a well 1,000 
or 1,500 feetdeep and thrown high into the 
air. The noise with which the gas escapes is 
literally deafening, exposure to it often re- 
sulting in partial loss of hearing on the part 
of those engaged about the well. 

What is it that originates this indescribable 
force ? 

One answer is, that the rock-pressure is 
derived from the expansive nature of the 
gas. Solid or liquid materials in the reser- 
voir are supposed to be converted into gas as 

water is converted into steam. The resulting 
gas occupies many times more space than the 
Bodies from which it was derived, and in 
seeking to obtain this space it exerts the 
pressure which we note. 

This view has, no doubt, dements of truth 
in it, even though it fails to furnish a full ex- 
planation. For the pressure of shale-gas, it 
may be that no other force is required. But 
the theory is incapable of verification, and we 
are not able to advance a great ways beyond 
the statement of it. Some objections to it 
will also appear in connection with facts that 
are presently to be stated. 

The second explanation that is offered is, 
without doubt, more generally accepted than 
any other by those who have begun to think 
upon the question at all. 

This theory is to the effect that the weight 
of the superincumbent rocks is the cause of 
the high pressure of gas in the reservoirs. 
In other words, the term rock-pressure is con- 
sidered to be descriptive of a cause as well as 
of a fact. That a column of rock, 1,000 or 
1,500 feet deep, has great weight, is obvious. 
It is assumed that this weight, whatever it is, 
is available in driving accumulations of gas 
out of rocks that contain them, whenever 
communication is opened between the deeply- 
buried reservoir and the surface. 

Is this assumption valid ? Can the weight 
of the overlying rock work in this way ? 

Not unless there is freedom of motion on 
the part of the constituents of the rock, or, 
in other words, unless the rock has lost its 
cohesion and is in a crushed state . If the 
rock retains its solidity, it can exert no more 
pressure on the gas that is held in the spaces 
between its grains than the walls of a cavern 
would exert on a stream of water flowing 
through it. Professor Lesley has discussed 
this theory with more elaboration and detail 
than any other geologist, and has shown its 
entirely untenable character. (Annual Re- 
port Penna. Survey, 1885.) 

The claim that the Berea grit or the Trenton 
limestone, where they are, respectively, oil or 
gas-rocks, exists in a crushed or comminuted 
state, is negatived by every fact that we can 
obtain that bears upon the subject. The claim 
is a preposterous one, but without this condi- 
tion the theory fails. 

The third theory advanced to account for 
the rock-pressure of gas stands on a different 
basis from those already named. It appeals 
to water-pressure in the oil and gas-rock, as 
the cause of the flow of both these substances, 
and* in this reference, it directs us to princi- 
ciples and facts of familiar experience and 
every-day use. Every one is acquainted with 
the phenomena and explanation of artesian 
wells. By this theory gas and oil wells are 
made artesian in their flow. In the porous 
rock that contains them there is always, out- 
side of the productive fields, a body of water, 
and, in almost every instance, salt-water. This 
water occupies the rock as it rises to-day in its 
nearest outcrops. Communicating there with 
surface water or with rainfall, a head of press- 
ure is given to the gas and oil that are held 

8 4 


in the traps formed by the anticlinals or ter- 
races into which the stratum had been thrown. 
The amount of pressure would thus depend on 
the height to which the water column is 
raised, in case continuous porosity of the 
stratum can be assumed. Defects in regard 
to porosity would abate from the total press- 
ure on the oil or gas. 

This, in short, is the third and last of the 
explanations offered of the rock-pressure of 
natural gas. There seems little reason to 
doubt that it is along this line that the true 
explanation is to be found, though it is too 
earjy to claim that a full account can now be 
given of all the facts involved. 

One of the significant elements in the case 
is the salt-water that surrounds every oil and 
gas-field. When the drill descends into this 
outside territory, salt-water promptly rises in 
the well to the surface, or to a given depth 
below the surface. Sometimes, indeed, it 
overflows. Why does the salt-water rise ? 

What other cause can be suggested than 
pressure from behind? The rise must be 
artesian. But just beyond the salt-water, on 
a slightly higher level of the rock, lies the 
oil pool. When that is reached by the drill, 
the oil flows out from the well. Will not the 
same cause that we found in active and un- 
mistakable operation in the adjacent salt- 
water territory explain the flow of the oil 
from the second well ? Is not this also ar- 
tesian ? 

In like manner, the pressure of the gas 
that is confined within the highest levels 
of the same porous rock can be explained, 
and thus one familiar cause that is demon- 
strably present in the field is made to account 
for the varied phenomena presented. 

With the exhaustion of a gas-field or oil- 
field, these substances are followed up and 
replaced by salt-water. This is the common 
fate of gas and oil wells, the death to which 
they all seem to be appointed. 

Certain obvious inferences follow the ac- 
ceptance of this explanation : 

1. The supplies of gas and oil are seen to 
be definitely limited by this theory of rock 
pressure. If a salt-water column is the pro- 
pelling force, it is idle to speculate on con- 
stantly renewed supplies. The water advances 
as the gas or oil is withdrawn, and the closing 
stage of the oil-rock is, as already pointed 
out, a salt-water rock. 

2. Other things being equal, the rock-press- 
ure will be greatest in the deepest wells. 
The deeper the well, the longer the water 

3. Other things being equal, the rock-press- 
ure will be greatest in districts the gas or 
oil-rock of which rises highest above the sea 
in its outcrops. The 750 lbs. of rock-pressure 
in Pennsylvania gas-wells, as contrasted with 
the 400 lbs. pressure of Findlay wells, can 
be accounted for on this principle. 

4. The rock-pressure of gas may be con- 
tinued with unabated force until the end of 
production is at hand. Maintenance of press- 
ure is no proof of renewal of supply. The 
last thousand feet will come out of a gas- 

holder with as much force as the first thou- 
sand feet. 

5. Where both oil and gas are found in a 
single field, the first sign of approaching 
failure will be the invasion of the gaS-rock by 
oil, or of the oil-rock by salt-water. 

Sources of Gas and Oil in the Ohio 
There are known at the present time four 
utilizable sources of gas and oil among the 
strata that underlie Ohio. They are as fol- 
lows, named in descending order : 

1 . The Berea grit in Eastern Ohio. 

2. The Ohio shale in Northern and Central 

3. The Clinton limestone in Sandusky, 
Wood, Hancock and Fairfield counties. 

4. The Trenton limestone in Northwestern 

The Berea grit yields high -pressure gas and 
large stocks of oil under favorable circum- 
stances, but these circumstances do not often 
recur. This stratum is doing but very little 
in supplying to the people of the State either 
gas^ or oil at the present time. Outside of 
Ohio in Western Pennsylvania it is found to 
be one of the most important repositories of 
this stored power that has been discovered in 
that highly favored territory. 

The Ohio shale as a source of gas has 
already been briefly characterized in the 
account of this formation given on a previous 
page. It yields low-pressure gas in small 
amount at many places, but can never be 
made a source of large supply. 

The two formations next to be named have 
special interest for us from the fact that their 
petroliferous character on the large scale was 
first demonstrated in Ohio. The first of 
them, indeed, has never been found to be an 
oil or gas rock ,else where. It has not yet 
been proved to be a reservoir of any great 
value in Ohio, but moderate supplies of gas 
have been for some time derived from it in 
Fremont and in adjacent territory of North- 
ern Ohio. In Lancaster, however, in South- 
ern Ohio, the largest promise of the rock has 
recently been found. # W e ^ s drilled to the 
Clinton limestone, which is reached at a depth 
of 2,000 feet, have yielded as much as 
1,000,000 cubic feet a day when first struck. 
The initial rock-pressure is high, viz., 700 
pounds to the square inch. It is too early to 
draw safe conclusions as to the value of this 
discovery. All turns on the life of the wells. 
On account of their depth the drilling and 
casing are expensive. A well cannot be com - 
pleted for less than $3,500 to $4,000. The 
facts at present in hand seem to betoken a 
short duration for the supply. A large 
amount of money is sure to be spent in the 
new field that the experience of Lancaster 
has brought to light. 

It remains to describe in few words the re- 
markable discovery of gas and oil in the 
Trenton limestone that was made at Findlay 
in November, 1884. 

The entire history of the discovery and ex- 
ploitation of petroleum in this country has 



been full of surprises, both to the practical 
men engaged in the work and to the geolo- 
gists who have studied the facts as they have 
been brought to light, but no previous chap- 
ter of the history has proved as strange 
and well-nigh incredible as the discovery 
and development which are now to be de- 

No fact in this line could be more unex- 
pected than that any notable supplies of 
petroleum or gas should be furnished by the 
Trenton limestone, which is widely known as 
a massive, compact and fossiliferous lime- 
stone of Lower Silurian age and of wide ex- 
tent, constituting in fact one of the great 
foundations of the continent. But when re- 
quired to believe that certain phases of this 
Trenton limestone make one of the great oil- 
rocks of our geological scale, one which pro- 
duces from single wells 5,000 barrels of oil, 
or 15,000,000 cubic feet of inflammable gas 
in a day, it is hard to prevent our surprise 
from passing into incredulity. 

Surface indications of a sulphuretted and 
inflammable gas, escaping from the rocky 
floor of the village of Findlay, have been 
known since the country was first settled. 
The gas had, in fact, been utilized in a small 
way, viz., in lighting a single residence for 
more than forty years, but in 1 884 the influ- 
ence of Pittsburg had made itself felt 
through much of Ohio and drilling was 
began here. At a depth of 1,100 feet a re- 
spectable flow of gas was secured. The suc- 
cess of this well was the first step in by far 
the most remarkable development that has 
ever taken place in the geology of Ohio. 

It was more than a year before a great gas 
well was discovered in Findlay, but the Karg 
well, which was completed in January, 1886, 
fully deserves this name. Its daily yield 
when first opened was not less than 1 4,000,000 
cubic feet. 

The discovery of oil followed that of gas 
by a short interval, but the prolific character 
of the new rock was not established till the 
latter half of 1886. 

The rapid extension of productive territory 
and its equally rapid limitations, the develop- 
ment of several distinct centres, as Bowling 
Green, Lima and St. Mary's, the great specu- 
lative excitement that broke out when the 
good fortune of the new gas-field began to be 
appreciated by manufacturers and investors, 
and the wonderful developments that have 
since taken place in the line of manufactur- 
ing industries, cannot be even touched upon 
in this connection. The salient points in the 
geology of the new fields are brought out in 
the summary that follows. The discovery 
comes from an unexpected quarter, viz., from 
the " black swamp" of old time of North- 
western Ohio. Under its broad and level 
expanses a few hundred square miles have 
been found distributed through portions of 
five counties, within which are contained 
fountains of oil and reservoirs of gas of 
infinitely more value than any like accumula- 
tions hitherto discovered in the State, and 
fully deserving a place among the most 

valued repositories of these substances in any 
quarter of the world. 

The leading facts pertaining to the field 
can be summarized as follows : 

1 . In fourteen of the northwestern counties 
of Ohio (and like conditions prevail in con- 
tiguous territory in Indiana), the upper beds 
of the Trenton limestone, which lie from 
1,000 to 2,000 feet below the surface, have a 
chemical composition different from that 
which generally characterizes this great 
stratum. They are here found as dolomite 
or magnesian limestone instead of being, as 
usual, true carbonate of lime. Their per- 
centage of lime, in other words, ranges be- 
tween 50 and 60 per cent, instead of between 
80 and 90 per cent. , as in the formation at 
large. These dolomites of Northwestern 
Ohio are mainly quite free from silicious 
impurities. The dolomitic composition seems 
to have resulted from an alteration of a true 
limestone. At least the occasional masses of 
true limestones charged with fossils, that are 
found on the horizon of and surrounded by 
the dolomite, are best explained on this sup- 
position. In the change which has been 
endured, the fossils which the original 
limestones contained appear to have been for 
the most part discharged or rendered obscure, 
as is usual in this metamorphosis. The 
crystalline character of the dolomite is often 
very marked, and there results from it a 
peculiarly open or porous structure. Its 
storage capacity is much greater than that 
of ordinary oil sandstones and conglomerates, 
so far at least as pores visible to the unaided 
eye are concerned. The change usually ex- 
tends for ten to thirty feet below the surface 
of the formation. In some cases, however, 
sheets of porous dolomite are found as low as 
fifty feet and very rarely as low as 100 feet 
below the surface. ^ 

The area occupied by this dolomitic phase 
of the Trenton limestone in Ohio has already 
been indicated. The eastern and the south- 
ern boundaries pass through Lucas, Wood, 
Hancock, Allen, Auglaize and Mercer coun- 
ties. It is possible that the line crosses some 
parts of Ottawa, Wyandot and Hardin coun- 

There is good reason to believe that this 
phase extends far to the northward and west- 
ward, outside of the State limits to which it 
has here been traced. We know that the 
Trenton limestone isadolomite when it pitches 
rapidly down from the northern boundary of 
Ohio to make the low-lying floor of the 
Michigan coal basin, and we also know that 
it is a dolomite when it rises from under that 
basin as a surface rock of the northern penin- 
sula. In like manner it is a dolomite when 
it leaves the western boundary of the State 
under deep cover, and it is a dolomite when 
it reaches the surface once more in the Galena 
district of Illinois and Wisconsin. 

South of the line laid down in Ohio there 
has not thus far been found a trace of the 
porous dolomite on which the oil of Lima 
and the gas of Findlay depend. The change 
is seen to be taking place in Shelby and 



Logan counties, but beyond them the Tren- 
ton limestone is invariably found with a per- 
centage of more than 75 per cent, of car- 
bonate of lime, and rarely with less than 10 
per cent, of silicious impurities. It is this 
last element, with but little doubt, that has 
resisted the dolomitization of the stratum 
throughout the southwestern charter of the 
State and in all contiguous territory. 

To the eastward of the line laid down in 
Northern Ohio, a less definite boundary is to 
be looked for. It is certain that small areas 
of porous dolomite are found beyond the line 
here recognized as the termination of the 
Findlay phase of the Trenton limestone. 

Within the limits named, the limestone of 
course has a considerable variety of grain 
and texture, but all of the analyses obtained 
show the stratum to be in the main a dolomite. 
As already stated there are occasional patches 
or islands of true limestone in this sea of 

2. A porous rock, buried 1,000 to 2,000 
feet below the surface of Northwestern Ohio, 
will not be found empty. Nature abhors a 
vacuum. With what will its pores be filled ? 
Mainly with salt-water of peculiar composi- 
tion, possibly representing the brine of the 
ancient seas in which the limestone was laid 
down. Ninety-nine-hundredths, or perhaps 
nine hundred and ninety-nine-thousandths 
of the limestone will be thus occupied. The 
remaining hundredth or thousandth will be 
filled with the petroleum and gas which have, 
in the long course of the ages that have 
passed, been gathered from a wide and gen- 
eral distribution through the water into cer- 
tain favored portions of the great limestone 

3. This salt-water will be held under arte- 
sian pressure. The porous limestone con- 
taining it rises to-day in Michigan and 
Illinois, communicating there with surface 
waters. The pressure of this head of water 
will be felt through every portion of the 
porous rock, and when the stratum is pierced 
by the drill in the areas that are thus occu- 
pied, the salt-water will rise with more or 
less promptness, depending on the varying 
degrees of porosity in the rock. The height 
to which the water will rise will seem to vary 
in wells, by reason of the different elevations 
of the locations at which they are drilled, but 
with reference to sea-level the water columns 
will be found to closely agree. 

The same artesian pressure accounts for 
the force with which oil and gas escape when 
their limited reservoirs in the porous rock are 
tapped by the drill. m . m 

4. The accumulations of oil and gas in the 
porous rock depends altogether upon the 
attraction of gravitation. The lighter por- 
tions of the contents of the porous rock, viz., 
oil and gas, are forced by gravitation into the 
highest levels that are open to them. Every- 
thing turns on the relief of the Trenton lime- 
stone. The gas and oil are gathered in the 
arches of the limestone, if such they are. In 
default of arches the high-lying terraces are 
made to serve the same purpose, but the one 

indispensable element and condition of all 
accumulation is relief. A uniform and 
monotonous descent of the strata is fatal to 
accumulation of oil and gas where everything 
else is favorable. The sharper the boundaries 
of the relief, the more efficient does it be- 
come. Absolute elevation is not essential ; 
all that is required is a change of level in the 
porous rock. Each division of the field has 
its own dead line or salt-water line. Salt- 
water reigns universal in the Findlay field 500 
feet below sea-level, except where some minor 
local wrinkle may give a small and short- 
lived accumulation of oil or gas. In the 
Lima field the salt-water line has risen to 400 
feet below tide ; in the St. Mary's field to 300 
feet below tide, and in the Indiana field to 
100 feet below tide. These figures stand in 
every case for the lower limit of production, 
with the possible minor exceptions already 
noted. The rock-pressure of the gas de- 
creases to the westward in proportion to this 
decreasing head of water- pressure. 

The large accumulations are derived from 
the large terraces. The Findlay terrace, for 
example, consists of a very flat-lying tract, 
ten or twelve miles across in an east and west 
line, from which the connected areas of the 
Trenton limestone slope on every side, and to 
which, therefore, they are necessarily tribu- 
tary. The gas terrace of Indiana is, by far, 
the largest of these several subdivisions of 
the field. The minor elevations of Oak 
Harbor, Tiffin and Bryan, for example, give 
rise to the local supplies of gas or oil in these 
districts respectively. 

In conclusion, it is only necessary to repeajb 
that natural gas is in all cases stored power, 
that there are no agencies in nature that are 
renewing the stocks which the rocks contain 
as rapidly as high pressure wells exhaust 
them, and that therefore economy should be 
observed from the outset in the use of this 
highly-valued source of heat and light. It is 
notstrange that, when the surprising discovery 
is first made in any field, a most lavish use 
or rather a wanton waste of the gas is likely 
to prevail. It is hard to realize that such 
floods as rush forth can ever fail, but it is un- 
doubtedly true that every foot of gas with- 
drawn brings nearer the inevitable exhaustion 
of the reservoir. 


Soils and Forests. 
The division of the State into a drift-covered 
and driftless region coincides as previously 
intimated with the most important division 
of the soils. Beyond the line of the terminal 
moraine, these are native, or, in other words, 
they are derived from the rocks that underlie 
them or that rise above them in the bounda- 
ries of the valleys and uplands. They conse- 
quently share the varying constitution of 
these rocks, and are characterized by consid- 
erable inequality and by abrupt changes. All 
are fairly productive, and some, especially 
those derived from the abundant and easily 
soluble limestones of the Upper Coal Meas- 
ures, are not surpassed in fertility by any 



goils of the State. Large tracts of these ex- 
cellent native soils are found in Jefferson, 
Belmont, Harrison, Monroe, Noble, Guernsey 
and Morgan counties. Wool of the finest 
staple in the country has long been produced 
on the hills of this general region. 

Among the thinner and less productive 
soils which occupy but a small area are those 
derived from the Devonian shales. They 
are, however, well adapted to forest and fruit 
production. The chestnut and the chestnut 
oak, both valuable timber trees, are partial 
to them, and vineyards and orchards thrive 
well upon them. The north sides of the hills 
throughout this part of the State invariably 
show stronger soils than the southern sides, 
and a better class of forest growths. The 
locust, the walnut and hickory characterize 
the former. 

The native soils of the Waverly group and 
of the Lower Coal Measures agree m general 
characters. They are especially adapted to 
forest growth, reaching the highest standard 
in the quality of the timber produced. When 
these lands are brought under the exhaustive 
tillage that has mainly prevailed in Ohio thus 
far, they do not hold out well, but the farmer 
who raises cattle and sheep, keeps to a rota- 
tion between grass and small grains, purchases 
a ton or two of artificial fertilizers each year, 
and does not neglect his orchard or small 
fruits, can do well upon them. The cheap 
lands of Ohio are found in this belt. 

The other great division of the soils of 
Ohio, viz. , the drift soils, are by far the most 
important, alike from their greater area and 
.their intrinsic excellence. Formed by the com- 
mingling of the glacial waste of all the forma- 
tions to the north of them, over which the 
ice has passed, they always possess consider- 
able variety of composition, but still in many 
cases they are strongly colored by the forma- 
tion underneath them. Whenever a stratum 
of uniform composition has a broad outcrop 
across the line of glacial advance, the drift 
beds that cover its southern portions will be 
found to have been derived in large part from 
the formation itself, and will thus resemble 
native or sedentary soils. Western Ohio is 
underlaid with Silurian limestones and the 
drift is consequently limestone drift. The 
soil is so thoroughly that of limestone land 
that tobacco, a crop which rarely leaves 
native limestone soils, at least in the Missis- 
sippi valley, is grown successfully in several 
counties of Western Ohio, 100 miles or more 
north of the terminal moraine. 

The native forests of the drift regions 
were, without exception, hard wood forests, 
the leading species being oaks, maples, 
hickories, the walnut, beech and elm. The 
walnut, sugar-maple and white hickory and 
to quite an extent the burr oak, are limited 
to warm, well-drained land, and largely to 
limestone land. The upland clays have one 
characteristic and all important forest tree, 
viz. , the white oak . It occupies vastly larger 
areas than any other single species. It stands 
for good land, though not the quickest or 
most generous, but intelligent farming can 

always be made successful on white-oak land. 
Under-draining is almost always in order, if 
not necessary, on this division of our soils. 

The regions of sluggish drainage, already 
referred to, are occupied in their native state 
by the red-maple, the elm and by several 
varieties of oaks, among which the swamp 
Spanish oak is prominent. This noble forest 
growth of Ohio is rapidly disappearing. The 
vandal-like waste of earlier days is being 
checked to some degree, but there is still a 
large amount of timber, in the growth of 
which centuries have been consumed, an- 
nually lost. 

It is doubtless true that a large proportion 
of the best lands of Ohio are too well adapted 
to tillage to justify their permanent occupa- 
tion by forests, but there is another section, 
viz. , the thin native soils of Southern Central 
Ohio, that are really answering the best pur- 
pose to which they can be put when covered 
with native forests.. The interests of this 
part of the State would be greatly served if 
large areas could be permanently devoted to 
this use. The time will soon come in Ohio 
when forest planting will be begun, and here 
the beginnings will unquestionably be made. 

The character of the land when its occupa- 
tion by civilization was begun in the last cen- 
tury was easily read by the character of its 
forest growths. The judgments of the first 
explorers in regard to the several districts 
were right in every respect but one. They 
could not do full justice to the swampy 
regions of that early day, but their first and 
second class lands fall into the same classifi- 
cations at the present time. In the interest- 
ing and instructive narrative of Col. James 
Smith's captivity among the Indians, we find 
excellent examples of this discriminating 
judgment in regard to the soils of Ohio as 
they appeared in 1755. The "first class" 
land of that narrative was the land occupied 
by the sugar-tree and walnut, and it holds 
exactly the same place to-day. The "second 
class" land was the white-oak forests of 
our high-lying drift-covered districts. The 
' ' third class ' ' lands were the elm and red 
maple swamps that occupied the divides be- 
tween different river systems. By proper 
drainage, many of these last-named tracts 
have recently been turned into the garden 
soils of Ohio, but, for such a result, it was 
necessary to wait until a century of civilized 
occupation of the country had passed. 

These facts show in clear light that the 
character of the soil depends upon the geo- 
logical and geographical conditions under 
which it exists and from which it has been 


From its geographical situation the dlimate 
of Ohio is necessarily one of extremes. The 
surface of the State is swept alternately by 
southwest return trades and northwest polar 
winds, and the alternations succeed each, other 
in quick returning cycles. There is scarcely 
a week in the year that does not give exam- 



pies of both currents. All other winds that 
blow here are tributary to one or other of 
these great movements. The return trades 
or southwest winds are cyclonic in their char- 
acter ; the northwest winds constitute the 
anti-cyclone. The former depress the mer- 
cury in the barometer and raise it in the 
thermometer ; the latter reverse these re- 
sults. The rains of the State are brought in 
by southwest winds ; the few cases in which 
notable precipitation is derived from currents 
moving in any other direction than from the 
southwest really make no exception to the 
general statement, for in all such instances 
the rain falls in front of a cyclone which is 
advancing from the Gulf of Mexico. The 
protracted northeast storms that visit the 
State at long intervals and the short south- 
east storms that occur still less frequently are 
in all cases parts of greater cyclonic move- 
ments of the air that originate in the south- 
west and sweep out to the ocean over the in- 
tervening regions. 

Between the average summer and winter 
temperatures of the State there is a difference 
of at least 40° Fahrenheit. A central east 
and west belt of the State is bounded by the 
isotherms of 51° and 52°, the average winter 
temperature being 30° and the average sum- 
mer temperature being 73°. Southern Ohio 
has a mean annual temperature of 54° and 
Northern Ohio of 49°. 

The annual range is not less than 100° ; the 
maximum range is at least 130° ; the extreme 
heat of summer reaching 100° in the shade, 
while the " cold waves" of winter sometimes 
depress the mercury" to 30° below ^ zero. 
Extreme changes are liable to occur in the 
course of a few hours, especially in winter 
when the return trades are overborne in a 
conflict, short, sharp and decisive, with the 
northwest currents. In such cases the tem- 
perature sometimes falls 60° in 24 hours, 
while changes of 20° or 30° in a day are not 
at all unusual. 

The winters of Ohio are very changeable. 
Snow seldom remains thirty days at a time 
over the State, but an ice crop rarely fails in 
Northern Ohio, and not oftener than once in 
three or four years in other parts of the State. 
In the southern counties cattle, sheep and 
horses often thrive on pasture grounds 
through the entire winter. 

In spite of these sudden and severe changes 
the climate of Ohio is proved by every test 
to be excellently adapted to both vegetable 
and animal life. In the case of man and 
of the domestic animals as well, it certainly 
favors symmetrical development and a high 
degree of vigor. There are for example no 
finer herds of neat stock or sheep than those 
which are reared here. 

The forests of the State have been already 
described in brief terms. The cultivated pro- 
ducts of Ohio include almost every crop that 
the latitude allows. In addition to maize, 
which nowhere displays more vigor or makes 
more generous returns, the smaller grains all 
attain a good degree of perfection. The 
ordinary fruits of orchard and garden are 

produced in unmeasured abundance, being 
limited only or mainly by the insect enemies 
which we have allowed to despoil us of some of 
our most valued supplies. Melons of excel- 
lent quality are raised in almost every county 
of the State. The peach, alone of the fruits 
that are generally cultivated, is uncertain ; 
there is rarely, however, a complete failure 
on the uplands of Southern Ohio. 

The vast body of water in Lake Erie affects 
in a very favorable way the climate of the 
northern margin of the State. The belt im- 
mediately adjoining the lake is famous for 
the fruits that it produces. Extensive 
orchards and vineyards, planted along the 
shores and on the islands adjacent, have 
proved very successful. The Catawba wine 
here grown ranks first among the native 
wines of Eastern North America. 

The rainfall of the State is generous and 
admirably distributed. There is not a month 
in the year in which an average of more than 
two inches is not due upon every acre of the 
surface of Ohio. 

The average total precipitation of South- 
ern Ohio is forty-six inches ; of Northern 
Ohio, thirty-two inches ; of a large belt in 
the centre of the State, occupying nearly one- 
half of its entire surface, forty inches. The 
tables of distribution show ten to twelve inches 
in spring, ten to fourteen inches in summer, 
eight to ten inches in autumn and seven to 
ten inches in winter. The annual range of 
the rainfall is, however^ considerable. In 
some years and in some districts there is, of 
course, an insufficient supply, and in some 
years again there is a troublesome excess, but 
disastrous droughts on the large scale are 
unknown, and disastrous floods have hitherto 
been rare. They are possible only in very 
small portions of the State in any case. There 
is reason to believe, however, that the dis- 
posal of the rainfall has been so affected by 
our past interference with the natural condi- 
tions that we must for the future yield to the 
great rivers larger flood plains than were 
found necessary in the first hundred years of 
our occupancy of their valleys. Such a par- 
tial relinquishment of what have hitherto 
been the most valuable lands of the State, 
not only for agriculture, but also for town 
sites and consequently for manufactures and 
commerce, will involve immense sacrifices, 
but it is hard to see how greater losses can be 
avoided without making quite radical changes 
in this matter. 

In February, 1883, and again in February, 
1884, the Ohio river attained a height unpre- 
cedented in its former recorded history. In 
the first year the water rose to a height of 
sixty-six feet four inches above the channel- 
bar at Cincinnati, and in the latter to a height 
of seventy-one feet and three-fourths of an 
inch above the bar. The last rise was nearly 
seven feet in excess of the highest mark re- 
corded previous to 1883. These great floods 
covered the sites of large and prosperous 
towns, swept away hundreds of dwellings, 
and inflicted deplorable losses on the residents 
of the great valley. 


8 9 

Are floods like these liable to recur at short 
intervals in the future ? The conditions under 
which both occurred were unusual. Consid- 
erable bodies of snow lying on frozen ground 
were swept away by warm rains before the 
ground was thawed enough to absorb and 
store the water. These were the immediate 
causes of the disastrous overflows in both 
instances, and it may well be urged that just 
such conjunctures are scarcely likely to recur 
for scores of years to come. But it is still 
true that we have been busy for a hundred 
years in cutting down forests, in draining 
swamps, in clearing and straightening the 
channels of minor streams, and finally, in 
underdraining our lands with thousands of 
miles of tile ; in other words, in facilitating 
by every means in our power the prompt re- 
moval of storm-water from the land to the 
nearest water-courses. Each and all of these 
operations tend directly and powerfully to 
produce just such floods as have been de- 
scribed, and it cannot be otherwise than that 
under their combined operations our rivers 
will shrink during summer droughts to smaller 
and still smaller volumes, and, under falling 
rain and melting snow, will swell to more 
threatening floods than we have hitherto 
known. The changes that we have made and 
are still carrying forward in the disposal of 
storm- water renders this result inevitable, and 
to the new conditions we must adjust our- 
selves as best we can. 

Another division of the same subject is the 
increasing contamination of our rivers in their 
low-water stages. This contamination results 
from the base use to which we put these 
streams, great and small, in making them the 
sole receptacle of all the sewage and manu- 
facturing waste that are removed from cities 

and towns. The amount of these impure 
additions is constantly increasing, the rate of 
increase being in fact much greater than the 
rate of growth of the towns. The necessity 
of removing these harmful products from the 
places where they take their origin is coming 
to be more generally recognized, and sewer- 
age systems are being established in towns 
that have heretofore done without them. It 
thus happens that, as the amount of water in 
the rivers grows less during summer droughts 
from the causes already enumerated, the pol- 
luted additions to the water are growing not 
only relatively but absolutely larger. When, 
now, we consider that these same rivers are 
the main, if not the only, sources of water 
supply for the towns located in their valleys, 
the gravity of the situation becomes apparent. 
It is easy to see that the double duty which 
we have imposed upon the rivers of supply- 
ing us with water and of carrying away the 
hateful and dangerous products of waste, 
cannot long be maintained. There is no 
question, however, as to which function is to 
be made the permanent one. The rivers 
cannot possibly be replaced as sources of 
water-supply, while on the other hand, it is 
not only possible but abundantly practicable 
to filter and disinfect the cewage, and, as a 
result of such correction, to return only pure 
water to the rivers. During the first century 
of Ohio history not a single town has under- 
taken to meet this urgent demand of sanitary 
science, but the signs are multiplying that 
before the first quarter of the new century 
goes by the redemption of the rivers of Ohio 
from the pollution which the civilized occu- 
pation of the State has brought upon them 
and their restoration to their original purity, 
will be at least well begun. 



' George Frederick Wright was born at 
Whitehall, N. Y., January 22, 1838; graduated 
at Oberlin College, 1859, and Theological 
Seminary, Oberlin, O., 1862; was in the Sev- 
enth Ohio Volunteer Infantry five months of 
1860; became pastor at Bakersfield, Vt., 1862; 
at Andover, Mass., 1872; Professor of New 
Testament Language and Literature in Oberlin 
Theological Seminary, 1881 ; was assistant 
geologist on Pennsylvania survey, 1881, and 
United States survey since 1884. He is the 
author of " The Logic of Christian Evidences," 
Andover, 1880, 4th ed. 1883; "Studies in 
Science and Religion," 1882; "The Relation 
of Death to Probation," Boston, 1882, 2d ed. 
1883; "The Glacial Boundary in Ohio, In- 
dianaand Kentucky," Cleveland, 1884; " The 
Divine Authority of the Bible," Boston, 1884; 
is an editor of the Bibliotheca Sacraf* 

The earliest chapter in the history 
of man in Ohio begins with the close 
of the glacial period in the Missis- 
sippi valley. To understand this 
history it is necessary to devote a 
little time to the study of the glacial 
period. Nor will this be uninterest- 
ing to the thoughtful and observing 
citizens of the State, for the subject 
is one which is not far off, but near at hand. As will be seen by a glance at the 
accompanying map, all but the southeastern portion of the State is glaciated, 
that is, it is covered with the peculiar deposits and marks which show to the ob- 
servant eye that the country was at one time deeply covered wdth a moving sheet 
of ice. These marks are open to the inspection of any one who will read as he 
runs. The tracks of a glacier can as readily be recognized as those of a horse 
or an elephant. 

The glacier which in a far distant period invaded Ohio can be tracked by three 
signs: (1) Scratches on the bed rock; (2) "Till;" (3) Boulders. Taking these 
in their order, we notice (1) that scratches on the bed rock in such a level region 
as Ohio could not be produced by any other means than glacial ice, and that a 
glacier is entirely competent to produce them. When water runs over a rocky 
bed it ordinarily wears it off unevenly. A rocky surface is hardly ever of uniform 
hardness throughout, so that, as gravel-stones and pebbles are pushed over it by 
running water, they wear down the soft parts faster than the hard parts, and an 
uneven surface is produced. This follows from the fluidity of water, and any 
one can verify the statement by observing the bed of a shallow stream in dry 
weather. But ice is so nearly a solid that it holds with a firm grasp the sand, 
gravel and larger rocky fragments w T hich happen to be frozen into its bottom 
layer and shoves them along as a mechanic shoves a plane over a board or a 
graving tool over a surface of stone or metal. Thus the movement of a glacier 
produces on the surface of the rocks over which it moves a countless number of 


'* The biography is taken from the " Encyclopaedia of Living Divines and Christian Workers " (Sup* 
plement to Schaff-Herzog, " Encyclopaedia of Religious Knowledge "). 




parallel lines of a size corresponding to that of the rocky fragment shoved along 
underneath it. A boulder shoved along underneath a glacier may plow a furrow, 
while fine sand would make but the most minute lines, but all in nearly the same 
direction. In short, the bottom of a glacier is a mighty rasp, or rather a com- 

Map Showing Southern Boundary of Glaciated Area of Ohio. 

The dotted portion shows the glaciated area. The accompanying list of counties is numbered to 
correspond with those in the plate: 




















Van Wert. 

























































































55. Fairfield. 

56. Perry. 

57. Hocking. 

58. Vinton. 

59. Jackson. 

60. Lawrence. 

61. Cuyahoga. 

62. Medina. 

63. Summit. 

64. Wayne. 

65. Holmes. 

66. Coshocton. 

67. Muskingum. 

68. Morgan. 

69. Athens. 

70. Meigs. 

71. Gallia. 

72. Lake. 

73. Geauga. 

74. Portage. 

75. Stark. 

76. Tuscarawas. 

77. Guernsey. 

78. Noble. 

79. Ashtabula. 

80. Trumbull. 

81. Mahoning. 

82. Columbiana. 

83. Carroll. 

84. Harrison. 

85. Jefferson. 

86. Belmont. 

87. Monroe. 

88. Washington. 

bination of a plough, a rasp, a sand-paper and a pumice-stone, ploughing, scrap- 
ing, scratching and polishing the surface all at the same time. 

Now these phenomena, so characteristic of the areas just in front of a receding 
glacier, are very abundant in certain portions of Ohio. The most celebrated 
locality in the State, and perhaps in the world, is to be found in the islands near 
Sandusky. These islands consist of a hard limestone rock, which stands the 



weather well, so that the glacial marks upon them are better preserved than in 
some other localities, and the ice-movement over them was longer continued and 
more powerful than in some other places. On Kelley's Island may be seen fur- 
rows several inches and sometimes two feet deep, running for many rods in one 
direction. Whole acres when freshly uncovered are seen to be fluted by the 
parallel lines of these furrows, the whole surface being polished and scoured by 
the finer material shoved along in company with the larger fragments. The 
direction of these furrows and scratches is mainly a little south of west, or nearly 
that of the longest diameter of the lake itself, showing that for a time the ice 
moved in that direction. 

But the greater part of Ohio is several hundred feet higher than Lake Erie, and 
yet similar glacial scratches are to be found all over the higher land to some dis- 
tance south of the water-shed, and in the western part of the State clear down 
to the Ohio river. On this higher land the direction of the scratches is south or 

This plate (taken from the author's " Studies in Science and Religion ") shows a portion of the gla- 
ciated area of North America. AA represents the boundary of the glaciated area. The continuous 
line is from actual survey in 1881. BB marks special glacial accumulations. CC represents Lake 
Agassiz, a temporary body of water formed by the damming up by ice of the streams flowing into 
Hudson's Bay, the outlet being, meanwhile, through the Minnesota. D is a driftless region, which 
ice surrounded without covering. The arrows indicate the direction of glacial scratches. The kames 
of New England, and the terraces upon the Western rivers, are imperfectly shown upon so small 
a map. 

southeast, showing that there was an ice movement during the height of the 
glacial period which entirely disregarded the depression of Lake Erie. 

The most southern points where these scratches are found in the State are in 
Butler and Highland counties. In Highland county they are abundant near 
Lexington and in Butler county near Woodsdale. Many of the counties in the 
northwestern part of the State are so deeply covered with soil that the scratched 
surfaces of their rocks are seldom seen. The northeastern counties are more 
thinly covered, or have more projecting ledges of rocks, so that glacial grooving 
and scratches are more easily found and have been more frequently observed 

(2.) The "till" of which we have spoken consists of the loose soil which in 
the glaciated region covers the bed rock. In places this is of great depth, and 
everywhere it has a peculiar composition. Outside of the glaciated region the 
soil is formed by the gradual disintegration or rotting of the rocks from their 
surface downwards, so that, except along streams, there is then no soil but such 



as is derived from, the rocks of the immediate vicinity. In a limestone region 
the soil will have all come from the dissolution of limestone, in a sandstone re- 
gion from the disintegration of sandstone, and in a slatestone region from the 
weathering of that rock. But over a glaciated region the soil will be found to be 
composed of a variety of elements derived from various places in the direction 
from which the ice movement came. Thus in Stark, Holmes, Knox, Licking and 
Fairfield counties the soil will be found to be composed of a mixture of granitic 
fragments which have been brought all the way from Canada, limestone dug out 
from the bed of Lake Erie, shale gathered from the counties to the north and 
west, and sandstone ground up from the immediate vicinity. And these materials 
are not in separate layers, as when deposited by water, but are as thoroughly 
mixed as mortar in a hod. 

The only way in which 
materials could be thus 
collected in such situa- 
tions and thus thor- 
oughly mixed is by ice 
action. The ice of the 
glacial period as it moved 
over the rough surfaces 
to the north ground off 
the prominences and 
filled up the gorges and 
hollows, and we have in 
this unstratified mix- 
ture, denominated " till," 
what Professor Newbery 
called the grist of the 
glacier. The extent of 
this deposit in Ohio is 
enormous. In St. Paris, 
Champaign county, the 
till was penetrated more 
than 500 feet without 
finding the bed rock. 
This was doubtless in 
the filled-up gorge of a 
pre-glacial watercourse, 
of which there are a 
great many in the State. 
But the average depth 
of the till over the gla- 
ciated part of the State, 
as shown by the facts 
Professor Orton has 
gathered from the wells 
recently bored for gas, 
is nearly 100 feet. 

(3.) The boulders,most 
characteristic of the gla- 
ciated region of Ohio, are granitic. These are variously known in different locali- 
ties as boulders, hard heads and " nigger heads," and have all been brought from 
a great distance, and so are common, not only to the glaciated region of Ohio, 
hut to the whole glaciated region of the States east and west of it. The granitic 
mountains from which these boulders must have been derived run from the 
northern part of New York, w T here they constitute the Adirondacks, through 
Canada to the northern shore of Lake Huron and extend westward along the 
south shore of Lake Superior, containing the celebrated mining districts of that 
region. Boulders from this range of mountains are scattered all over the re- 
gion which was glaciated. They are found in great abundance in the hills of 
Northwestern Pennsylvania, and everywhere down to the glacial line as marked 

Map of the Eastern Portion of Hamilton County, Ohio. 

The space covered by horizontal lines is occupied by preglacial 
valleys, filled to a height of 100 to 200 feet above the Ohio river 
with modified drift. The unlined portion consists of the tableland 
from 200 to 500 feet above the river. 


in the accompanying map of Ohio. One near Lancaster is eighteen feet long 
and about twelve feet wide and six feet out of ground. This must have been 
brought 500 miles. Many boulders from the northern region were also found 
in Boone county, Kentucky. One of these was of a well-known variety of rock 
containing pebbles of red jasper, found in place only to the north of Lake 
Huron and about the outlet of Lake Superior, and must have been carried on 
the ice six hundred miles to be left in its present position. Boulders also con- 
taining copper from the Lake Superior region have been found in Central and 
Southern Ohio. 

If the reader doubts the possibility of such an extensive ice movement and 
asks, How can these things be ? it will be profitable for him to take a trip to 
some region where glaciers are now in operation. The Alps in Europe have 
heretofore furnished the favorite field for glacial study. But it was my privilege, 
in the summer of 1886, to spend a month beside the Muir glacier in Alaska, 
which comes down to the sea-level and is as large as all the glaciers of the Alps 
put together. Here was an ice stream two miles wide and more than a thousand 
feet deep, moving into the head of the inlet somewhat as cooled lava or cold mo- 
lasses would move and sending off great fragments to float away as icebergs. 
This ice originates in the snows that fall over the mountainous region to the 
north, and which, being too abundant to melt away, from year to year would pile 
up to inconceivable heights were it not for the capacity of movement which we 
find ice to possess. On and about this Muir glacier I have seen in operation all 
the processes by which a glacier makes those tracks which we have found to exist 
so abundantly in our own State. Miles back from the front, and miles away 
from any land, I have seen boulders on the surface of the ice as large as a fron- 
tiersman's cabin surrounded by innumerable boulders of smaller dimensions, all 
slowly travelling towards the front, there to be left upon the surface of the ground 
as the ice gradually melted away from underneath them. From the mountain 
peaks I could see more than a thousand square miles of territory which was 
completely covered by this single glacier. Were we to go to Greenland we should 
find a continent of more than 400,000 square miles almost completely covered by 
a similar moving mass of ice. 

One of the necessary accompaniments ot the ice age was the production of 
great floods at its close. As there are spring freshets now on the breaking up of 
winter, when the accumulated snow melts away and the ice forms gorges in the 
swollen streams, so there must have been gigantic floods and ice gorges when the 
glacial period drew to a close. All the streams flowing out from the front of it 
towards the south must have had an enormous volume of water, far beyond any- 
thing now witnessed. Nor is this mere speculation. I am familiar with all the 
streams flowing south from the glacial limit between the Atlantic ocean and the 
Mississippi river, and can testify that without exception such streams still bear 
the marks of that glacial flood. What are called the terraces of the terrace epoch 
in geology are the results of them. These streams have, in addition to the present 
flood-plains, a line of terraces on each side which are from fifty to one hundred 
feet higher than the water now ever rises. The material of these terraces consists 
of coarse gravel-stones and pebbles of considerable size, showing by their size 
the strength of the current which rolled them along. A noticeable thing about 
these gravel-stones and pebbles is that many granitic fragments are found among 
them, showing that they must have been deposited during the glacial period, 
for the streams have no access to granitic rock except as the ice of the glacial 
period has brought it within reach. The connection of these terraces with the 
glacial period is further proved by the fact that those streams which rise outside 
of the glaciated region, — such, for example, as the Schuylkill in Pennsylvania and 
the various small streams in Southeastern Ohio, do not have these terraces, and 
others which barely rise in the glaciated region, but do not have much of their 
drainage basin there, — have correspondingly small terraces and fewer granitic 
fragments. Such are the Hocking river and Salt creek in Hocking county and 
Brush creek in Adams county. 

Any one living in the vicinity of any of the following streams can see for him- 
self the terraces of which we are speaking, especially if he observes the valleys 
near where they emerge from the glaciated region ; for the material which the 



water could push along was most abundant there. As one gets farther and 
farther away from the old ice margin the material composing the terraces becomes 
smaller, because more waterworn, and the terraces diminish in size. Favor- 
able places in which to observe these glacial terraces are as follows: Little 
Beaver creek, Big Sandy creek, near Bayard, in Columbiana county ; the Nimi- 
shillen, below Canton, and the Tuscarawas, below Navarre, in Stark county ; Sugar 
creek, near Deardoff's Mills, in Tuscarawas county; the Killbuck, below Millers- 
burg, in Holmes county ; the Mohican, near Gann, and Vernon river, near Mill- 
wood, in Knox county ; the Licking river, below Newark, in Licking county ; 
Rush creek, near Rushville, and the Hocking river, near Lancaster, in Fairfield 

county ; Salt Creek, near 
Adelphi, in Hocking county ; 
the Scioto river, throughout 
its course, and Paint creek, 
near Bainbridge, in Ross 
county ; and both the 
Miami rivers throughout 
their course. The Ohio 
river is also lined by these 
glacial terraces, which are 
from fifty to a hundred feet 
above present high-water 
mark. On the Ohio there 
are special enlargements of 
these terraces, where the 
tributaries enter it from the 
north, which come from the 
glaciated region as laid 
down on the map. This en- 
largement is noticeable be- 
low the mouth of the Mus- 
kingum in the angles of the 
river valley below Parkers- 
burg, and in the vicinity 
of Portsmouth near the 
mouth of the Scioto, and at 
Cincinnati below the mouth 
of the Little Miami, and at 
Lawrenceburg, Indiana, 
below the mouth of the 
Great Miami. Below the 
mouth of the Muskingum 
the terrace is 100 feet above 
the flood plain of the river, 
and the highest part of the 
terrace on which old Cin- 
cinnati is built is about the 
same height. Nearly all 
the cities along the Ohio are 
built on this glacial terrace. 
The most interesting thing about these terraces, and what makes it proper for 
me in this connection to write thus fully about them, is that the earliest traces 
of man in the world are found in them. The accompanying cuts show two im- 
plements which were found in terraces such as I have been describing. The first 
was found at Abbeville, France, in such a terrace on the river Somme as those 
which occur in the valleys of Ohio. It was found in gravel that had never been 
disturbed, and so must have lain there ever since the glacial period, by whose 
floods it was buried, closed. 

The second implement was found a few years ago by Dr. Abbott in a similar 
gravel terrace, on which the city of Trenton, New Jersey, is built. This terrace 
was deposited by the Delaware river when it was swollen by glacial floods. 

The palseolith here shown is natural size and is No. 3,034 of 
the Mortillet collection, from Abbeville, France. The geologi- 
cal conditions under which this was found are very similar to 
those of the palseolith from Trenton, N. J., and to those at 
Madisonville and Loveland, Ohio. 

9 6 


In my original " Report upon the Glacial Boundary of Ohio, Indiana and Ken- 
tucky," I remarked that since man was in New Jersey before the close of the 
glacial period, it is also probable that he was on the banks of the Ohio at the 
same early period ; and I asked that the extensive gravel terraces in the southern 
part of the State be carefully scanned by archaeologists, adding that when 
observers became familiar with the forms of these rude implements they would 
doubtless find them in abundance. As to the abundance, this prophecy has not 
been altogether fulfilled. But enough has been already discovered in Ohio to 
show that man was here at that 
early time when the ice of the 
glacial period lingered on the 
south side of the water partings 
between the lake and the Ohio 
river. Both at Loveland and at 
Madison ville, in the valley of the 
Little Miami, Dr. C. L. Metz, of 
the latter place, has found this 
ancient type of implements sev- 
eral feet below the surface of the 
glacial terraces bordering that 
stream. The one at Madisonville 
was found about eight feet below 
the surface, where the soil had 
not been disturbed, and it was in 
shape and appearance almost ex- 
actly like one of those found by 
Dr. Abbott in Trenton, N. J. 
These are enough to establish the 
fact that men, whose habits of life 
were much like the Eskimos, al- 
ready followed up the retreating 
ice of the great glacial period 
when its front was in the latitude 
of Trenton and Cincinnati, as 
they now do when it has retreated 
to Greenland. Very likely the 
Eskimos are the descendants of 
that early race in Ohio. 

In addition to the other con- 
ditions which were similar, it is 
found that the animals which 
roamed over this region were 
much like those which now are 
found in the far north. Bones of 
the walrus and the musk ox and 
the mastodon have been found in 
the vicinity of these implements 
of early man in New Jersey, and 
those of the mastodon were dug 
from the same gravel-pit in Love- 
land from which the imple- 
ment found in that place was 

Having been able thus to associate our ancestors with the closing scenes of the 
glacial period, new interest at once attaches itself to glacial studies, and especially 
to glacial chronology. For if we can tell how long it is since the ice of the glacial 
period withdrew from the northern slope of the Ohio basin, we have done much 
towards settling the date of man's appearance here. How then shall we deter- 
mine the date of the close of the glacial period? This we cannot hope to do 
with great accuracy, but we can do something even here in Ohio towards the solu- 
tion of that most interesting problem of man's antiquity. 

This palaeolith is shortened one inch in the cut, and is 
proportionally narrow, the original being 5 6-8 inches 
Jong and 8 1-8 wide. This is No. 19,723 in Dr. Abbott's 
collection from Trenton, N. J. The Mortillet and Tren- 
ton collections are both in the Archaeological Museum, 
in Cambridge, Mass., where these specimens can at any 
time be seen. 



(1.) In the first place many streams are so situated that we can measure the 
work they have done since the glacial period, and also can form some idea of the 
rate at which they are at work. The gorge in Niagara river below the falls has 
long been a favorite place from which to get these measurements. This gorge is 
only about seven miles long— that being the distance from Queenston to the 
Falls. The gorge is throughout in limestone strata of pretty uniform hardness, 
anji represents the work done by the river at that point since the glacial period. 
This we know from several signs. Before the glacial period Lake Erie did not 
exist. In the long geological periods which had elapsed before the glacial age, a 

channel had been worn 

clear back from Lake On- 
tario to Lake Erie, as will 
be the case with the pres- 
ent river if only time 
enough is given it. In 
short, Lake Erie is only 
a glacial mill-pond. The 
old outlet was filled up 
by the glacial deposits 
which we have described 
so that the water had to 
seek a new outlet, which 
happened to be along the 
course of the present 
Niagara river. Confirma- 
tory evidence of this is 
found at Cleveland and 
for many miles up the 
valley of the Cuyahoga 
river, as well as in many 
other streams of Northern 
Ohio. In boring for oil in 
the bed of the Cuyahoga 
a few years ago, it was 
found that the old rocky 
bottom is 200 feet below 
the present bottom of the 
river. This means that 
at one time Lake Erie was 
200 feet lower than now. 
But the lake is for the 
most part less than 200 
feet deep, so that if there 
were an outlet, as there 
must have been, at that 

L">i ^ lower level, the lake itself 

must have disappeared, 
and there was only a 
stream with a broad, fer- 
tile valley where the lake 
is now. Thus we prove 
that the Niagara gorge 
represents the work of erosion done by the river since the glacial period. The 
next problem is to ascertain how fast the river is wearing back the gorge. 
; That the gorge is receding is evident from the occasional reports heard of por- 
tions of the shelving rocks falling beneath the weight of water constantly pour- 
ing over them. If a continual dropping wear a stone, what must not such a 
torrent of water do? From measurements made between forty and fifty years 
ago and others repeated within the last few years, it has been ascertained that the 
falls are receding. The recent surveys of the government show that during the 
last forty-five years very nearly six acres of rock surface have broken off from 

This plate (taken from "Studies in Science and Religion") 
shows, in addition to the glaciated area of New Jersey, the glacial 
terraces of gravel along the Lehigh and Delaware rivers, and 
also the delta-terrace at Trenton, from which Dr. C. C. Abbott 
has taken palaeolithic implements. 

9 8 


the verge of the falls, making an average annual recession of about two and 
a half feet per year for the last forty-five years. Making allowances for portions 
of the work which had been done before the glacial period by smaller stream in 
the same channel, and for some other facts which there is not time here to men- 
tion, Mr. G. K. Gilbert, of the United States Geological Survey, concludes that 
the falls of Niagara cannot be more than 7,000 years old. This brings the glacial 
period much nearer than was formerly supposed. 

But there are many things in our own State which go to confirm this calcula- 
tion. The citizens of Ohio have not to go out of their own boundaries to find 
facts helping to solve the question of man's antiquity. Nearly all the rivers 
emptying into Lake Erie have somewhere in their courses cataracts which can 
serve as chronometers of the glacial period. In the most of these cases it is pos- 
sible to ascertain what part of the channel is pre-glacial and what post-glacial, 
and to form some estimate of the rate of recession. This can be done on the 
Chagrin, the Cuyahoga, Rocky, and Black rivers, and probably on some others. 
Let the young students of the State attack these problems before going abroad 
for great fields of discovery. 


ON?^RXO \ <*•$* #W* 

V \ 






In the central and southern part of the State the problems are equally inter- 
esting. Since the glacial period the streams have been constantly at work 
enlarging their channels. How much have they enlarged them, and what is the 
rate of enlargement? These are definite problems appealing for solution on 
nearly all the tributaries of Ohio. Professor Hicks, of Granville College, set a 
good example in this line of investigation a few years ago. Raccoon creek, in 
Licking county, is bordered by terraces throughout its course. These are what 
we have described as glacial terraces, and are about fifty feet above the present 
flood plain of the stream. It is evident that at the close of the glacial period 
the valley was filled up to that level with pebbles and gravel, and that since that 
period the stream has been at work enlarging its channel until now it 
has removed gravel to the amount that would fill the valley up to the level of 
these terraces and across the whole space. Multiply this height, fifty feet, by the 
breadth from which the material has been removed, and that by the length of 
the stream, and make allowance for the diminution of the valley as the head- 
waters are approached, and you will have the cubical contents of the material 


removed by the stream since it began its work at the close of the glacial period. 
The result, in the case of Raccoon creek, was not materially different from the 
calculations concerning Niagara Falls. It cannot be far from 10,000 years old. 
This is the dividend. Then find out how much mud and sand the stream is 
carrying out; this will be your divisor. I have made a similar calculation con- 
cerning the age of Plum creek, in Oberlin, and the result is likewise to show that 
the glacial period cannot have been so long ago as was formerly supposed. If 
the glacial period closed much more than 8,000 or 10,000 years ago in Northern 
Ohio, the valleys of the post-glacial streams would be much larger than they 
really are. Again I say let the young investigators of the State attack the chro- 
nological problems offered by the streams in their own vicinity before sighing 
for other realms of science to conquer. 

In conclusion, then, we may say that it is not so startling a statement as it once 
was to speak of man as belonging to the glacial period. And, with the recent 
discoveries of Dr. Metz, we may begin to speak of our own State as one of the 
earliest portions of the globe to become inhabited. Ages before the mound- 
builders reared their complicated and stately structures in the valleys of the 
Licking, the Scioto, the Miami, and the Ohio, man in a more primitive state had 
hunted and fished with rude implements in some portions at least of the southern 
part of the State. To have lived in such a time, and successfully to have over- 
come the hardships of that climate and the fierceness of the animal life, must 
have called for an amount of physical energy and practical skill which few of 
the present generation possess. Let us therefore not speak of such a people as 
inferior. They must have had all the native powers of humanity fully developed, 
and are worthy ancestors of succeeding races. 



Professor of Agriculture and Veterinary Science in the Ohio State University. 

Nobton Stkange Townshend was born 
at Clay Coaton, Northamptonshire, England, 
December 25, 1815. His parents came to Ohio 
and settled upon a farm in Avon, Lorain 
county, iu 1830. Busy with farm work, he 
found no time to attend school, but in leisure 
hours made good use of his father's small 

He early took an active part in the temper- 
ance and anti-slavery reforms, and for some 
time was superintendent of a Sunday-school 
in his neighborhood. In 1836 he taught 
the district school, and in 1837 commenced the 
study of medicine with Dr. R. L. Howard, of 
Elyria. The winter of the same year was 
spent in attending medical lectures at Cincin- 
nati Medical College. Returning to Elyria he 
applied himself to medical studies with Dr. 
Howard and to Latin, Greek and French with 
other teachers. In the winter of 1839 he was 
a student at the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons of New York, spending what time 
he could command as voluntary assistant in 
the chemical laboratory of Professor John 
Torry. In March, 1840, he received the de- 
gree of M. D. from the University of the State 
of New York, of which the College of Physi- 
cians and Surgeons was then a department. 
Proposing to spend a year or more in a visit to 
European hospitals, the Temperance Society 
of the College of Physicians and Surgeons, 
New York, requested him to carry the greeting 
of that body to similar societies on the other 
side of the Atlantic. This afforded him an opportunity to make the acquaintance of many well-known 
temperance men. 

The Anti-slavery Society of the State of Ohio also made him their delegate to the World's Anti- 
slavery Convention of June, 1840, in London,Eng. This enabled him to see and hear distinguished anti- 
slavery men from different countries. He then visited Paris and remained through the summer and 
autumn, seeing practice in the hospitals and taking private lessons in operative surgery, auscultation, 
etc. The next winter was passed in Edinburgh and the spring in Dublin. 

In 1841 he returned to Ohio and commenced the practice of medicine, first in Avon and afterwards 
in Elyria. In 1848 he was elected to the Legislature by the anti-slavery men of Lorain county and 
took an aetive part in securing the repeal of the Black Laws of Ohio and in the election of S. P. Chase 
to the United States Senate. 

The Black Laws of Ohio covered three points. 1. The settlement of black or mulatto persons m 
Ohio was prohibited unless they could show a certificate of their freedom and obtain two freeholders 
to give security for their good behavior and maintenance in the event of their becoming a public 
charge. Unless this certificate of freedom was duly recorded and produced it was a penal offence to 
give employment to a black or mulatto. 

2. They were excluded from the common schools. 

3. No black or mulatto could be sworn or allowed to testify in any court in any case where a white 
person was concerned. . 

In 1850 Dr. Townshend was elected a member of the Constitutional Convention and in the same year 
to the Thirty-second Congress. m 

In 1853 he was elected to the Ohio Senate, where he presented a memorial for the establishment ot 
a State Institution for the Training of Imbeciles. At the next session this measure was carried and 
Dr. Townshend was appointed one of three trustees to carry the law into effect, a position he held by 
subsequent appointment for twentv-one years. While in political life he had relinquished the practice 
of medicine and with his family "returned to the farm in Avon. Being deeply impressed with the 
value of some scientific training for young farmers, in 1854 he united with Professors James H. Fair- 
child and James Dascomb, of Oberlin, and Dr. John S. Newberry, of Cleveland, in an attempt to 
establish an Agricultural College. Winter courses of lectures were given on the branches of science 
most intimately related to agriculture for three successive winters, twice at Oberlin and once at 




This effort, perhaps, had the effect of exciting public attention to the importance of special educa- 
tion for the young farmer. In 1858 Dr. Townshend was chosen a member of the State Board of 
Agriculture, and so continued for six years. He also served in the same capacity in 1868-69. Early 
in 1863 he received the appointment of Medical Inspector in the United States Army, with the rank 
of Lieutenant-Colonel, in which capacity he served to the end of the war. 

In 1867 he was appointed one of the committee to examine the wool appraisers' department of the 
New York and Boston custom houses to ascertain how correctly imported wools were classified, etc., 
etc. The report of this committee aided in securing the wool tariff of the same year. In 1869 he was 
chosen Professor of Agriculture in the Iowa Agricultural College. In 1870 the law having passed to 
establish an Agricultural and Mechanical College in Ohio, he was appointed one of the trustees 
charged with the duty of carrying the law into effect. In 1873 he resigned the place of trustee and 
was immediately appointed Professor of Agriculture, which then included Botany and Veterinary 

During the college vacation in 1884 he visited the agricultural, veterinary schools and botanic gar- 
dens of Great Britain and Ireland, and attended the English National Fair at Shrewsbury, that of 
Scotland at Edinburgh and of Ireland at Dublin. Dr. Townshend is at present the Professor of Agri- 
culture in what was previously the Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College, now the Ohio State 

The agriculture of a country is dependent, not only upon its soil and climate, 
but also on the character of the people and their institutions. In 1787 the Con- 
tinental Congress made an ordinance for the government of the Northwestern 
Territory which prohibited the introduction of slavery, and thus exerted a con- 
trolling influence, not only upon the agriculture of the Northwest, but also upon 
the future of its entire material and social progress. This practically secured for 
the States soon to be formed an industrious, intelligent and thrifty population. 

State Claims. — Virginia, New York, Connecticut and Massachusetts made claims 
based on charters granted by kings of England to portions of the territory north- 
west of the Ohio. After much controversy it was proposed by Congress that 
these States should relinquish their claims in favor of the United* States, and that 
the land should be sold for the benefit of the United States Treasury, and should 
be formed into new States to be admitted into the Union when their population 
warranted. This plan was adopted, except that Virginia reserved a tract of more 
than 3,000,000 acres between the Scioto and Little Miami rivers for the benefit 
of the soldiers from that State who had served in the war of the Revolution. 
This tract was known as the Virginia Military district. Connecticut also made a 
reservation of a tract in the northeast part of the territory, running west 120 
miles from the Pennsylvania line and containing 3,800,000 acres. This was 
known as the Connecticut Western Reserve and was intended to compensate her 
soldiers for service in the Revolutionary war. Five hundred thousand acres 
from the west part of the Reserve, afterwards known as the Fire Lands, was given 
as compensation to her citizens who had sustained the loss of property by fire 
during that war. The whole of the Western Reserve was surveyed into town- 
ships of five miles square. These townships were divided into sections of a mile 
square and further subdivided into quarter sections. 

Ohio Company. — The formation in Massachusetts of the Ohio Company and 
their establishment at Marietta (so named in honor of Marie Antoinette, Queen 
of France) on the company's purchase of 1,500,000 acres, marks an epoch in 
Western history. General Rufus Putnam and associates left their New England 
homes, and at Pittsburg procured a boat which they called the " Mayflower " and 
floated down the Ohio and landed where Marietta now stands on the 7th of April, 
1788. On the 15th of July following a Territorial government was established, 
General Arthur St. Clair having been appointed governor. 

Land Laws. — From this time extensive sales and grants of Ohio lands were 
made by Congress. A change was afterwards made in the United States land 
laws by which sales had been restricted to not less than a mile square, or 640 
acres. This was changed to quarter-sections of 160 acres, and sold at $2 an 
acre, with a credit of five years. The beneficial effect of the change may be 
estimated from the fact that in 1800, the year in which the law was modified, the 
entire Northwest had a population of only 45,000, while in ten years from that 
time Ohio alone reported a population of 240,000. 

Forests— At the time of the first settlement of the Ohio Territory almost the 
whole region was covered by a dense forest. This forest consisted of oak, elm, 
ash, beech, maple, hickory, chestnut, butternut, black walnut, wild cherry, syca- 
more, tulip-tree, basswood, locust, sweet-gum, poplar, willow, mulberry, cucum- 


ber, box-elder, buckeye, etc. The native fruits were the cranberry, which grew 
in marshes, huckleberry, blackberry, pawpaw, persimmon, plum, wild grapes, 
and cherries, etc. Chestnuts, black walnuts, hickory nuts and butternuts were 
abundant, while beechnuts and acorns supplied the food upon which hogs fat- 

Wild Animals were numerous. Deer supplied many of the early settlers with 
meat. Bears, wolves, foxes, raccoons, woodchucks, opossums, skunks and squir- 
rels were, some of them, too common. Wild turkeys, geese and ducks, partridges, 
quails and pigeons were abundant. Eagles and turkey-buzzards were frequent 
visitors. Owls and hawks were more common and the latter very troublesome 
among the farmers' chickens. 

Hunting was one of the active employments of the early settlers, either for the 
purpose of obtaining supplies of venison and other game, or for the destruction 
of troublesome animals, a bounty from county treasuries being paid for wolf 
scalps. Occasionally drives or general hunts were organized. Hunters sur- 
rounded a township or other tract and moved in line toward some designated 
point. Deer and other animals were surrounded; many deer were sometimes 
killed and numbers of more mischievous animals were occasionally destroyed. 
In the afternoon of the 1st of May, 1830, the writer, with two companions, walked 
from Cleveland some eighteen miles on the State road leading westward. The 
place of destination was not reached until late in the evening, when conversation 
had become difficult from the incessant howling of wolves. It is not a little 
remarkable that a gray wolf should have been killed in the west part of Cuya- 
hoga county bn the 30th of April of the present year. For many years raccoons 
were specially troublesome in the ripening corn, and consequently the necessity 
of cooning was everywhere recognized. Active boys, with dogs, would visit the 
cornfields at night when the green corn attracted the raccoons, which were some- 
times caught in the field, but oftener by cutting trees in the vicinity upon which 
they had taken refuge. 

Fishing. — In the spring fishing was a common resource for the settlers, especially 
in the vicinity of Lake Erie. When the fish started up the rivers at spawning 
time various devices were employed to capture them. Seines were most successful, 
but a simpler method was more common. The fisherman at night, with a lighted 
torch made of hickory bark in one hand and a fish-spear in the other, waded 
knee-deep or more into the stream ; then, as fish attracted by the light came 
near, they were struck with the spear and thrown out of the water or otherwise 
secured. Pike, pickerel, catfish, sturgeon, muscalunge and mullet, as many as 
the fisherman could carry home, were sometimes caught. Some were used fresh, 
but more were salted and kept for future supply. 

Work. — In the early settlement of the State a formidable amount of work con- 
fronted the pioneer — building of houses and barns, of schools and meeting- 
houses, the making of roads, bridging of streams, clearing and fencing the land. 
Then came planting or sowing, cultivation and harvesting of crops and the con- 
stant care of his animals. The first buildings were of logs a foot or more in 
diameter. These were cut of suitable length and brought together, then neigh- 
bors were invited to the raising. One axeman went to each of the four corners 
to notch and fit the logs as others rolled them up. In some cases larger logs split 
in halves were used. These could be placed with the split sides inward so as to 
make a tolerably smooth and perpendicular wall. The log school-houses and 
meeting-houses were built in the same manner, though, as in the case of dwelling- 
houses, the logs were sometimes squared before being put up. The structure was 
then called a block-house. Log-houses were covered with long split oak shingles 
held in place by small logs or poles so that no nails were required. Floors and 
doors were made from logs split into flat pieces and hewn smooth. When saw- 
mills had been introduced and lumber could be obtained for door-frames, doors, 
window-frames, etc., houses could be much more neatly finished. After lumber 
became plentiful frame buildings superseded those of logs. More recently brick 
and stone have come into general use. 

Road-making was at first very simple. A surveyor, or some other person sup- 
posed to know the proposed route, blazed the trees in the line ; this was sufficient 
to mark the course, then the track of sufficient width was underbrushed, and the 


dead logs cut, and rolled or drawn aside. When the amount of travel made it 
necessary the timber from the whole breadth of the route was cut and removed. 
Upon low, wet places logways were made by placing logs of equal size closely 
together, and sometimes a light covering of earth was placed over the logs so that 
vehicles could pass over smoothly. Small bridges, where timbers of extra length 
were not required, were easily made, but across streams not passable by an easily 
made bridge or ford ferries were established. If a person or team needed to cross 
a stream, the ferryman with his boat took them over ; if they came to the river 
from the side opposite to that on which the ferryman lived, they found near the 
road a tin horn tied to a tree ; this they blew, until the ferryman brought over 
the boat. 

Clearing. — For clearing away the forest, the chopping was usually done in the 
winter months. First the underbrush was cut and piled, the logs already down 
were cut into lengths, which permitted them to be drawn together; occasionally 
these dead logs were burned into pieces by small fires kept up until the logs were 
burned through. The timber suitable for rails was next cut down and into 
suitable lengths, and drawn to the lines where fences were to be built ; the bal- 
ance of the timber was then cut down, and chopped into convenient lengths for 
logging. When the brushwood and timber upon a tract was all cut it was left 
through the summer, and called a summer-fallow, the timber in the meantime 
becoming dry. In the fall the brush-heaps were burned, then the logs were 
drawn together by oxen, and rolled into log-heaps and burned. Next the rail- 
cuts were split into rails, and the worm-fence built, after which came the wheat- 
sowing. In some sections, or upon some farms, the timber was not all cut down, 
many of the larger trees being notched around or girdled, so that they died. This 
process of deadening the large trees was a great saving of labor in the first instance; 
but as dead limbs and trees were liable to fall, and perhaps do mischief, it was 
not generally approved. 

Ashes — Sugar. — The first valuable product which the settler obtained from his 
land was the ashes which remained after the timber was burnt. These were care- 
fully gathered and leached : the lye was then boiled into black salts, which were 
marketable at the country stores. In many towns asheries were established, which 
bought the ashes or black salts, and converted them into pot- or pearl-ash for 
Eastern markets. Another product of the forest also required the farmers' atten- 
tion : with the first warm days of spring the sap of the maple-trees was started. 
The hard maples were tapped, and in some localities even the soft maples; the 
sap was collected in troughs made by the axe, and boiled to the consistency of 
syrup, or carried a step further, until crystallization was secured. Maple-sugar 
making saved the early settlers from what would have involved a large ex- 

Teams. — The team-work necessary in clearing, and for farm-work in the new 
country, was chiefly done by oxen. The employment of oxen appeared to secure 
many advantages ; the first cost was less than for horses, oxen are more easily 
kept, the yoke with which they were worked could be made by any handy farmer, 
and was therefore much less expensive than the harness necessary for horses. 
The log-chains used with oxen were well adapted for work among timber, and 
when broken could easily be mended by the country blacksmith ; and if any 
accident befell the ox, and he became unfit for work, this probably did not pre- 
vent his being fattened and turned into beef. In general, steers were easily 
trained. Sometimes they were worked with those already broken, but, whatever 
plan was adopted, they soon learned to make themselves useful. Before the 
introduction of improved breeds of cattle all working oxen w r ere of what was 
called native stock ; after the introduction of Devons into some parts of the State, 
these were found to be greatly superior for work. In addition to their uniform 
beautiful red color and handsome horns, the Devons proved more active and more 
easily taught than other breeds. Since the introduction of the mower, reaper, 
and other forms of farm machinery, the quicker-stepping horse has been found 
more desirable for team-work, not only upon the road but also on the farm. 

Wheat. — After clearing and fencing, wheat was sown broadcast among the 
stumps with a rude harrow called a drag; it was scratched under the surface. 
For many years the wheat when ripe was cut with a sickle; in some parts of the 


State the grain-cradle was introduced as early as 1830, or perhaps earlier, and 
this gradually superseded the older implement. After being cut, the wheat was 
allowed to stand some days in shock, in order to dry before it was hauled to the 
barn or stack. It was usually thrashed with the flail, though the more expe- 
ditious method of treading out the grain by horses was sometimes employed. 
After thrashing the wheat was separated from the chaff by throwing them up 
before the wind ; or a fan, with a revolving frame, to which pieces of canvas were 
attached, was used to raise the wind ; finally, the fanning-mill came into use some 
years before the horse-power thrashing-machine. We may now be thankful for 
more expeditious methods, for the United States census for 1880 reports the 
wheat crop of Ohio at 49,790,475 bushels ; only the State of Illinois produced 

Grass. — In the spring, as early as April, or perhaps earlier, it was customary to 
sow grass-seed and clover among the growing wheat. At the time of harvest 
there was but little grass to be seen, but when no longer shaded it made rapid 
growth, and a pasture or meadow was soon established. For many years the 
grass crop was cut by the scythe, and tedded, or spread from the swath with a 
fork. When dry, it was gathered together with a hand-rake, and hauled to the 
barn or stack upon a cart drawn by oxen. Mowing with a scythe required skill 
as well as strength, and hence to be a good mower was an object of ambition 
among young farmers. It must nowadays appear strange to good old mowers, who 
still remain among us, to see a half-grown boy or a sprightly girl jump upon a 
mowing-machine, and with a pair of horses cut as much grass in an hour as the 
best mower could aforetime cut in a whole day. 

Corn. — On land newly cleared and fenced early in May corn planting com- 
menced. A bag to hold the seed-corn was suspended by tape or string around 
the waist of the planter. The corn was usually planted dry, though sometimes 
it was soaked to insure more speedy germination. The implement used in plant- 
ing was a heavy, sharp hoe; this would raise the rooty or leafy soil, and allow 
the corn to be thrown under : what had been raised could then be pressed down 
with the back of the hoe or with the foot ; or an old axe was used to make a hole, 
into which the corn was dropped. When the corn was a few inches high the 
weeds were cleared away with the hoe, and the soil stirred about the hill. On 
lands that had been cleared a few years and the roots decayed, the plow, drawn 
by oxen, was used between the rows of growing corn, the oxen wearing baskets 
on their muzzles to prevent them from cropping off the corn ; the cultivator had 
not then made its appearance. The corn, when ripe, was husked standing, or it 
was cut and shocked, and the husking left until the farmer had leisure. If one 
became sick, and fell behind in his work, the neighbors would give him the benefit 
of a husking-bee ; ten or a dozen, or possibly twenty of them, would come to- 
gether, and give a half-day's, or perhaps a whole day's work. Yellow dent or 
gourd-seed corn was preferred for feeding, but in the northern part of the State 
white-flint corn was raised for many years, because it found such ready market 
at higher price with the Hudson's Bay Fur Company, by whom it was hulled, 
and supplied to their trappers. The corn crop of Ohio has largely increased 
during the century. The United States census for 1880 reports the corn crop of 
the State at 119,940,000, or within a fraction of one hundred and twenty millions 
of bushels. 

Farm Implements. — For many years after tillage commenced in Ohio the plow 
with w r ooden mould-board was in use, the landside, share and point being of iron 
and steel. The cast-iron plow of Jethro Wood appeared about 1820, but did not 
immediately come into general use. The next improvement consisted in chill- 
ing and hardening the cutting parts. Then plows of well-tempered steel came 
into use, and finally the sulky plow, on which the plowman rides comfortably 
while the work is done. The pioneer harrow was made from the crotch of a tree. 
It usually had four teeth on each side and one in front. This was called a drag. 
It was a very convenient implement for covering grain among stumps and roots. 
After a time the double Scotch harrow and then the Geddes Harrow came into 
use. Finally the Acme was reached. The wheat drill for seeding had long been 
used in other countries and was introduced into Ohio as soon as the stumps and 
roots were out of the wa}'. At the State Fair, held in Cleveland in 1852, grain 


drills, corn planters, broadcast wheat sowers, corn shellers for horse and hand 
power, corn and cob crushers and one and two-horse cultivators were on exhibi- 
tion. The cultivator for use among corn and the revolving horse-rake were 
patented in 1824, McCormick's reaper in 1831 and Hussey's mower in 1833. At 
a State trial for reapers and mowers, held in Springfield in 1852, twelve different 
reapers and mowers competed for the prize. Later came the reaper and binder, 
the hay loader and stacker and the steam thrasher and cleaner. These imple- 
ments have so changed the character of harvest work as to make it possible to 
increase almost indefinitely the amount of cereals raised. Flax was at one time 
an important crop in* Ohio. It was sown, cleaned, pulled, rotted, broken, 
swingled, hatcheled, spun and woven in the home and made into linen for the 
household and into summer garments for men and boys. In 1869 Ohio produced 
nearly 80,000,000 pounds of flax fibre and had ninety flax mills in operation. 
In 1870 the tariff on gunny cloth grown in the East Indies was removed and as 
a result every flax mill in Ohio was stopped and the amount of flax fibre reduced 
in 1886 to less than 2,000,000 pounds. 

Improvement of Stock. — In 1834 the Ohio Importing Company was organized in 
Ross county by Mr. Felix Renick and others. Agents of this company visited 
England and brought to Ohio many first-class Shorthorns. Previous to this Mr. 
Patton had brought into the State the descendants of cattle of a previous importa- 
tion made into Maryland. Since that time many importations have been made. 
Devons, Shorthorns, Herefords, Ayreshires, Red Polled, Alderneys, Jerseys, 
Guernseys, Polled Angus and Holsteins are now all seen at the State and County 
Fairs. For a time in the early history of the State there existed a serious hin- 
drance to the improvement of Ohio's cattle in the prevalence of a fatal disease, 
known as bloody murrain. Gradually this has become less and less troublesome, 
until at the present time it is scarcely known. 

Dairying. — For many years dairying in Ohio has been one of the leading in- 
dustries. In the winter of 1851-2 the Ohio Dairymen's Association was formed. 
In 1861 the statistics of cheese production were first collected. In 1886 the 
amount of factory cheese made in the State exceeded 16,500,000 pounds, and that 
of farm dairies was nearly 3,000,000 pounds. The change in the style and pur- 
pose of Ohio cattle will be observed. At first those were preferred that were best 
adapted for labor, then those that were specially fitted for beef, and more recently 
those which are best suited for the dairy. 

Sheep had early been brought to this country and raised both for wool and 
mutton. The first importation of Spanish Merinoes into the United States was 
made by General Humphreys near the beginning of the present century. Some 
descendants of that importation were brought to Ohio by Mr. Atwood. Messrs. 
Wells and Dickinson also brought valuable sheep to the State. Merinoes, 
Saxons, Silesians, French Merinoes, and the long-wooled and mutton sheep of 
England, Lincolns, Coteswolds and Leicesters, also Sussex, Hampshire and 
Shropshire Downs have all been exhibited at State Fairs. Sheep in Ohio were 
more numerous a few years since, but the change made in the tariff upon for- 
eign wools in 1883 has considerably reduced their number. 

Swine. — A great change has been made in the swine of the State. At first the 
hog that could make a good living upon what fell from the trees of the forest and 
could most successfully escape from bears and wolves, in accordance with the 
law of the "survival of the fittest," was the most likely to increase. Under the 
influences tc which swine were subjected for the first quarter or half a century it 
is not surprising that the common hog of Ohio was known as a "rail splitter." 
In the latter part of the century Berkshires, Chester Whites, Irish Graziers, 
Chinas, Neapolitans, Essexs and Suffolks have been introduced, until to-day what 
is sometimes called the Butler county hog, or Poland China, may be said to com- 
bine the excellencies of all. 

Horses, though less used than formerly for distant travel, are coming more and 
more into use on the farm. In the early part of the century the only recognized 
way of improving the quality of this serviceable animal was by the importation 
and use of thoroughbred stallions. Such animals were introduced into nearly 
every county of the State and many beautiful horses for light draft was the re- 
sult. At State Fairs the classification has usually been : Thoroughbreds, Road- 


sters, of which class Morgans were a conspicuous example, General Purpose and 
Draft Horses. This was thought more convenient than classification by breeds, 
such as Clydesdale, Cleveland Bay, Norman, Percheron, etc., all of which, how- 
ever, are seen at our fairs. 

Fruit — From several quarters the fruits of Ohio have been improved. The 
first settlers at Marietta had among their number men interested in fruit culture. 
On the Western Reserve Dr. Kirtland early imported fine varieties of fruit from 
New Jersey. The improvements he himself made in cherries were of still greater 
importance. At Cincinnati Nicholas Longworth had established a vineyard upon 
Bald Hill as early as. 1833, and succeeded in introducing fine varieties of grapes. 
Gradually it was seen that the climate of the southern shore of Lake Erie and 
the adjacent islands was better adapted to grape culture than portions of the 
State more inland. The important work accomplished for the improvement of 
the fruit of the Northwest by the gentlemen named and by Dr. John A. Warder, 
N. Ohmer, Geo. W. Campbell and their associates of the Ohio Pomological So- 
ciety, which was organized in 1852, and of its legitimate successor, the State 
Horticultural Society, since 1867 cannot be estimated. 

Transportation. — For many years the principal means of communication be- 
tween Ohio and the Eastern States was by pack-horses. As roads improved 
Pennsylvania wagons, drawn by four or six heavy horses, were seen. Such was 
the difficulty of travel that in 1806 Congress ordered the construction of a national 
road from Cumberland Gap to the Ohio river, and from thence to the western 
boundary of the State. This road was finished to the Ohio in 1825 and com- 
pleted to the Indiana line in 1834. The first steamboat left Pittsburg for New 
Orleans in 1811. An event which greatly affected the prosperity of the North- 
western States was the opening of the Erie Canal through the State of New York 
in 1825. In 1824 wheat was sold in Ohio for thirty-five cents a bushel, and corn 
for ten cents. Soon after the completion of the Erie Canal the prices of these 
grains went up fifty per cent. In 1825 the Ohio Canal was begun and finished 
in 1830. Railroads were begun in Ohio in 1835 and the first completed in 1848. 
The influence of these improved facilities for transportation may be seen in the 
fact that in 1838 sixteen pounds of butter were required for the purchase of one 
pound of tea, now two pounds are adequate; then four pounds of butter would 
prepay one letter to the seaboard, now the same amount would pay the postage 
on forty letters. The price of farm produce advanced fifty per cent, on the com- 
pletion of the canals. The railroads appear to have doubled the price of flour, 
trebled the price of pork and quadrupled the price of corn. 

Underdraining has for some years past occupied the attention of Ohio farmers, 
but only for a few years has its importance become generally understood. It has, 
however, been practiced to a limited extent for a long period. In the summer of 
1830 the writer of this paper advised and superintended the construction of 
drains upon the farm of a neighbor in Lorain county for the double purpose of 
making useful a piece of very wet land and to collect spring water and make it 
available for stock. A year later the writer, with similar objects in view, put in 
a drain upon land which he now owns, and the drain then made is running well 
at present. Horse-shoe tiles were at first made by hand, but before 1850 tile 
machines had come into use. In consequence of clearing off the forests and the 
surface drainage necessary for crops many of the smaller streams and springs 
have ceased to flow in the summer months. This has compelled many farmers 
to pump water from wells for the use of stock. Well water has an advantage 
over surface water in its more uniform temperature. To make the water of deep 
wells available for stock, pumping by wind-mills has become very common since 
about 1870, when the first self-adjusting wind-mill was exhibited at the Ohio 
State Fair. 

Soiling and Ensilage are among comparatively modern improvements. The ex- 
tent of the dairy interest in Ohio and the necessity of obtaining milk at 
all seasons to supply the needs of an increasing population had led to the prac- 
tice of cutting succulent green crops to feed to animals in their stalls when the 
pasture is insufficient. Growing rye, oats, peas and vetches, clover, lucern, 
young corn, Hungarian and other millets have been employed. To secure more 
juicy fodder in winter a method of preserving these and other green crops has 


been adopted, numerous silos have been built and many dairymen are enthusi- 
astic in regard to the value of ensilage. 

Animal Diseases. — One of the great improvements made in Ohio agriculture is 
due to the efforts of a number of well-educated veterinarians and the consequent 
better knowledge and treatment of animal diseases. It is doubtless true that a 
still larger supply of intelligent veterinarians is desirable and that a better 
knowledge of the nature and causes of disease by stock-owners is requisite, inas- 
much as this is essential to securing the proper sanitary management of stock. 
Although in the past the State has been backward in this particular, there is 
reason to expect more rapid advance in the future. 

Agricultural Papers. — Among the agencies which have contributed to the prog- 
ress of agriculture in Ohio it is but just to place agricultural periodicals in the 
foremost rank. The first of these known to the writer was the Western Tiller, 
published in Cincinnati in 1826; The Farmer's Review, also in Cincinnati, 1831 ; 
The Ohio Farmer, by S. Medary, at Batavia in 1833 ; The Ohio Cultivator, by M. B. 
Batcham, in Columbus in 1845; Western Farmer and Gardener, Cincinnati, 1840; 
Western Horticultural Review, at Cincinnati, by Dr. John A. Warder ; The Ohio 
Farmer, at Cleveland ; Farm and Fireside, at Springfield ; Farmer's Home, at Day- 
ton ; American Grange Bulletin, at Cincinnati. 

County and State Societies. — As early as 1828 County Agricultural Societies were 
organized in a few counties of the State. These societies doubtless did good if 
only by getting men awake to see the dawn approaching. In 1846 the General 
Assembly passed a law for the encouragement of agriculture, which provided for 
the establishment of a State Board of Agriculture and made it the duty of the 
Board to report annually to the Legislature a detailed account of their proceed- 
ings, with a statement of the condition and needs of the agriculture of the State. 
It was also made the duty of the Board to hold an agricultural convention annually 
in Columbus, at which all the counties of the State were to be represented. This 
act and one of the next year provided for a permanent agricultural fund and gave 
a great stimulus to the formation of County Agricultural Societies. Since that 
time scarcely a county in the State has been without such an organization. In 
1846 the Board met and organized by the choice of a President and Secretary 
and subsequently made their first report. 

The First State Fair was held at Cincinnati on the 11th, 12th, 13th of September, 
1850. At this fair Shorthorn and Hereford cattle were exhibited, and Leicester, 
South Down, Merino and Saxon sheep. Although the first State Fair was very 
different from the fairs of later date, it nevertheless made it easy to see something 
of the educational value of such exhibitions. Among other valuable labors 
inaugurated by the Board were many important investigations. Competent com- 
mittees were appointed to examine and report to the Board upon such subjects 
as Texas Fever, Hog Cholera, Potato Rot, Hessian Fly, Wheat Midge and a mul- 
titude of others equally interesting. Essays upon almost every agricultural topic 
were secured. Any person who has preserved a complete set of the Agricultural 
Reports will find in them a comprehensive and valuable cyclopedia of information. 
In these annual reports were directions for the profitable management of county 
societies and also of farmers' clubs. Such instruction has saved many organiza- 
tions from the more tedious process of learning only by experience. Several 
State associations, each devoted to some special interest, have heartily co-operated 
with the State Board and held their annual meetings near the time of the Agri- 
cultural Convention for the mutual convenience of their members. Such are the 
State Horticultural Society, the Wool-Growers and Dairymen's Associations, 
various associations of Cattle-men, Swine Breeders, Bee Keepers, Tile Makers, 
Forestry Bureau, etc., each representing a special field, but working together for 
the general good. 

Ohio Agricultural College. — Scarcely any subject has excited more interest in 
Ohio than that of agricultural education. Mr. Allen Trimble, first President of 
the Ohio State Board of Agriculture, in his Annual Report to the General Assembly 
in 1848, recommended the immediate establishment of an Agricultural College 
in Ohio, in which young farmers should obtain not only a literary and scientific 
but an agricultural education thoroughly practical. In 1854 the Ohio Agricultural 
College was established. James H. Fairchild, James Dascomb, John S. Newberry 


and N. S. Townshend arranged to give annually at Oberlin winter courses of lec- 
tures to young farmers upon branches of science most intimately related to agri- 
culture, viz., geology, chemistry, botany, comparative anatomy, physiology, me- 
chanics, book-keeping and meteorology, etc. These lectures were given for 
three winters in succession, twice at Oberlin and once at Cleveland. An effort 
was then made to interest the Ohio State Board of Agriculture and the General 
Assembly in the enterprise. The State Board appointed a committee of their 
number upon the subject; this committee made a favorable report, and the Board 
then asked the Legislature for a sum sufficient to pay the expenses of the college 
at Cleveland and make its instruction free to all. This request was not granted, 
and soon after the first Ohio Agricultural College was closed. 

Farmers' College. — Pleasant Hill Academy was opened by Freeman G. Cary in 
1833 and prospered for a dozen years or more. Mr. Cary then proposed to change 
the name of the academy to Farmers' College and to adapt the course of study 
specially to the education of young farmers. A fund was raised by the sale of 
shares, a suitable farm was purchased, commodious buildings erected and a large 
attendance of pupils secured. Mr. Trimble, in his second report to the General 
Assembly, as President of the State Board of Agriculture, refers to Farmers' 
College and expresses the hope that the example found in this institution will be 
followed in other parts of the State. In his third annual report Mr. Trimble 
corrects the statements made in the former report in regard to Farmers' College; 
he had learned that the agricultural department contemplated was not yet estab- 
lished. In September, 1856, that department, under three appropriate professor- 
ships, went into operation. Mr. Cary had earnestly endeavored to impress upon 
the farmers of Ohio the necessity of special agricultural education, and had made 
great efforts to supply the need. The Ohio Agricultural College had opened at 
Oberlin in 1854 and therefore has an earlier date. 

Land Grant and Ohio State University. — In 1862 Congress passed an act donating 
lands to the several States and Territories which may provide colleges for instruc- 
tion in agriculture and the mechanic arts. The Ohio State Board of Agriculture 
promptly sought to secure for the State of Ohio the benefits of the donation. 
Notwithstanding the efforts of the Board and many other citizens the Ohio 
Agricultural and Mechanical College was not put in operation until September, 
1873. In 1870 the law was passed to establish such a college, a Board of Trustees 
was appointed, a farm purchased, buildings erected, a faculty chosen and the 
following departments established : 

1. Agriculture. 

2. Mechanic Arts. 

3. Mathematics and Physics. 

4. General and Applied Chemistry. 

5. Geology, Mining and Metallurgy. 

6. Zoology and Veterinary Science. 

7. Botany, Vegetable Physiology and Horticulture. 

8. English Language and Literature. 

9. Modern and Ancient Languages. 
10. Political Economy and Civil Polity. 

In May, 1878, the General Assembly changed the name of the Ohio Agricult- 
ural and Mechanical College to Ohio State University, probably thinking that the 
latter name better expressed the character of an institution having so many 
departments. The University has been in successful operation for fifteen years. 
Its first class of six graduated in 1878 ; the class which graduated in 1886 num- 
bered twenty-five. The teaching force and means for practical illustration are 
steadily increasing. New departments have been added — Civil, Mechanical and 
Mining Engineering, Agricultural Chemistry, Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, 
Pharmacy, etc. Two courses of study have been arranged for young farmers: 
the first occupies four years and secures a degree ; the second, or short agricultural 
course, is completed in two years. 

A Geological Survey of Ohio was ordered by the General Assembly in 1836 and 
some preliminary surveys were made and reports published. The Legislature of 
1838 failed to make an appropriation for the continuance of the work. In March, 
1869, a law was passed providing for a complete geological, agricultural and 


mineralogical survey of each and every county of the State. In pursuance of 
this law surveys have been made. Six volumes of reports, in addition to two 
volumes specially devoted to Paleontology, have already been published. These 
reports have been of great service and have given great satisfaction. 

The Grange, or Order of Patrons of Husbandry, from its beginning had a most 
happy influence upon the families w T hich have enjoyed its benefits. It has dem- 
onstrated to farmers the good results of organization and co-operation. A long 
way in advance of many other associations, the Grange admits women to equal 
membership and promotes the best interests of families by enlisting fathers, 
mothers and children in the same pursuits and enjoyments. The Ohio State 
Grange was organized in 1872. The National Grange, which was in existence 
some fivre or six years earlier, declares its purpose to be : " To develop a better and 
higher manhood and womanhood among ourselves, to enhance the comforts and 
attractions of our homes and strengthen our attachments to our pursuits, to 
foster mutual understanding and co-operation, to maintain inviolate our laws, 
and to emulate each other in labor to hasten the good time coming," etc. 

Institutes. — In the winter of 1880 and 1881 Farmers' Institutes were held in some 
twenty-five or more different counties of the State. Every succeeding year the 
number of institutes and the interest in them has increased. Each institute 
usually continues for two days. The time is occupied by addresses and papers 
on topics related to agriculture and with questions and discussions upon subjects 
of special interest. The institutes were generally held under the management 
of the County Agricultural Societies. The Ohio State Board of Agriculture and 
the Ohio State University shared the labor when desired to do so. The effect of 
these meetings of farmers has been highly beneficial in very many respects. 

The Ohio Experiment Station was established by the Legislature in April, 1882, 
and placed in charge of a Board of Control. The first annual report was made 
by the Director, W. R. Lazenby, in December of the same year. Since that time 
successive annual reports and occasional bulletins have been published and dis- 
tributed. The investigations reported relate to grain-raising, stock-farming, dairy 
husbandry, fruit and vegetable culture and forestry. Appropriations made by 
the State were limited and the work of the station was to the same extent 
restricted. In March, 1887, Congress made liberal appropriations for experiment 
stations, which, however, w T ere not available until March, 1888. The congressional 
allowance puts new life into the work and inspires the hope that a period of rapid 
progress has been inaugurated. The Ohio Experiment Station is located upon 
the farm of the Ohio State University. This close association, it is believed, will 
prove beneficial to both institutions. 


By ANDREW ROY, Late State Inspector of Mines. 

ANDREW Roy was born in Lanarkshire, 
Scotland, in 1834. He attended school until 
he was eight years of age and then went to 
work in the coal mines. When he was sixteen 
his father and family moved to America and 
settled in the coal regions of Maryland. Young 
Roy remained with his parents a few years and 
then went west, working in the mines of a num- 
ber of Western States. In 1860, together with 
a friend, he was digging coal in Arkansas. 
The booming of the rebel cannon before Fort 
Sumter shook the woods of that half-savage 
State. Roy saw the gathering clouds of civil 
war and did not hesitate a moment. He threw 
down his tools, hastened east and joined a 
Pennsylvania company of volunteers. He 
served under McClellan in the bloody battles 
before Richmond, was shot through the body at 
Gaines' Hill and was left as dead by the retreat- 
ing Federals. The rebels, however, found him 
yet alive and sent him back to Libby Prison. 
In a few months he was paroled, returned 
home, had a surgical operation performed on 
his wound and recovered. He married Janet 
Watson in 1864, and a few years later moved to 
Ohio. After the dreadful Avondale disaster 
Mr. R,oy was sent by the miners to Columbus 
to urge upon the legislature the necessity of 
mining laws for Ohio. Governor Hayes ap- 
pointed him to serve with two others on a com- 
mission to investigate the condition of the 
mines and report the same to the legislature. 
The result of the report was the passage of mining laws. Governor Allen appointed Roy mine inspec* 
tor for four years, and Governor Foster did the same. In 1884 Mr. Roy retired from the office, enjoy- 
ing the respect of the miners of the State. During the time he held the inspector's office he gained 
a considerable reputation as a geologist. His efforts on behalf of the miners were unceasing, and he 
has been called the father of mining laws in Ohio. He is the author of several books on coal-mining 
and frequently contributes articles to the noted mining journals of the country. At present (1888) he 
resides at Glen Roy, a mining village in Jackson county, Ohio. 

The Ohio coal-field is part of the great Appalachian coal-belt which extends 
from Pennsylvania to Georgia and which runs through portions of nine different 
States, namely: Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, Kentucky, 
Ohio, Tennessee, Alabama and Georgia. The State of Ohio contains about 12,000 
square miles of coal-producing strata, the line of outcrop extending through the 
counties of Trumbull, Geauga, Portage, Summit, Medina, Wayne, Holmes, Co- 
shocton, Licking, Perry, Hocking, Vinton, Jackson, and Scioto. Outliers of coal 
strata are found in several counties west and north of this line, but they contain 
little coal of any value. 

The coal measures of the State, as well as all the rocks of the geological scale, 
dip to the east at an average rate of twenty feet to the mile. Hence the eastern 
margin of the coal strata in the high land bordering the Ohio river in the counties 
of Belmont, Monroe, Washington and Meigs, attains a thickness of 1,400 to 1,600 

These strata are separated into three divisions by our geologists and are known 
as the "lower measures," the " barren measures," and the u upper measures." 
The lower measures are about 550 feet thick, the barren measures 450 to 600 feet 
thick, and the upper measures about 600 feet thick. 

In the lower measures there are twelve to fourteen different beds of coal which, 



in some portions of the coal-field, rise to minable height, and also many thin veins 
of no immediate commercial value. Besides the workable beds of coal there 
are numerous seams of iron ore, fire-clay, limestone, building stone of great 
extent and value. 

In the barren measures there are no seams of coal of minable height that are 
worked, and but one seam that may be regarded as a workable vein. 

The upper measures hold nine different beds which rise to three feet and 
upward, the thickest, most extensive, and by far the most valuable of the series 
being the lower bed of the series known as the Pittsburg vein. 

In the lower measures the lowest coal, known as No. I in Dr. Newberry's 
nomenclature, is extensively mined in the counties of Jackson, Stark, Summit, 
Mahoning and Trumbull. In the two last-named counties this coal is now well- 
nigh exhausted. It is known in market as the Briar-Hill coal, and enjoys a wide 
reputation as one of the best dry-burning or furnace coals in the United States. 

The vein, as mined, ranges from two to five feet in thickness, and is met in 
troughs or basins which are separated from each other by extensive intervals of 
barren ground. Hence, while the greater portions of the townships of Brookfield, 
Vienna, Liberty and Hubbard, in Trumbull county, and nearly all of the town- 
ships of Mahoning county, in the Mahoning valley, are underlaid with coal- 
bearing strata, not one acre in fifty holds the coal where it is due. Similar con- 
ditions exist in Stark and other counties in the Tuscarawas valley as well as in 
Jackson county. 

The swamps or basins in which this coal reposes are long, narrow and serpen- 
tine, and seem to have been formed by erosive agencies before the coal flora grew. 
The rocks underlying the coal are spread out in level sheets with the normal dip 
to the east, while the coal itself pitches and waves sometimes at an angle of 
twenty-five degrees. It grows gradually thinner as it rises out of the swamp 
until, on the edge of the basin, it disappears as a feather-edge. 

The other beds of the lower measures which are in most active development 
are the Wellston coal of Jackson county and the Nelsonville or great-vein coal 
of the Hocking valley. 

The Wellston coal lies about 100 feet above the lower, or coal No. 1, and is a 
seam of great purity and value. It is three to four feet thick, a homogeneous 
mass, of an open burning character, and is used for smelting iron in a raw state 
in the blast furnaces of Jackson county. The greater portion of the output of 
the mines, however, is shipped west and north to the vast coalless regions, and is 
used for household purposes and for generating steam. 

The Nelsonville or great-vein coal is more extensively mined than any seam 
of the series. It is the thickest coal in the State, rising at many places in the 
Hocking valley to ten feet or more, and in the great majority of the mines of the 
Hocking region the coal is never less than five and a half feet thick. The bed is 
met in three divisions, known as the lower bench, the middle bench, and the 
upper bench, these benches being separated by two bands of shale. The lower 
bench is about twenty-two inches thick, the middle bench about two feet thick, 
and the upper bench from two feet to six feet, according to the height of vein. 
Where the seam rises to nine, ten and eleven feet, the unusual height is due to 
the union of two seams, a rider of the main seam, two to three feet thick, coming 
down upon the main seam. 

There are a dozen districts in the State in which coal is extensively worked from 
some one or other of the lower beds of the State series. These are the Mahoning 
valley region, the Tuscarawas valley region, the Salineville region, the Coshocton 
region, the Dell Roy or Sherrodsville region, the Cambridge region, the Jackson 
region, the Ironton region, the Nelsonville or Hocking valley region, the Steu- 
ben ville region, the Zanesville region, and the Dennison region. 

Only one seam is extensively mined in the upper measures: the Pittsburg 
seam, which is the coal worked at and around Bellaire and at and near Pomeroy, 
both regions being on the Ohio river. On Wheeling creek, a few miles east of 
Bellaire, as well as at several points along the line of the Baltimore and Ohio 
railroad, the Pittsburg vein is also quite extensively worked, but these districts 
may properly be included in the Bellaire region. The coal is opened by drifts, 
shafts, and slopes, according to the prevailing conditions of a district. Where 


the vein is level free it is won by drift mining ; but where it lies under cover at 
all points it is reached by shafts or slopes. Slopes are not suited to mine coal at 
depths exceeding 100 feet, and shaft mining is the favorite method. 

None of the shaft mines of the State exceed 300 feet of perpendicular depth, and 
the majority of shaft mines are less than 125 feet deep. An opinion prevails 
among mining geologists that the lower coals, which are due on the Ohio river 
at Bellaire and Pomeroy 1,000 feet below the surface, do not exist there, and such 
practical facts as we have on hand — the result of boring for salt, oil, and gas — 
seem to encourage that view. There are extensive wastes or areas of barren 
ground in all the regions of the State, and it is never safe to count with absolute 
certainty on the presence of a seam of coal at any point of the coal-field until it 
has been found by prospecting on the hillside or struck by the driller's chisel in 
boring. These barren areas are due to a number of causes, such as water- spaces 
in the old coal-marsh, water-currents flowing over the coal vegetation while the 
peat bogs of the carboniferous age were undergoing decomposition, and mineral- 
ization, etc., etc. The seams are also liable to thicken up and to dwarf down to 
a mere trace, when followed from one county to another. 

There are several varieties of coal in the Ohio coal-field, such as open-burning, 
or furnace coal, cementing or coking coal, and cannel coal. The first of these 
varieties is often used as it comes from the mine for smelting iron; while the 
cementing variety has to be converted into coke before it is fitted for the manu- 
facture of iron, for it melts and runs together in the act of combustion, forming a 
hollow fire, and hanging in the furnace. Cannel coal is smooth and hard, and 
breaks with a conchoidal fracture. This variety contains more gas than the 
ordinary free-burning and coking kinds. It burns with a bright flame, and the 
gas manufactured from it possesses high illuminating power. Cannel frequently 
changes to the ordinary bituminous variety, and vice versa. 

The development of the coal trade of the State has been very remarkable. 
Some of the pioneer miners still survive. Mr. Henry Newberry, father of Dr. 
John S. Newberry, the. eminent geologist, was one of the pioneer miners of 
Eastern Ohio, and made the first shipments to Cleveland in the year 1828, for the 
purpose of supplying the lake steamboats. A few years ago the writer, in pub- 
lishing this fact in his annual report as State Inspector of Mines, received the 
following letter from H. V. Bronson, of Peninsula, who took the first boat-load to 
Cleveland : 

" Peninsula, Summit County, Ohio, April 8, 1878. 
"Andrew Roy, Esq. : 

"Sir: Not long since I saw in the papers that in your annual report as State Inspector of 
Mines you stated "that the first coal shipped to Cleveland was in the year 1828, and by the late 
Mr. Henry Newberry, of Cuyahoga Falls, father of Prof. Newberry, of Cleveland. I took 
that coal to Cleveland for Mr. Newberry, it being fifty years ago since it was done. I was 
then in the seventeenth year of my age, and have resided in this place ever since 1824. There 
were three of us boys on the boat. One of them was about a year my junior, and now resides 
in one of the townships of Cuyahoga county, and became a successful inventor and business 
man . The other was then in his twelfth year, and is now a lawyer, with a lucrative practice, 
in a beautiful growing city in an adjoining State. On the first of January last I made a New 
Year's call on Prof. Newberry at his home in Cleveland. A few years ago I presented Prof. 
Newberry with a lump of the coal taken from one of the boat-loads of that coal. As this 
whole transaction is somewhat remarkable, I have taken the liberty to write you about it, 
especially as we three boatmen are natives of Cuyahoga county. 

44 Very respectfully, 

"H.V. Bronson." 

The late President Garfield was a canal boatman from the mines of Governor 
David Tod, of Briar Hill, near Youngstown, to Cleveland, when he was a boy 
of fifteen years of age; and an accident which occurred to Garfield while on 
a canal-boat, by which he was nearly drowned, determined in some degree 
his future career. He fell into the canal and could not swim, and was saved, as 
he believed, by providential interference. He resolved to become a scholar, 
believing that God had destined him for some great purpose in life. 

The mines of the Mahoning valley region were first opened by Governor David 
Tod, in the year 1845, at Briar Hill, and such was the superior quality of the 
coal that the coal of the Mahoning and Shenango valley was ever after known 


in market as Briar Hill coal. At Mineral Ridge, a few miles from Briar Hill, 
the coal-seam is split in two, the intercalated material consisting of a seam of 
black band iron ore, from four to fourteen inches in thickness. This ore is mined 
in connection with the coal, and is used in the blast-furnaces of the region with 
the hematite ores of the Lake Superior region, producing a very superior grade 
of iron, known in market as American Scotch pig. 

The seams of coal and iron ore of the Hocking valley region were noted by the 
first white men who visited this country. A map of the Western country now in 
the possession of Judge P. H. Ewing, of Lancaster, Fairfield county, published 
in the year 1788, notes a number of sections of coal and iron-ore beds. 

The development of the great coal region of the Hocking valley was due to the 
construction of the Hocking valley branch of the Ohio canal. Among the 
pioneer mine operators of this region was the elder Thomas Ewing, afterwards 
United States Senator from Ohio, and a member of President Lincoln's cabinet. 
His mines were located at Chauncy, at Nelsonville. The best market for coal at 
that time was the old Neil House, in Columbus. Thomas Ewing, and his asso- 
ciates in business, Samuel F. Vinton, Nicholas Biddle, and Elihu Chauncy, also 
mined salt in the Hocking valley, the first salt-well of the region being sunk in 
the year 1831 by Resolved Fuller, the water yielding ten per cent, of salt. 

The Ohio and Mississippi rivers are the greatest and cheapest coal carriers in 
the world, and the vast coal-trade development of these famous streams dates back 
fifty years. The cost of shipping coal from Pittsburg to Louisville is only one 
and three-quarter cents per bushel, or forty-three and three-quarter cents per ton, 
the distance being upward of 600 miles. From Louisville to New Orleans, a dis- 
tance of 1,400 miles, the freight on coal is two cents per bushel, or fifty cents per 
ton, and this includes the return of the empty barges. The lowest freights 
charged by railroads is one cent per mile. 

In the year 1818 a merchant of Cincinnati made an estimate for the benefit of 
Samuel Wyllis Pomeroy, who owned the coal-lands on which the mines of 
Pomeroy are now opened, of the amount of coal then used on the Ohio river 
between Pomeroy and the falls of the Ohio. 

" I am able," wrote the merchant to Mr. Pomeroy, " to communicate the follow- 
ing information : 

Cincinnati steam-mill consumes annually, 
" iron-foundry " u 

" Manufacturing Co. " 

" Sugar Manufacturing Co. " 
" Steam Saw-mill Co. 
In Maysville, used or sold, 
" Louisville, " " " 
" Dean steam-mill, 100 miles below Cincinnati, 

Total, 116,000 

One of the noted pioneer miners of the Ohio river is Jacob Heatherington of 
Bellaire. Mr. Heatherington is a practical miner of English birth who came to 
Bellaire more than half a century ago. He purchased a mule which was named 
Jack, and leased three acres of coal-land fronting the Ohio river. Jack did ser- 
vice as a mining mule for thirty years, during which time Mr. Heatherington 
prospered in business. When the faithful mule was no longer able to work his 
master turned him out to pasture and with great solicitude watched over his de- 
clining years. When poor Jack fell and was too old and infirm to rise he was 
gently raised to his feet by loving hands, and when death came at last the faith- 
ful animal was buried with great ceremonies. Mr. Heatherington lives in a fine 
mansion on the Ohio river, and upon the keystone of the arch over the hall dooi 
has been carved the head of the faithful mule. 

Whiie Governor David Tod was the pioneer miner of the Mahoning valley, the 
great coal king of that region is Chauncey Andrews. The lucrative nature of the 
coal business of the Mahoning valley owing to the superior quality of the coal 
and its proximity to Lake Erie attracted the attention of Mr. Andrews. As the 

12,000 bi 

















coal is at all points in this region below water level and is found in basins or pots 
of limited area it has to be located by boring. Mr. Andrews was unsuccessful for 
several years, spending many thousand dollars and bringing himself to the verge 
of financial ruin. But he continued prospecting until success rewarded his per- 
severing efforts, and he is now one of the greatest coal miners in the State, being 
owner besides of blast furnaces, rolling-mills and railroads which he has built by 
his determined perseverance and business successes. The extraordinary prosperity 
of Youngstown is due to Chauncey Andrews more than to all other causes com- 

The space allotted to this article is too brief to include a sketch of the develop- 
ment of the coal trade, and of the men who were the pioneer miners of the State. 
Such a sketch, however, could not fail to be of great interest to the people of 
Ohio, for coal is the power upon which the future wealth and prosperity of the 
people will largely depend. 

The manner of mining is the same in every mining district. Where the coal 
is level free it is followed into the hill sides, and the workings are opened up by 
driving galleries eight feet wide on the face slips of the coal, which run in a 
northerly direction. At intervals of 150 to 200 yards branch galleries are opened 
of the same width as the main ones, and the rooms or chambers from which the 
coal is chiefly mined are opened out from the side or branch entries. The rooms 
are driven forward eight to ten yards wide for eighty to one hundred yards, 
pillars or columns of coal being left between the rooms for the support of the 
superincumbent strata. 

Where the coal is won by shaft mining the same system of working out the 
coal obtains as where the seam is level free, but larger columns of coal are left 
to keep in place the overlying rocks in deep shafts than in shallow ones or in 
drifts or level free openings. Some seams of coal are more tender than others 
and larger pillars are required in consequence. Such seams of soft coal are less 
able to resist the overlying pressure than those of a firm and compact character. 
As a general rule mining operators aim to take out about 66 per cent, of coal in 
working forward, and after the workings have been advanced to the boundary of 
the plant the pillar coal is attacked in the far end of the excavation, and as much 
of the pillar coal mined as can be recovered. When an area of several acres has 
been all worked away the roof falls to the floor, and while the rocks are breaking 
the whole of the overlying strata appears to be giving way, but the miners con- 
tinue at their posts until the crash finally occurs, when they retreat undismayed 
under the protection of the unmined pillars. The pillars bordering the last fall 
are next attacked and worked out until another crash comes on, and this method 
is repeated until the workmen reach the bottom of the shaft or the mouth of the 
drift. If the seam of coal is five or six feet thick and the overlying strata not more 
than 150 to 200 feet, great chasms are frequently made on the surface of the earth 
directly over the places where the coal has been mined out. Houses and parts 
of villages are sometimes involved in the subsidence. 

A system of working coal prevails in some of the mining regions of Illinois and 
Kansas, of working all the coal out as the miners advance with the excavations. 
This plan is known as the long wall system, and is only practiced in seams of 
four feet or less in thickness. Where bands of shale or fire clay are met in the 
coal and have to be sorted out and thrown aside in the mine, they are an advan- 
tage in long wall working, as they assist in the construction of the pack walls, 
which require to be built where the miners are at work. While long wall min- 
ing has many warm advocates among practical miners in Ohio this system has 
never obtained a permanent foothold in the State. Several of our coal seams are 
well adapted to long wall working. 

In excavating the coal a groove or undercut is made in the bottom of the bed 
three to six feet in depth, along the width of the room. A hole is then bored in 
the coal with a drill having a bit about two inches wide. A charge of powder is 
inserted in the hole proportioned to the necessity of the case, when the powder 
is tightly tamped and the blast set off. The miner generally loads all the coal in 
the car as he breaks it down in his room, and after it is raised to the surface it is 
formed into lump, nut and slack as it passes over the screens into the railroad 
cars at the pit mouth, the lump coal falling into one car, the nut coal into another 


and the slack into still another, and thus assorted the various grades are shipped 
to market. 

The capacity or output of the mines of the State varies greatly. Thick coals are 
capable of a greater daily output than thin seams, and as a general rule drift 
mines possess greater advantages for loading coal rapidly than shaft openings. 
In many of the mines of the great vein region of the Hocking valley the capacity 
is equal to 1,200 to 1,500 tons per day. In shaft mines 600 to 700 tons daily is 
regarded as a good output. 

The first ton of coal in a shaft mine 100 feet in depth and having a daily 
capacity of 600 tons frequently costs the mining adventurer upwards of $20,000, 
and cases are on record where owing to the extraordinary amount of water in 
sinking, $100,000 have been expended before coal was reached. Drift mines, as 
they require no machinery for pumping water and raising coal, cost less than 
half the amount required in shaft mining. 

Water is, however, an expensive item in drift mines opened on the dip of the 
coal, and underground hauling under such conditions is unusually costly, par- 
ticularly if horses or mules are used. Many mining companies use machinery 
instead of horse-power, and this is always true economy. 

Two plans obtain where machinery is used, namely, by small mine locomotives 
and by wire ropes operated by a stationary engine located outside or at the bottom 
of the mine. Locomotives are objectionable owing to the smoke they make, 
though under the management of a skilled mining engineer who is master of the 
art of mine ventilation, the smoke from a mine locomotive can be made quite 

Three gases are met in coal mines which make ventilation a paramount con- 
sideration. These gases are known among miners as fire damp, black damp and 
white damp. Fire damp is the light carburetted hydrogen of chemistry, and 
when mixed with certain proportions of atmospheric air explodes with great 
force and violence, producing the most dreadful consequences. Black damp is 
carbonic acid, and white damp is carbonic oxide gas. They are formed by 
blasting, by the breathing of men and animals, and they escape from the coal 
and its associate strata. Fire damp is seldom met in alarming quantities in drift 
or shallow shaft mines, and as our mines in Ohio are all less than three hundred 
feet below the surface, few explosions of a very destructive nature have yet 
occurred in the State. Black damp is the chief annoyance in Ohio mines. 

There is an excitement in coal mining as there is in every branch of mining 
the useful and precious metals. Few men who go into the coal business ever turn 
their backs upon it afterwards. And, indeed, there are few failures in coal min- 
ing enterprises, while nearly every adventurer grows rich in time. 

Until the year 1874 there was no attempt made to collect the statistics of the 
coal production of the State. In that year the General Assembly created the 
office of State Inspector of Mines, and the inspector published in his annual re- 
ports from the best data obtainable a statement of the aggregate annual output, 
beginning with the year 1872. For several years after the enactment of the law 
creating the Department of Mines operators were unwilling to furnish the mine 
inspector with a statement of the output, and as the law did not require this to 
be done, the statistics were generally estimates based on the returns made to the 
mine inspector by such companies as chose to report the product of their mines. 
In 1884, however, the law was so amended as to require all the mining firms in the 
State to report the product of coal, iron ore and limestone, and the annual output 
of these minerals is now more accurate and valuable than formerly. 

Annual Coal Production of Ohio from 1872 to 1886. 

Years. Tons. Years. Tons. 

1872. . . 5,315,294 1880 * . . 7,000,000 

1873 ■ . . 4,550,028 1881 8,225,000 

1874 3,267,585 1882 . 9,450,000 

1875 4,864,259 1883 . , 8,229,429 

1876 3,500,000 1884 . , 7,650,062 

1877 5,250,000 1885 . . 7,816,179 

1878 5,500,000 1886 .......... 8,435,211 

1879 . . . 6,000,000 1887 10,301,708 


Coal Production by Counties for 1885 and 1886. 


Tonnage for 1886. 



Total 1886. 

Total 1885. 

Perry . . 
Athens . . 
Jackson . . 
Stark . . 
Guernsey . 
Mahoning . 
Jefferson . 
Medina . . 
Carroll . . 
Meigs . . 
Trumbull . 
Lawrence . 
Wayne . . 
Vinton . . 
Coshocton . 
Gallia . . 
Holmes . . 
Noble . . 
Scioto . . 



















































































None repo'd 

























' 5,000 

' 2,440 






The following table gives a summary, in a condensed form, of the tonnage, 
time worked, employes and casualties in each county in 1887.* 

Table of Tonnage, Time Worked, Number op Men, etc., in Each County in 1887. 


Athens . . 
Belmont . 
Coshocton . 
Carroll . . 
Guernsey . 
Gallia . . 
Harrison . 
Hocking . 
Jefferson . 


















a © 
















W 02 
















* Mine Inspector's report* 


Table of Tonnage, Time Worked, Number of Men, etc., in Each County in 

1 887 — Continued. 








Lawrence . . . . 
Meigs . . . . . 
Muskingum . . . 
Mahoning . . . . 


Morgan (estimated) 



Portage . . . . 
Summit . . . . 


Tuscarawas . . 
Trumbull . . . . 



Washington . . . 

] 8,5,205 















22 42 






Totals 10, 301 , 708 




























The beds of iron-ore associated with the coal-seams of the Coal Measures are 
known by the general name of black-band ore, limestone ore, block ore, kidney 
ore, etc. Black-band is a dark gray, bituminous shale with reddish streaks run- 
ning through it. It is met in paying quantities in only two horizons in the State; 
namely, that of the lower coal of the series, as has been already stated, and over 
coal No. 7. In its best development in the mines of the Mahoning valley it yields 
a ton of ore to a ton of coal, but one ton of ore to three tons of coal will be the 
general average, and it is present in only a few mines of the valley. 

In the Tuscarawas valley, near Canal Dover and Port Washington, the black- 
band capping coal No. 7 is met in basins of limited area. In the centre of these 
basins the ore is sometimes met ten to twelve feet in thickness, but it soon dwarfs 
to a few inches and disappears entirely. Black-band has been met on other hori- 
zons of the lower Coal Measures, but never of such quality as to justify mining. 

The limestone ores, as calcareous and argillaceous carbonates and hydro-perox- 
ides or linonites, are very abundant and have been mined for fifty years m the 
Hanging Rock regions of Ohio and Kentucky. They were the base of the char- 
coal iron industries of this famous iron region — an industry which, owing to the 
growing scarcity of timber, is fast disappearing forever. The limestone ores 
derive their name from being associated with a thick and extensive deposit of 
gray limestone which is spread over a greater portion of the counties of Lawrence, 
Scioto, Jackson and Vinton, in OhioTand the counties of Greenup, Boyd and 
Carter, in Kentucky. The iron made from this ore has always held a front rank 
in market, the cold-blast iron being particularly prized for the manufacture of 
ordnance, car wheels and other castings requiring tough iron. 

In the manufacture of charcoal iron the linonite ore was preferred, and as this 
ore appeared as an outcrop it was mined by stripping the overlying cover. The 
counties constituting the Hanging Rock iron region on both sides of the Ohio 
river, along the horizon of the gray limestone ore, have been worked over in 
every hill and the ore stripped to a depth of eight to twelve feet, forming a line 
of many miles of terrace work. Since the decline of the charcoal iron industry 
the miners have penetrated boldly under cover and worked away the ore as coal 
is mined underground. The linonites when followed under cover change to car- 
bonates, and become less valuable in consequence. There are six to eight distinct 
ore horizons in the Hanging Rock region, but none of these deposits bear com- 


parison with the gray limestone ore both as regards quality of mineral and thick- 
ness of vein. 

The ores of value in the horizons of the Hanging Rock region are known as the 
big red block, the sand block and the little red block. These deposits lie lower 
in the geological scale than the limestone ore, and are obtained by stripping. 
The big red block sometimes rises to eighteen inches in thickness, but it is gen- 
erally met in beds of six inches or less. The sand block ore is also less than six 
inches thick, and is inferior to the big or little red blocks in quality, containing 
less iron and more silica. The little red block is not more than four inches thick 
on an average. These ores are mined in connection with the limestone ore wher- 
ever they are met in paying quality and quantity. They are too thin as a general 
rule to follow under cover. Occasionally other seams are met and mined, and a 
deposit known as the Boggs, which rises to three and four feet in thickness, but 
occurs as a local deposit, is recovered by drift mining. 

In most of the coal regions of the State iron ore is mined to a greater or less 
extent, the deposits of the Hanging Rock region reappearing as equivalent strata 
on the same geological horizons in every part of the coal-field. The ores have 
local names, as the coals have local names. Nowhere is exclusive reliance placed 
in the native ores of the State in the manufacture of stone coal iron, the Lake 
Superior and Iron Mountain ores of the specular and hematite varieties forming 
an important mixture at every blast-furnace, while in several of the iron producing 
districts foreign ores are used exclusively. We have no hematite ore in the Coal 
Measures of Ohio, although our linonites, which are simply argillaceous carbo- 
nates oxydized by the action of the atmosphere, bear some resemblance to hema- 
tite ore. Black band and clay band ores are the main product of the Coal Meas- 
ures. The following is the output of ore for the year 1887, as copied from the 
last annual report of the inspector of mining. 

Amount of Iron Ore Mined in 1887. 


Tons of 
Black Band. 

Tons of 
Clay Band. 













Columbiana . 







Total tons . . 







[Of the many who contributed a paper to the first edition of this work, Col. Whittlesey was the only 
one living to contribute to the second edition and this is the paper. He has not, we profoundly regret to 
have to say, lived to see it in print. For a notice of its very eminent author the reader is referred to 
Cuyahoga county.] 

When Governor Ethan Allen Brown became an ardent advocate for navigable 
canals in Ohio, he did not meet with the opposition which DeWitt Clinton en- 
countered in New York. The leading men of this State, whether from Episcopal 
Virginia, Scotch-Irish New Jersey, Quaker Pennsylvania or Puritan New England, 
were endowed with broad views of public policy. Many had seen military ser- 
vice from the old French war, through that of the Revolution, the Indian wars 
and that of 1812. 

They foresaw the destiny of Ohio in case her affairs were administered judi- 

Men who were not appalled by the scalping knife, or its directing power, Great 
Britain, were equal to an encounter with the wilderness after peace was secured. 

The hope and courage of our citizens, with a rich soil and a genial climate, 
constituted the resources of the State. 

In response to Gov. Brown's earnest recommendation, the legislature appointed 
a committee to consider a plan for internal navigation in January, 1819. Early 
in 1820 a call was made for information from all sources on that subject. On the 
21st of January, 1822, a joint resolution was passed, appointing a canal board, 
which consisted of Alfred Kelley, Benjamin Tappan, Thomas Worthington, Isaac 
Menor, Jeremiah Morrow and Ethan Allen Brown, with power to cause surveys 
to be made for the improvement of the Falls of the Ohio at Louisville ; and to 
examine four routes for a canal or canals from Lake Erie to the Ohio. Six thou- 
sand dollars was appropriated for that purpose. 

Prior to 1778, Capt. Thomas Hutchins, of the Provincial army and the inventor 
of the American System of Land Survey, had made a survey of the Falls, which re- 



suited in a map and report of a plan to facilitate the progress of flat-boats and 
their freight. 

Neither instruments nor engineers could be procured by the commissioners to 
survey the rapids of the Ohio, and nothing was done by them in that direction. 
James Geddes, one of the engineers of the Erie canal in New York, was employed 
as chief engineer in Ohio, and Isaac Jerome was appointed assistant. Only one 
leveling instrument could be obtained. One or more of the commissioners were 
generally in the field with the engineers. Several matters appear in the first re- 
port in the winter of 1822-23 well worthy of the attention of the present genera- 
tion. They were not promised and did not receive pay for their services. Their 
personal expenses for 1822 amounted to one hundred and seventy-six dollars and forty- 
nine cents. 

During the season over 800 miles of canal routes had been surveyed with one 
instrument at a cost, including services, of two thousand four hundred and twenty- 
six dollars and ten cents. 

Such were the characters to whom were committed this great project to build 
up a growing State. They had been directed to surve} 7 routes from Sandusky to 
the Ohio river ; from the Maumee river to the Ohio river ; from Lake Erie to the 
Ohio river by the Black and Muskingum rivers; also by the. sources of the Cuya- 
hoga, and from Lake Erie by the sources of the Grand and Mahoning rivers. 

In December, 1822, a full and able report was made by Chief Engineer Geddes 
and by the commissioners, including estimates on all the routes. What is 
especially remarkable, the final construction came within the estimates. 

To comprehend the task imposed upon the engineers and commissioners, the 
wilderness condition of the State in 1822 must be realized. All the routes were 
along the valleys of streams, with only here and there a log-cabin, whose inmates 
were shivering with malarial fever. These valleys were the most densely wooded 
parts, obstructed by swamps, bayous and flooded lands, which would now be 
regarded as impassable. 

Between 1822 and 1829, Isaac Jerome, Seymour Kiff, John Jones, John Brown, 
Peter Lutz, Robert Anderson, Dyer Minor and William Latimer, of the engineers, 
died from their exposures and the diseases of the country. Chain-men, axe-men 
and rod-men suffered in fully as great proportion. 

Among the engineers who survived was David S. Bates (chief-engineer after 
Judge Geddes), Alexander Bourne, John Bates, William R. Hopkins, Joseph 
Ridgeway, Jr., Thomas I. Matthews, Samuel Forrer, Francis S. Cleveland, James 
M. Bucklang, Isaac N. Hurd, Charles E. Lynch, Philip N. White, James H. 
Mitchell and John S. Beardsley, assistants. 

During the construction of the canal, from 1825-35, many other engineers of 
reputation became resident engineers, among whom were Sebried Dodge, John 
W. Erwin, who still survives, James H. McBride, Leonder Ransom, Richard 
Howe and Sylvester Medbury. 


In the published histories of Onondaga county, New York, Judge Geddes occu- 
pies a conspicuous place. 

He was born near Carlisle, Pennsylvania, July 22, 1763, of poor Scottish pa- 
rents. After working on the farm and teaching school until he was of age, he 
made a journey to Kentucky, intending to settle there, but was too much dis- 
gusted with slavery to become a resident. In 1793 he prepared to manufacture 
salt at Onondaga lake, at a place since known as Geddis, there being then no 
Syracuse. After much deliberation, the Indians refused his presents and he 
departed, leaving the goods in their hands. They solved the difficulty by adopt- 
ing him as a white brother, and the salt business went on. He was a self-made 
surveyor and'civil engineer, and engaged upon the survey and construction of the 
Erie canal. After his service in Ohio and the completion of the Erie canal, he 
was employed by the United States on the Chesapeake and Ohio canal until 

In that year he was requested to survey a canal route from the Tennessee to 
the Altamaha,<but declined in order to engage upon the Pennsylvania canals. In 


person he was rather short and robust, but very active and capable of great endur- 
ance. His disposition was genial, his manner cordial, inclined to be communi- 

Mr. George B. Merwin, of Rockport, Cuyahoga county, remembers Judge Geddes 
principally as a lover of buttermilk. Mr. Merwin, when a boy, was furnished 
with a pony and jug to scour the country up the valley to supply the surveying 
party with this drink, which does not intoxicate. 


No engineer in Ohio spent as many years in the service of the State as did Mr. 
Forrer. He came from Pennsylvania in 1818 and in 1819 was deputy surveyor 
of Hamilton county, O. In 1820, Mr. William Steele, a very enterprising citizen 
of Cincinnati, O., employed Mr. Forrer at his own expense to ascertain the eleva- 
tion of the Sandusky and Scioto summit, above Lake Erie. His report was sent 
to the Legislature by Gov. Brown. This was the favorite route, the shortest, low- 
est summit and passed through a very rich country. 

The great question was a supply of water. It would have been located and, in 
fact, was in part, when in the fall and summer of 1823 it was found by Judge D. 
S. Bates to be wholly inadequate. 

Of twenty -three engineers and assistants, eight died of local diseases within six 

Mr. Forrer was the only one able to keep the field permanently, and use the 
instruments in 1823. When Judge Bates needed their only level, Mr. Forrer 
invented and constructed one that would now be a curiosity among engineers. 
He named it the " Pioneer." It was in form of a round bar of wrought iron, 
with a cross like a capital T. The top of the letter was a flat bar welded at right 
angles, to which a telescope was made fast by solder, on which was a spirit level. 
There was a projection drawn out from the cross-bar at right angles to it, which 
rested upon a circular plate of the tripod. By means of thumb-screws and rever- 
sals, the round bar acting as a pendulum, a rude horizontal plane was obtained, 
which was of value at short range. 

Mr. Forrer was not quite medium height but well formed and very active. He 
was a cheerful and pleasant companion. Judge Bates and the canal commis- 
sioners relied upon his skill under their instructions to test the water question in 
1823. He ran a line for a feeder from the Sandusky summit westerly and north 
of the water-shed, taking up the waters of the Auglaize and heads of the Miami. 
Even with the addition the supply was inadequate. Until his death in 1873, 
Mr. Forrer was nearly all the time in the employ of the State as engineer, canal 
commissioner or member of the Board of Public Works. 

He was not only popular but scrupulously honest and industrious. His life- 
long friends regarded his death as a personal loss, greater than that of a faithful 
public officer. He was too unobtrusive to make personal enemies, not neglecting 
his duties, as a citizen zealous but just. 

He died at Dayton, Ohio, at 10 A. m., March 25, 1874, from the exhaustion of 
his physical powers, without pain. Like his life he passed away in peace at the 
age of eighty, his mind clear and conscious of the approaching end. 




While the French occupied the south shore of Lake Erie, there was not the 
semblance of courts or magistrates for the trial of civil or criminal issues. This 
occupation ended in 1760, but it is an open historical question when it began. 
La Salle was in the Ohio country from 1669 to 1671 or 1672; though if he estab- 
lished posts, the records of his occupation are lost. There are, on the Western 
Reserve, quite a number of ancient axe marks on the trees, over which the growth 
of woody layers correspond to those dates ; and which appear to me to have been 
made by parties of his expedition. The French had posts at Erie, Pa., on the 
Cuyahoga, on Sandusky Bay and on the Maumee and Great Miami rivers as 
early as 1749 and 1752, and probably earlier at some points in Ohio and Penn- 
sylvania. In 1748 the English colonists from Pennsylvania had a trading post 
at Sandusky Bay, from which they were driven by the French. 

Pennsylvania had, however, no civil authority west of her boundary, which is 
described as being five degrees of longitude west from the Delaware river. The 
colony of Virginia had claims under various charters and descriptions to a part 
of Pennsylvania, and all the territory west and northwest as far as a supposed 
ocean called the South sea. Immediately after the peace of 1763 with the French, 
the Province of Canada was extended by act of Parliament, southerly to the Alle- 
ghany and Ohio rivers. Great Britain promised the Indian tribes that the whites 
should not settle north of the Ohio river. So far as I am now aware, the first 
civil organization under the authority of Virginia covering the Western Reserve 
was that of Botetourt county, erected in 1769 with the county-seat at Fincastle, on 
the head waters of the James river, between the Blue Ridge and the Alleghanies. 
But before this, there must have been a Virginia county covering the forks of the 
Ohio and extending probably to Lake Erie; for the troops captured at the Forks 
(now Pittsburg) by the French, in 1749, were Virginia militia under Ensign 
Ward. It is probable that he was or supposed himself to be within the county 
of Augusta. Settlers from that colony located on the Monongahela and Yough- 
iogheny. In 1776 three counties were erected on those waters, some parts of 
which possibly included a part or all of the Reserve. 

These covered a part of Westmoreland county, Pa., which was settled from Vir- 
ginia. This conflict of authority brought on a miniature civil war, which was 
soon overshadowed by the war of the Revolution, in which both Virginians and 
Pennsylvanians heartily joined. In 1778, soon after the conquest of the British 
forts on the Mississippi and the Wabash, by Gen. George Rogers Clark, Virginia 
erected the county of Illinois, with the count} 7 -seat at Kaskaskia. It embraced 
the south shore of Lake Erie, Detroit, Mackinaw, Green Bay and Prairie Duchien, 
but for practical purposes, only Kaskaskia, Cahokia and St. Vincent, or Vin- 
cennes. The British held possession of the Ohio country and all the lakes. For 
the English forts on both snores of the lakes, there was no county or civil organ- 
ization during the Revolutionary war. The government of this almost unlimited 
region was exclusively military, of which Detroit was the central post. British 
soldiers and officers were at all the trading posts in Ohio, exercising arbitrary 
authority over the Indians and the white traders, including the Moravian settle- 
ments on the Tuscarawas and the Cuyahoga. 

After the treaty of peace in 1783, the same state of affairs continued, until, by 



successive campaigns against the Indians, the United States drove them off by 
military force. All the lives lost, the forts built, and the expeditions made in the 
northwest, from 1785 to 1794, were a continuation of the war of the Revolution 
against England. Even after the second treaty in 1795, she built Fort Miami, on 
the Maumee, within the State of Ohio. The result of the battle of the Rapids of 
the Maumee, in August, 1794, put a stop to her overt acts against us for a time; 
but it was not until after the war of 1812 that she abandoned the project of 
recovering the American colonies. While in her possession until 1799, there 
were at the posts on the lakes, justices of the peace, or stipendiary magistrates, 
exercising some civil authority, but none of them resided on the south shore of 
this lake. 

This subject of early civil jurisdiction is a very obscure one, owing to indefinite 
geographical boundaries. I have received the assistance of Judge Campbell, of 
Detroit; of Silas Farmer, the historian of Detroit City ; and of Mr. H. C. Gilman, 
of the Detroit Library, in the effort to trace out the extent of the Canadian dis- 
tricts and counties with their courts from 1760 to 1796. Their replies agree that 
it is difficult to follow the progress of civil law on the peninsula of Upper Canada, 
westward to the Detroit river and around the lakes. In 1778 Lord Dorchester, 
Governor-General of Canada, divided Upper Canada into four districts for civil 
purposes, one of which included Detroit and the posts on the upper lakes. Early 
in 1792 the Upper Canadian parliament authorized Governor Simcoe to lay off 
nineteen counties to embrace that province. It is presumed that the county of 
Essex, on the east bank of Detroit river, included the country on the west and 
south around the head of Lake Erie, but of this the information is not conclusive. 
Some form of British civil authority existed at their forts and settlements until 
Detroit was given up and all its dependencies in 1796. When Governor St. 
Clair erected the county of Washington in Ohio, in 1788, it embraced the West- 
ern Reserve east of the Cuyahoga. West of this river and the Tuscarawas was 
then held by the Indians and the British. 

The State of Connecticut claimed jurisdiction over the Reserve, but made no 
movement towards the erection of counties. When she sold to the Land Com- 
pany, in 1795, both parties imagined that the deed of Connecticut conveyed, 
powers of civil government to the company, and that the grantees might organize 
a new State. As the United States objected to this mode of setting up States, this 
region was, in practice, without any magistrates, courts, or other organized civil 
authority, until that question was settled, in 1800. Immediately after the British 
had retired, in 1796, Governor St. Clair erected the county of Wayne, with Detroit 
as the county-seat. It included that part of the Reserve west of the Cuyahoga, 
extending south to Wayne's treaty line, west to the waters of Lake Michigan and 
its tributaries, and north to the territorial line. Its boundaries are not very 
precise, but it clearly embraced about one-third of the present State of Ohio. The 
question of jurisdiction when Wayne county was erected in 1796 remained 
open as it had under the county of Washington. In 1797 the county of 
Jefferson was established, embracing all of the Reserve east of the Cuya- 
hoga. When Trumbull county was erected, in 1800, it embraced the entire 
Western Reserve, with magistrates and courts having full legal authority under 
the territorial government. Before this, although no deeds could be executed 
here, those executed elsewhere were, in some cases, recorded at Marietta, the 
county-seat of Washington county. Some divines had ventured to solemnize 
marriages before 1800 by virtue of their ministerial office. During the first four 
years of the settlement of the Reserve there was no law, the force of which was 
acknowledged here; but the law-abiding spirit of New England among the early 
settlers was such that peace and order generally prevailed. By the organization 
of Geauga county, March 1, 1806, what is now Cuyahoga county, east of the river, 
belonged to Geauga until 1809, when this county was organized. 


A paper read at the annual meeting of the Western Reserve and Northern Ohio 
Historical Society r , November , 1881, by its President, 


Not long before the President left Mentor for Washington, he is reported to 
have said to a New York politician that Ohio had about all the honors to which 
she is entitled. The response was " that she had about all the other States could 
stand." This sentiment appears to be a general one, not in an offensive sense, 
but as a widespread opinion, honestly entertained. Whitelaw Reid, in a recent 
address at Xenia, Ohio, showed conclusively from the blue books, that as to the 
number of citizens from this State who have held Federal offices, they are not in 
excess of her share, and are not proportionally equal to those from Massachusetts 
and Virginia. If it be a fact that our representative men have attained a leading 
influence in national affairs, it cannot be because of numbers alone, and it should 
be remembered that they have been raised to place and power, principally by the 
suffrages of the whole people. If their influence at the Capital is overshadowing, 
and it is exercised for the good of the nation, there should not be, and probably 
is not any feeling of jealousy. 

If our representative men are prominent, it may be a source of honorable State 
pride; for while great men do not make a great people, they are signs of a solid 
constituency. Native genius is about equally distributed in all nations, even in 
barbarous ones ; but it goes to waste wherever the surroundings are not propitious. 
Intellectual strength, without cultivation, is as likely to be a curse as a blessing. 
If it has cultivation and good moral qualities, it cannot even then become prom- 
inent without great occasions ; and in republican communities, without the back- 
ing of a people equal to the emergency. Leaders are not the real power, only its 
exponents. Storm signals are not the storm, they are only indications. History 
clearly shows that in free or partly free communities, great men rise no higher 
than the forces behind them. It also informs us that those nations which have 
been the most powerful, have become so by a mixture of races. Cross-breeding, 
by a law of nature fortifies the stock physically, on which mental development 
greatly depends. 

Why the mingling of certain races, like the Teutonic and the Celtic, produces 
an improved stock, while the same process between Caucasian and Negro or the 
North American Indian results in depreciation and decay, is one of those numer- 
ous mysteries, as yet unfathomed by man. Also, why the greatest unmixed 
races, such as Mongolian, Tartar, Japanese, Chinese, Hindoo, Arab and Hebrew, 
soon reach the limits of their improvement. A portion of the Aryan family mi- 
grated northwestwardly, mingling with the Caucasian, reaching' Europe by the 
north of the Black sea. They acquired strength as they spread out on the waters 
of the Danube, the Elbe and the Rhine, becoming powerful and even dominant 
under the general name of Goths, having a language from which the Saxon and 
English were derived. This might be attributable to the medium climate between 
the Baltic and the Mediterranean, if other people had not enjoyed as temperate 
climes, and had not gone on increasing, either in mental, physical or political 
power. When the Celtic and Scandinavian people had pushed forward to the 
Western sea, and met in the British Islands, they were for a long time unable to 
go farther, and thus had the best of opportunities to coalesce. The Atlantic was 
finally overcome, and their propensity to migrate was gratified by crossing the 
(124. J 


sea to North America. This great stream of humanity kept the line of a temper- 
ate climate, the central channel of which, as it crossed the continent, occupied the 
State of Ohio. 

In King John's time, an English people existed who exhibited their power 
through the barons at Runymede. Cromwell was endowed with a mental capac- 
ity equal to the greatest of men ; but he would not have appeared in history if 
there had not been a constituency of Roundheads, full of strength, determined 
upon the overthrow of a licentious king and his nobility. The English stock 
here proved its capabilities on a larger scale than in the days of King John. 
Washington would not have been known in history if the people of the American 
colonies had not been stalwarts in every sense, w r ho selected him as their repre- 
sentative. In these colonies the process of cross-breeding among races had then 
been carried further than in England, and is now a prime factor in the strength 
of the United States. 

I propose to apply the same rule to the first settlers of Ohio, and to show that 
if she now holds a high place in this nation, it is not an accident, but can be 
traced to manifest natural causes, and those not alone climate, soil and geograph- 
ical position. 

There were five centres of settlement in Ohio by people of somewhat different 
stock; four of them by people whose social training was more diverse than their 
stock. Beginning at the southwest, the Symmes' Purchase, between the Great 
and Little Miami rivers, was settled principally from New Jersey, with Cincin- 
nati as the centre. Next, on the east, between the Little Miami and the Scioto 
rivers, lay the Virginia Military District, reserved by that State to satisfy the 
bounty land warrants, issued to her troops in the war of the Revolution. It was 
like a projection of Virginia (except as to slavery), which then included Ken- 
tucky, across the Ohio river to the centre of the new State. Chillicothe was the 
principal town of this tract. The pioneers came on through the passes of the 
Blue Ridge, their ancestors being principally English and Episcopal, but claim- 
ing without much historical show, a leaven of Norman and Cavalier. With 
Marietta as a centre, the Ohio Company was recruited from Massachusetts and 
other New England States. In colonial times, their ancestors also came from 
England, but of opponents to the Church of England, in search of religious free- 
dom. One hundred and fifty years had wrought great differences between them 
and the Virginians. Next, west of the Pennsylvania line, lies the " seven ranges " 
of townships, extending north of the Ohio to the completion of the fortieth paral- 
lel of latitude, being the first of the surveys and sales of the public land of the 
United States. Most of the early settlers here came over the Alleghenies from 
the State of Pennsylvania ; some of Quaker stock, introduced by William Perm ; 
and more of German origin, in later days. North of them to Lake Erie lay the 
Western Reserve, owned and settled by inhabitants of Connecticut, with Cleve- 
land as the prospective capital of a new State, to be called " New Connecticut." 
This tract extended west from Pennsylvania one hundred and twenty miles. 
West of the seven ranges to the Scioto, and south of Wayne's treaty line, is the 
United States Military Reservation, where the first inhabitants were from all the 
States, and held bounty warrants issued under the resolution of 1776. They were 
not homogeneous enough to give this tract any social peculiarity. The north- 
western part of the State was, until the war of 1812, a wilderness occupied by 

The New Jersey people brought a tincture of Swedish and Hollander blood, 
mingled with the English. Those from Pennsylvania had a slight mixture of 
Irish, Scotch and Scotch -Irish. The settlers of new communities leave their im- 
press upon the locality long after they are gone. In Ohio these five centres were 
quite isolated, on account of broad intermediate spaces of dense unsettled forests, 
through which, if there were roads or trails, they were nearly impracticable. 
They all had occupation enough to secure the bread of life, clear away the trees 
around their cabins, and defend themselves against their red enemies. Though 
of one American family, their environment delayed their full social fusion at least 
one generation. Their differences were principally those of education, and includ- 
ing their religious cultus, were so thoroughly inbred that they stood in the 
relation of different races, but without animosity. A large part of them had 


taken part in the war of the Revolution, or they would have been lacking in 
courage to plant themselves on a frontier that was virtually in a state of war until 
the peace of 1815. The expeditions of Harmar in 1790, St. Clair in 1791 and 
Wayne in 1792-94 embraced many of them as volunteers. Full one thousand 
whites and more Indians were killed on Ohio soil before peace was assured. 
Nearly every man had a rifle and its accoutrements, with which he could bring 
down a squirrel or turkey from the tallest tree, and a deer, a bear or an Indian 
at sixty rods. They had not felt the weakening effect of idleness or luxury. 
Their food was coarse, but solid and abundant In spite of the malaria of new 
countries, the number of robust, active men fit for military duty was proportion- 
ally large. As hunters of wild animals or wild men, they were the full equals of 
the latter in endurance and the art of success. They were fully capable of defend- 
ing themselves. The dishonorable surrender at Detroit, August 16, 1812, became 
known on the Western Reserve, where the settlements were wholly unguarded, 
between the 20th and 22d ; probably at Washington not before the 25th or 26th. 
General Wadsworth, commanding the Fourth Division of the State Militia, 
ordered the Third Brigade (General Perkins) to rendezvous at Cleveland. On the 
23d, the men of the Lake counties were on their way, each with his rifle, well- 
filled powder-horn, bullet-pouch and butcher-knife, in squads or companies, on 
foot or mounted ; and on the 26th, one battalion moved westward. By the 5th 
of September, before any orders from Washington reached them, a post was 
established on the Huron river, near Milan, in Huron county. Nothing but these 
improvised troops lay between General Brock's army at Detroit and the settled 
portions of the State. The frontier line of settlements at that time turned south, 
away from Lake Erie at Huron, passing by Mansfield and Delaware to Urbana, 
in Champaign county. 

The war of 1812 brought nearly all our able-bodied men into the field, which 
had the effect to hasten a closer relationship between the settlements. In 1810, 
there were 230,760 inhabitants in Ohio. The vote for Governor in 1812 was 
19,752. Probably the enrolled militia was larger than the vote. It is estimated 
that for different terms of service 20,000 were in the field. War has many com- 
pensations for its many evils, especially a war of defense or for a principle in 
which the people are substantially unanimous. Few citizens volunteer for mili- 
tary service and go creditably through a campaign, its exposures and dangers, 
whose character is not strengthened. They acquire sturdiness, self-respect and 
courage. These qualities in individuals affect the aggregate stamina of commu- 
nities and of states. The volunteers in 1812-14, with a variety of thought, man- 
ners and dress, engaged in the common cause of public defense, coalesced in a 
social sense, which led to a better understanding and to intermarriages. At that 
time very few native-born citizens were of an age to participate in public affairs. 
Tiffin, the first governor, was a native of England. Senator, and then Governor 
Worthington was born in Virginia. Return Jonathan Meigs, Jr., senator, gover- 
nor and postmaster-general, in Connecticut ; Jeremiah Morrow, sole member of 
Congress from 1803 to 1813, then senator and governor, in Pennsylvania; General 
Harrison, afterwards president of the United States, in Virginia; General 
Mc Arthur in New York ; and General Cass in New Hampshire. Nearly all the 
generals of the war of the Rebellion in command of Ohio troops were natives. 

When the State had recovered from the sacrifices of the war of 1812, the native 
element showed itself in public affairs. The Legislature, reflecting the character 
of its constituents, took high ground in favor of free schools, canals, roads and 
official integrity. To this day no disgraceful scandal or corruption has been fas- 
tened upon it, or the executive of the State. Two generations succeeded, their 
blood more completely mingled, their habits more thoroughly assimilated, their 
intelligence increased, public communication improved, and in 1861 wealth had 
not made the people effeminate. Such are the processes which, by long and 
steady operation in one direction, brought into existence the constituency which 
rose up to sustain the Federal government. Three hundred thousand men were 
found capable of filling all positions, high and low, especially that of efficient 
soldiers in the ranks. Foi commanders, they had Gilmore, Cox, Stanley, Steed- 
man, Sill, Hazen, McCook, Rosecrans, McDowell, McPherson, Sheridan, Sherman 
and Grant, all raised, and except three, born on Ohio soil, and educated at West 


Point. Was it fortuitous ? I think I perceive sufficient causes working toward 
this result, not for one generation, or for a century, but reaching back to the Eng- 
lish people of two or three centuries since. Nations, races and families decay, and 
it is possible it may be so here; but wherever the broad political foundations laid 
in Ohio are taken as a pattern, and there is a general mixture of educated Anglo- 
Saxon stocks, the period of decline will be far in the distance. 

On the 4th of March, 1881, three men of fine presence advanced on the platform 
at the east portico of the Federal capitol. On their right is a solid, square-built 
man of an impressive appearance, the Chief-Justice of the United States [Salmon 
P. Chase]. On his left stood a tall, well-rounded, large, self-possessed personage, 
with a head large even in proportion to the body, who is President of the United 
States [James A. Garfield]. At his left hand was an equally tall, robust and 
graceful gentleman, the retiring president [Rutherford B. Hayes]. Near by was 
a tall, not especially graceful figure, with the eye of an eagle, who is the general 
commanding the army [William Tecumseh Sherman]. A short, square, active 
officer, the Marshal Ney of America, is there as lieutenant-general [Philip Sheri- 
dan]. Another tall, slender, self-poised man, of not ungraceful presence, was the 
focus of many thousands of eyes. He had carried the finances of the nation in 
his mind and in his heart, four years as secretary of the treasury, the peer of 
Hamilton and Chase [John Sherman]. Of these six, five were natives of Ohio, 
and the other a life-long resident. Did this group of national characters from 
ope State stand there by accident? Was it not the result of a long train of agen- 
cies, which, by force of natural selection, brought them to the front on that 
occasion ? 



JOHN KILBOURNE was born in Berlin, Connecticut, August 7, 1787, graduated at Vermont Uni- 
versity, and emigrating West was occupied for several years as Principal of Worthington College, 
Franklin county, of which his uncle, James Kilbourne, the famed surveyor and founder of the Scioto 
Company, was the president trustee. Subsequently he removed to Columbus and engaged in authorship 
and book selling and publishing, and there died March 12, 1S31, aged forty-four years. He published 
a " Gazetteer of Vermont," a "Gazetteer of Ohio," a map of Ohio, a volume of " Public Documents 
Concerning the Ohio Canals," and a " School Geography." 

The article upon " The Public Lands of Ohio," which here follows slightly abridged from the 
original, is from his "Ohio Gazetteer," the first edition of which appeared in 1816. It went through 
several editions and was a work of great merit and utility. This article on the lands was carefully 
written, and having been copied into the first edition of the " Ohio Historical Collections," was highly 
valued by many of its readers. We are glad to reproduce it here with this preliminary notice of the 

In most of the States and Territories lying west of the Allegheny mountains, 
the United States, collectively as a nation, owned, or did own, the soil of the 
country, after the extinguishment of the aboriginal Indian title. This vast 
national domain comprises several hundreds of millions of acres ; which is a 
bountiful fund, upon which the general government can draw for centuries, to 
supply, at a low price, all its citizens with a freehold estate. 

When Ohio was admitted into the Federal Union as an independent State, one 
of the terms of admission was, that the fee-simple to all the lands within its 
limits, excepting those previously granted or sold, should vest in the United 
States. Different portions of them have, at diverse periods, been granted or sold 
to various individuals, companies and bodies politic. 

The following are the names by which the principal bodies of the lands are 
designated, on account of these different forms of transfer, viz. : 

16. School 


17. College 


18. Ministerial 


19. Moravian 


20. Salt Sections. 

8. Symmes' Purchase. 15. MaumeeRoad Lands. 

9. Refugee Tract. 

10. French Grant. 

11. Dohrman's Grant. 

12. Zane's do. 

13. Canal Lands. 

14. Turnpike Lands. 

Congress Lands are so called because they are sold to purchasers by the imme- 
diate officers of the general government, conformably to such laws as are, or may 
be, from time to time, enacted by Congress. They are all regularly surveyed into 
townships of six miles square each, under authority, and at the expense of the 
National government. 

1. Congress Lands. 

2. U. S. Military. 

3. Virginia Military. 

4. Western Reserve. 

5. Fire- Lands. 

6. Ohio Co.'s Purchase. 

7. Donation Tract. 

All Congress lands, excepting 
Marietta and a part of Steuben- 
ville district, are numbered as 
follows : 

VII ranges, Ohio Company's 
purchase, and Symmes' pur- 
chase, are numbered as here 
exhibited : 






































































T 4 

S 30f 

T 4 


T 3 
S 1 

T 3 
S 6 


The townships are again subdivided into sections of one mile square, each 
containing 640 acres, by lines running parallel with the township and range lines. 
The sections are numbered in two different modes, as exhibited in the preceding 
figures or diagrams. 

In addition to the foregoing division, the sections are again subdivided into four 
equal parts, called the northeast quarter section, southeast quarter section, etc. 
And again, by a law of Congress, which went into effect in July, 1820, these quarter 
sections are also divided by a north and south line into two equal parts, called 
the east half quarter section, No. and west half quarter section, No. , which 
contain eighty acres each. The minimum price has been reduced by the same 
law from $2.00 to $1.25 per acre, cash down. 

In establishing the township and sectional corners, a post is first planted at the 
point of intersection; then on the tree nearest the post, and standing within the 
section intended to be designated, is numbered with the marking iron, the range, 
township and number of the section, thus : 

The quarter corners are marked 1-4 south, merely. 

Section No. 16, of every township, is perpetually reserved for the use of schools 
and leased or sold out, for the benefit of schools, under the State government. 
All the others may be taken up either in sections, fractions, halves, quarters, or 
half quarters. 

For the purpose of selling out these lands, they are divided into eight several 
land districts, called after the names of the towns in which the land offices are 
kept, viz. : Wooster, Steubenville, Zanesville, Marietta, Chillicothe, etc., etc. 

The seven ranges of townships are a portion of the Congress lands, so called, 
being the first ranges of public lands ever surveyed by the general government 
west of the Ohio river. They are bounded on the north by a line drawn due west 
from the Pennsylvania State line, where it crosses the Ohio river, to the United 
States Military lands, forty-two miles ; thence south to the Ohio river, at the 
southeast corner of Marietta township, thence up the river to the place of begin- 

Connecticut Western Reserve, oftentimes called New Connecticut, is situated in 
the northeast quarter of the State, between Lake Erie on the north, Pennsylvania 
east, the parallel of the forty-first degree of north latitude south, and Sandusky 
and Seneca counties on the west. It extends 120 miles from east to west, and 
upon an average fifty from north to south : although, upon the Pennsylvania line, 
it is sixty-eight miles broad, from north to south. The area is about 3,800,000 
acres. It is surveyed into townships of five miles square each. A body of half a 
million acres is, however, stricken off from the west end of the tract, as a dona- 
tion, by the State of Connecticut, to certain sufferers by fire, in the revolutionary 

The manner by which Connecticut became possessed of the land in question 
was the following: King Charles II., of England, pursuing the example of his 
brother kings, of granting distant and foreign regions to his subjects granted to 
the then colony of Connecticut, in 1662, a charter right to all lands included 
within certain specific bounds. But as the geographical knowledge of Europeans 
concerning America was then very limited and confused, patents for lands often 
interfered with each other, and many of them, even by their express terms, ex- 
tended to the Pacific ocean, or South sea, as it was then called. Among the rest, 
that for Connecticut embraced all lands contained between the forty-first and 
forty-second parallels of north latitude, and from Providence plantations on the 
east, to the Pacific ocean west, with the exception of New York and Pennsylvania 
colonies ; and, indeed, pretensions to these were not finally relinquished without 
considerable altercation. And after the United States became an independent 
nation, these interfering claims occasioned much collision of sentiment between 

3 2 

4 1 


them and the State of Connecticut, which was finally compromised by the United 
States relinquishing all their claims upon, and guaranteeing to Connecticut the 
exclusive right of soil to the 3,800,000 acres now described. The United States, 
however, by the terms of compromise, reserved to themselves the right of juris- 
diction. They then united this tract to the Territory, now State of Ohio. 

Fire-Lands, a tract of country so called, of about 781 square miles, or 500,000 
acres, in the western part of New Connecticut. The name originated from the 
circumstance of the State of Connecticut having granted these lands in 1792, as a 
donation to certain sufferers by fire, occasioned by the English during our revo- 
lutionary war, particularly at New London, Fairfield and Norwalk. These lands 
include 'the five westernmost ranges of the Western Reserve townships. Lake 
Erie and Sandusky bay project so far southerly as to leave but the space of six 
tiers and some fractions of townships between them and the forty-first parallel 
of latitude, or a tract of about thirty by twenty-seven miles in extent. 

This tract is surveyed into townships of about five miles square 
each; and these townships are then subdivided into four quarters ; 
and these quarter townships are numbered as in the accompanying 
figure, the top being considered north. And for individual conven- 
ience these are again subdivided, by private surveys, into lots from 
fifty to five hundred acres each, to suit individual purchasers. 

United States Military Lands are so called from the circumstances of their hav- 
ing been appropriated, by an act of Congress of the 1st of June, 1796, to satisfy 
certain claims of the officers and soldiers of the revolutionary war. The tract 
of country embracing these lands is bounded as follows : beginning at the north- 
west corner of the original VII ranges of townships, thence south 50 miles, thence 
west to the Scioto river, thence up said river to the Greenville treaty line, thence 
northeasterly with said line to old Fort Laurens, on the Tuscarawas river, thence 
due east to the place of beginning ; including a tract of about 4,000 square miles, 
or 2,560,000 acres of land. It is, of course, bounded north by the Greenville 
treaty line, east by the "VII ranges of townships," south by the Congress and 
Refugee lands, and west by the Scioto river. 

These lands are surveyed into townships of five miles square. These town- 
ships were then again, originally, surveyed into quarter townships of two and a 
half miles square, containing 4,000 acres each ; and subsequently some of these 
quarter townships were subdivided into forty lots of 100 acres each, for the accom- 
modation of those soldiers holding warrants for only 100 acres each. And again 
after the time originally assigned for the location of these warrants had expired, 
certain quarter townships, which had not then been located, were divided into 
sections of one mile square each, and sold by the general government like the mam 
body of Congress lands. 

The quarter townships are numbered as exhibited m the accom- 
panying figure, the top being considered north. The place of each 
township is ascertained by numbers and ranges, the same as Congress 
lands ; the ranges being numbered from east to west, and the num- 
bers from south to north. 
Virginia Military Lands are a body of land lying between the Scioto and 
Little Miami rivers, and bounded upon the Ohio river on the south. The State 
of Virginia, from the indefinite and vague terms of expression in its original 
colonial charter of territory from James I., king of England, in the year 1609, 
claimed all the continent west of the Ohio river, and of the north and south 
breadth of Virginia. But finally, among several other compromises of conflict- 
ing claims which were made, subsequently to the attainment of our national inde- 
pendence, Virginia agreed to relinquish all her claims to lands northwest of the 
Ohio river, in favor of the general government, upon condition of the lands, now 
described, being guaranteed to her. The State of Virginia then appropriated this 
body of land to satisfy the claims of her State troops employed in the continental 
line during the revolutionary war. 

This district is not surveyed into townships or any regular form; but any 
individual holding a Virginia military land warrant may locate it wherever he 
chooses within the district, and in such shape as he pleases wherever the land 
shall not previously have been located. In consequence of this deficiency of 

2 | 1 

3 4 


regular original surveys, and the irregularities with which the several locations 
have been made, and the consequent interference and encroachment of some loca- 
tions upon others, more than double the litigation has probably arisen between 
the holders of adverse titles, in this district, than there has in any other part of the 
State of equal extent. 

Ohio Company 1 8 Purchase is a body of land containing about 1,500,000 acres ; 
including, however, the donation tract, school lands, etc., lying along the Ohio 
river ; and including Meigs, nearly all of Athens, and a considerable part of 
Washington and Gallia counties. This tract was purchased of the general gov- 
ernment in the year 1787, by Manasseh Cutler and Winthrop Sargeant, from the 
neighborhood of Salem, in Massachusetts, agents for the u Ohio Company," so 
called, which had been then formed in Massachusetts for the purpose of a settle- 
ment in the Ohio country. Only 964,285 acres were ultimately paid for, and 
of course patented. This body of land was then apportioned out into 817 shares 
of 1,173 acres each, and a town lot of one-third of an acre to each share. These 
shares were made up to each proprietor in tracts, one of 640 acres, one of 262, one 
of 160, one of 100, one of 8, and another of 3 acres, besides the before-mentioned 
town lot. 

Besides every section 16, set apart, as elsewhere, for the support of schools, 
every section 29 is appropriated for the support of religious institutions. In 
addition to which were also granted two six miles square townships for the use 
of a college. 

But unfortunately for the Ohio Company, owing to their want of topographical 
knowledge of the country, the body of land selected by them, with some partial 
exceptions, is the most hilly and sterile of any tract of similar extent in the 

Donation Tract is a body of 100,000 acres set off in the northern limits of the 
Ohio Company's tract, and granted to them by Congress, provided they should 
obtain one actual settler upon each hundred acres thereof within five years from 
the date of the grant; and that so much of the 100,000 acres aforesaid, as should 
not thus be taken up, shall revert to the general government. 

This tract may, in some respects, be considered a part of the Ohio Company's 
purchase. It is situated in the northern limits of Washington county. It lies 
in an oblong shape, extending nearly 17 miles from east to west, and about 7} 
from north to south. 

Symmes 1 Purchase, a tract of 311,682 acres of land, in the southwestern quarter 
of the State, between the Great and Little Miami rivers. It borders on the Ohio 
river a distance of 27 miles, and extends so far back from the latter between the 
two Miamis as to include the quantity of land just mentioned. It was patented 
to John Cleves Sy mines, in 1794, for 67 cents an acre. Every 16th section, or 
square mile, in each township, was reserved by Congress for the use of schools, 
and sections 29 for the support of religious institutions, besides 15 acres around 
Fort Washington, in Cincinnati. This tract of country is now one of the most 
valuable in the State. 

Refugee Tract, a bod} 7 of 100,000 acres of land granted by Congress to certain 
individuals who left the British provinces during the revolutionary war, and es- 
poused the cause of freedom. It is a narrow strip of country 4£ miles broad from 
north to south, and extends eastwardly from the Scioto river 48 miles. It has the 
United States XX ranges of military or army lands north, and XXII ranges of 
Congress lands south. In the western borders of this tract is situated the town 
of Columbus. 

French Grant, a tract of 24,000 acres of land bordering upon the Ohio river, in 
the southeastern quarter of Scioto county. It was granted by Congress, in March, 
1795, to a number of French families, who lost their lands at Gallipolis by invalid 
titles. Twelve hundred acres, additional, were afterwards granted, adjoining 
the above-mentioned tract at its lower end, toward the mouth of Little Scioto river. 

Dohrman's Grant is one six mile square township, of 23,040 acres, granted to 
Arnold Henry Dohrman, formerly a wealthy Portuguese merchant in Lisbon, for 
and in consideration of his having, during the revolutionary war, given shelter 
and aid to the American cruisers and vessels of war. It is located in the south- 
eastern part of Tuscarawas county. 


Moravian Lands are three several tracts of 4,000 acres each, originally granted 
by the old Continental Congress, July, 1787, and confirmed, by the act of Con- 
gress of 1st June, 1796, to the Moravian brethren at Bethlehem, in Pennsylvania, 
in trust and for the use of the Christianized Indians living thereon. They are 
laid out in nearly square forms, on the Muskingum river, in what is now Tusca- 
rawas county. They are called by the names of the Shoenbrun, Gnadenhutten 
and Salem tracts. 

Zaneh Tracts are three several tracts of one mile square each — one on the 
Muskingum, which includes the town of Zanesville — one at the cross of the 
Hocking river, on which the town of Lancaster is laid out — and the third, on the 
left bank of the Scioto river, opposite Chillicothe. They were granted by Con- 
gress to one Ebenezer Zane, in May, 1796, on condition that he should open a 
road through them from Wheeling, in Virginia, to Maysville, in Kentucky. 

There are also three other tracts, of one mile square each, granted to Isaac 
Zane, in the year 1802, in consideration of his having been taken prisoner by the 
Indians, when a boy, during the revolutionary war, and living with them most 
of his life ; and having, during that time, performed many acts of kindness and 
beneficence toward the American people. These tracts are situated in Champaign 
county, on King's creek, from three to five miles northwest from Urbana. 

The Maumee Road Lands are a body of lands averaging two miles wide, lying 
along one mile on each side of the road from the Maumee river at Perry sburg to 
the western limits of the Western Reserve, a distance of about 46 miles; and 
comprising nearly 60,000 acres. They were originally granted by the Indian 
owners, at the treaty of Brownstown in 1808, to enable the United States to make 
a road on the line just mentioned. The general government never moved in the 
business until February, 1823, when Congress passed an act making over the 
aforesaid land to the State of Ohio : provided she would, within four years there- 
after, make and keep in repair a good road throughout the aforesaid route of 46 
miles. This road the State government has already made; and obtained posses- 
sion and sold most of the land. 

Turnpike lands are forty-nine sections, amounting to 31,360 acres, situated along 
the western side of the Columbus and Sandusky turnpike, in the eastern parts of 
Seneca, Crawford, and Marion counties. They were originally granted by an act 
of Congress on the 3d of March, 1827, and more specifically by a supplementary 
act the year following. The considerations for which these lands were granted 
were, that the mail stages and all troops and property of the United States which 
should ever be moved and transported along this road shall pass free from toll. 

The Ohio Canal lands are lands granted by Congress to the State of Ohio to aid 
in constructing her extensive canals. These lands comprise over 1,000,000 of 
acres, a large proportion of which is now (1847) in market. 

School Lands. — By compact between the United States and the State of Ohio, 
when the latter was admitted into the Union, it was stipulated, for and in con- 
sideration that the State of Ohio should never tax the Congress lands until after 
they should have been sold five years; and in consideration that the public lands 
would thereby more readily sell, that the one-thirty-sixth part of all the territory 
included within the limits of the State should be set apart for the support of 
common schools therein. And, for the purpose of getting at lands which should 
in point of quality of soil be on an average with the whole land in the country, 
they decreed that it should be selected by lot, in small tracts each, to wit: that 
it should consist of section 16, let that section be good or bad, in every township 
of Congress lands ; also in the Ohio Company, and in Symmes' purchases ; all of 
which townships are composed of thirty -six sections each; and for the United 
States military lands and Connecticut Reserve, a number of quarter townships, 
two and one-half miles square each (being the smallest public surveys therein 
then made), should be selected by the Secretary of the Treasury, in different 
places throughout the United States military tract, equivalent in quantity to the 
one-thirty-sixth part of those two tracts respectively. And for the Virginia mili- 
tary tract, Congress enacted that a quantity of hind equal to the one-thirty -sixth 
part of the estimated quantity of land contained therein should be selected by 
lot, in what was then called the " New Purchase," in quarter township tracts of 
three miles square each. Most of these selections were accordingly made ; but, 


in some instances, by the carelessness of the officers conducting the sales, or from 
some other cause, a few sections 16 have been sold ; in which case Congress, 
when applied to, has generally granted other lands in lieu thereof; as, for 
instance, no section 16 was reserved in Montgomery township, in which Colum- 
bus is situated ; and Congress afterwards granted therefor section 21 in the town- 
ship cornering thereon to the southeast. 

College townships are three six miles square townships granted by Congress ; two 
of them to the Ohio Company for the use of a college to be established within 
their purchase, and one for the use of the inhabitants of Symmes' purchase. 

Ministerial Lands.— In both the Ohio Company and in Symmes' purchase every 
section 29 (equal to one-thirty-sixth part of every township) is reserved as a per- 
manent fund for the support of a settled minister. As the purchasers ol these two 
tracts came from parts of the Union where it was customary and deemed neces- 
sary to have a regular settled clergyman in every town, they therefore stipulated 
in their original purchase that a permanent fund in land should thus be set apart 
for this purchase. In no other part of the State, other than in these two pur- 
chases, are any lands set apart for this object. 

Salt Sections.— Near the centre of what is now (1847) Jackson county Congress 
originally reserved from sale thirty -six sections, or one six mile square township, 
around and including what was called the Scioto salt-licks ; also one-quarter of 
a five mile square township in what is now Delaware county ; in all, forty-two 
and a quarter sections, or 27,040 acres. By an act of Congress of the 28th of 
December, 1824, the legislature of Ohio was authorized to sell these lands, and to 
apply the proceeds thereof to such literary purposes as said legislature may think 
proper ; but to no other purpose whatever. 

To the foregoing article of Kilbourne we append Tract No. 61 of the " Western 
Reserve and Northern Ohio Historical Society," by the late Col. Charles 
Whittlesey, and entitled • 


The surveys of the government lands were commenced in July, 1786, under 
the management of Thomas Hutchins, the geographer of the United States.. 
There were surveyors appointed — one from each State ; but only nine entered 
upon the work in 1786. Among them were Ansel m Tupper, Joseph Buell, and 
John Matthews. Rufus Putnam was appointed from Massachusetts, but was 
then engaged in surveys in what is now the State of Maine. 

The geographer planted his Jaeobstaff on the Pennsylvania line at the north 
bank of the Ohio river. Having been one of the Pennsylvania commissioners on 
the western boundary in 1784,* he was familiar with the country from the Ohio 
river to Lake Erie. He ran a line west over the hills of Columbiana and Carroll 
counties in person, now known as the " Geographer's Line," a distance of forty- 
two miles. At each mile a post was set and on each side witness-trees were 
marked. Every six miles was a town corner. From these corners surveyors 
ran the meridian or range lines south to the Ohio, and the east and west town 

Hutchins began the numbers of the sections, or No. 1 at the southeast corner 
of the township, thence north to the northeast corner. The next tier began with 
No. 7 on the south line, and so on, terminating with No. 36 at the northwest 
corner. This system of numbering was followed in the survey of the Ohio Com- 

* The best astronomical and mathematical talent of the colonies was employed on the western boundary 
of Pennsylvania, which had long been contested by Virginia. It was fixed by a transit sighting from 
hill to hill, the timber cut away, so that the instrument could be reversed and thus cover three stations, 
often several miles apart. As the monuments put up by the surveyors were nearly all of wood, there 
were few of them visible in 1796, when the surveyors of the Western Reserve began their work. The 
vista cut through the woods on the summit of the hills to open the Pennsylvania line had nearly 
disappeared when the country was cleared for settlement. On this survey, when the Ohio river was 
reached the Virginia commissioners retired, because that State had ceded the country north of the 



pany's purchase and in the Symmes purchase. It was changed to the present 
system by the act of 1799, without any apparent reason. The towns in the seven 
ranges were, by law, numbered from the Ohio river northward, and the ranges 
from the Pennsylvania line westward. In the history of land surveys this is the 
first application of the rectangular system of lots in squares of one mile, with 
meridian lines, and corner posts at each mile, where the number of the section* 
town, and range was put on the witness-trees in letters and figures. It should be 
regarded as one of the great American inventions, and the credit of it is due to 
Hutchins, who conceived it in 1764 when he was a captain in the Sixtieth Royal- 
American regiment, and engineer to the expedition under Col. Henry Bouquet to 
the Forks of the Muskingum, in what is now Coshocton county. It formed a 
part of his plan for military colonies north of the Ohio, as a protection against 

Indians. The law of 1785 embraced most of the details of the new system. It 
was afterwards adopted by the State of Massachusetts in the surveys of her timber 
lands in the province of Maine, and by the purchasers of her lands within the 
State of New York, also by the managers of the Holland purchase in Western 
New York and the State of Connecticut on the Western Reserve. 

Although the Indian tribes had ceded Southern Ohio to the United States, 
they were bitterly opposed to its survey and settlement by white people. They 
were so hostile that troops were detailed from Fort Harmar for the protection of 
surveyors. The geographer's line ended on the heights south of Sandyville, in 
Stark county, about three miles east of Bolivar. In September, 1786, Major 
Doughty, of Colonel Harmar's Battalion, advised them that he could not guar- 
antee their safety. The subdivision of very few townships was completed that 
year. In 1787 the work was pushed more rapidly. The west line of the seven 


ranges, as they have ever since been designated, was continued southward to the 
Ohio river, a few miles above Marietta, being about fourteen (14) towns or eighty- 
four miles in length. 

The meridian lines of the seven ranges diverged to the right, or to the west, as 
they were extended southerly. The magnetic variation was seldom corrected. 
The country was rough, and revengeful savages lurked in the surrounding forest. 
The work of these brave men should not be closely criticised, even where there 
are some irregularities. 

The variation of the needle in 1786 must have been about (2) two degrees east, 
decreasing about (2' 30") two and one-half minutes yearly. If the magnetic 
meridian was followed, the result would be a deviation from the true meridian, 
and going south would be to the west, and the departure would be sixteen chains, 
eighty links for each township. No account was then taken of the divergence of 
meridians, which in working southward amounted in a degree of sixty-nine and 
one-half miles to about eight chains. Not less than an entire section was offered 
for sale, and the price was two dollars per acre. Supplies were brought to the 
lines from Fort Steuben (now Steubenville) through the woods on pack horses. 
By the act of May 18, 1796, the tract north of the geographer's line to the 
Western Reserve was directed to be surveyed, but it was not until 1810 that the 
sections were closed up to that line. 

A discussion having arisen between the Connecticut Land Company and the 
Federal Government, as to the location of the forty-first parallel of latitude, 
Surveyor-General Professor Mansfield was directed to examine the line, in that 
year, who advised that it be not disturbed. 

After the death of Geographer Hutchins, in April, 1789, the entire management 
of the surveys devolved upon the Board of the Treasury, until the Constitution 
of 1787 went into operation, and for some years after. Before the Constitution 
there was no Federal executive, or cabinet, and executive business was transacted 
by committees, or boards filled by members of Congress, subject to the direction 
of Congress. Legislation was a very simple matter. A convention of delegates 
from the several States, in such numbers as they chose to select and to pay, each 
State having one vote, constituted the supreme power. Their legislative acts 
took the form of resolutions and ordinances, which were final. As early as 
August, 1776, it was resolved to give bounties in land, to soldiers and officers in 
the war of liberation. A tract was directed to be surveyed for this purpose in 
Ohio, in 1796. It is still known as the "Military bounty lands,'' lying next 'west 
of the seven ranges, fifty miles down the line to the south, bounded north by the 
treaty line of 1795, and extending west to the Scioto river. Its southwest corner 
is near Columbus. For this tract the surveyors were able to bring supplies up 
the Muskingum and the Scioto rivers in boats. In the bounty lands the townships 
were directed to be five miles square, with subdivisions into quarters, containing 
4,000 acres. The allotment of the quarter towns was left to the owners. 

It was not until 1799 that the surveys were again placed in charge of a special 
officer, with the title of surveyor-general. 

General Rufus Putnam, of Marietta, was appointed to the place, which he held 
until the State of Ohio was admitted into the Union. Putnam was a self-taught 
mathematician, surveyor and engineer, on whom Washington relied for the con- 
struction of the lines investing the city of Boston in 1775-1776. He compre- 
hended at once the rectangular system of surveys, and so did the surveyors of 
the New England States. He served until the State of Ohio was organized in 
1803 and was succeeded by Jared Mansfield, of the United States Military En- 
gineers. Both these gentlemen were for their times accomplished mathematicians 
and engineers. 

The sale of lands in the seven ranges was so slow, that there was for several 
years no necessity for additional surveys. At two dollars per acre, and in tracts 
of not less than a section of 640 acres, the western emigrant could do better in 
other parts of Ohio and in Kentucky. The purchasers of the Symmes' purchase 
paid for the entire tract sixty-seven cents per acre. On the Reserve the State of 
Connecticut offered her lands at fifty cents. 

In the Virginia military reservation, the whole was available in State warrants 
that were very cheap. The Ohio Company paid principally in continental cer- 


After 1796 the military bounty land came in competition, which could be had 
' in tracts of 4,000 acres for bounty certificates, issued under the resolutions of 1776 
and 1780. In 1795 the Western Reserve was sold in a body at about forty cents 
per acre. These large blocks covered full half of the State of Ohio. 

By the act of May 18, 1796, additional surveys were provided for. First: In 
the district between the Ohio Company and the Scioto river. Here it was found 
that a correctional meridian was necessary, because of the excess in the sections, 
abutting on the west line of the company at range fifteen.* The correction was 
made by establishing a true meridian between ranges seventeen and eighteen with 
sections of an exact mile square. Between the Ohio river and Hampden, in 
Vinton county, the correction north and south amounted to a mile. The errors 
from the variation of the needle were such that quarter sections abutting on the 
true meridian on the east, were nearly as large as full sections on the west. 

There are also discrepancies on the north line of the Ohio Company, especially 
between Hocking and Perry counties. On the south side the sections overrun in 
some instances twenty acres. On the north, the government surveys are some- 
times short 25 to 28 acres. On the county maps in the *Symmes' purchase, the 
section lines present a singular appearance. Their east and west boundaries are 
the most irregular, especially in the later surveys. This difference is due not so 
much to the compass as the chain, and the allowance for rough ground. Land 
was of so little value that very little care was given to the accuracy of surveys. 

Secondly : By the same act, seven ranges were to be surveyed on the Ohio river, 
next west of the first meridian, now in Indiana ; also in the country between this 
meridian and the great Miami. In both tracts, the towns were numbered from 
the river northward. Quarter posts were required at each half mile, and the land 
was offered in half sections, to be divided by the purchaser, the price remaining 
at two dollars per acre. 

It was not until after the war of 1812-15, and the conquest of the Indian ter- 
ritory north of Wayne's treaty line, that surveys were ordered in the northwest 
quarter of Ohio. For this tract a base line was run on or near the forty-first 
parallel of latitude, corresponding to the south line of the Reserve. The ranges 
were numbered east from the first meridian, being the west line of Ohio, and the 
towns numbered north and south from the base. It is seventeen ranges east to 
the west line of the Reserve, and from the Pennsylvania line twenty-one ranges 
west, making the breadth of the State about 228 miles. 

From 1779 to 1785 parties holding Virginia State land warrants located them 
on the north side of the Ohio. This was done against the law of Virginia and 
her cession of 1784. The valley of the Hocking river was occupied as far as 
Logan when, in the fall of 1785, the claimants were removed by the United States 
troops. Probably these claims had been surveyed. In the Virginia military 
tract the private surveys were so loose as to be entirely useless for geographical 
purposes. In order to fix the Little Miami river on the official maps, an east and 
west line was run from near Chillicothe through the reservation, connecting the 
United States surveys from the Scioto river to the Little Miami. According to 
the present practice there are corrective lines and guide meridians within thirty 
to fifty miles of each other. The towns and sections are thus made nearly equal 
by these frequent checks upon errors of chaining, of the variation of the needle, 
and the convergence of meridians. It was not until 1804 that sales were made 
in quarter sections, and it was 1820 before the price was fixed at $1.25 per acre, 
which could be located in half or quarter sections as it has been ever since. 

* See line A A of plan. 


By. George W. Knight, Ph. D., 
Professor of History and Political Science in Ohio State University. 

Geokge Wells Knight was born June 25. 
1858, at Ann Arbor, Michigan, of New York and 
New England parentSage, and through his mother 
is a lineal descendant of William Bradford, second 
Governor of the Plymouth colony. He was edu- 
cated in the public schools of Ann Arbor, being 
graduated from the high school in 1874, and at the 
University of Michigan, from which he was 
graduated in 1878 in the classical course. After 
studying law for a year at the university he was 
for two years principal of the high school at Lan- 
sing, Michigan. He was married in January, 
1882, to Mariette A. Barnes, of Lansing, a gradu- 
ate of Vassar College. Having had from his youth 
a special fondness for history and political science 
he returned to Ann Arbor and continued his 
studies in those lines at the university, receiving 
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in 1884. After 
teaching history for a year in Ann Arbor he was 
elected professor of history and English literature 
in the Ohio State University at Columbus, and in 
1887, by a rearrangement of the teaching force, 
became professor of history and political science 
in the same institution. In 1885 he published 
through the American Historical Association a 
work on " The History and Management of Land 
Grants for Education in the Northwest Territory." 
In 1887 he was made managing editor of the 
Ohio Archceological and Historical Quarterly, the 
official publication of the State Historical So- 



In few regions into which civilization has advanced have the educational be- 
ginnings been made before settlements were planted and the children actually 
needed school facilities. The history of education, or of the provisions for it, in 
Ohio commenced, however, before there was an American settlement northwest 
of the Ohio river or any wave of migration was rolling towards the wilderness 
between the great lakes and " the beautiful river." 

In an ordinance passed by Congress in 1785 for the survey and sale of the 
western lands, it was provided that section sixteen, or one thirty-sixth, of every 
township included under the ordinance should be reserved from sale for the 
maintenance of public schools within the township. This reservation was made 
not because Congress especially desired to foster education at public expense, but 
rather as an inducement to migration and the purchase of land by settlers. In 
1787 the famous ordinance for the government of the Northwest Territory de- 
clared that "schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged," 
thus pledging both the general government and the future States to provide in 
some manner for public schools. In the same year, in the contract between the 
Board of Treasury and the Ohio Company, it was specified that one section in 
each township of the purchase should be reserved for common schools and " not 
more than two complete townships" should be "given perpetually for the pur- 
poses of an university." A little later, by the contract for the Symmes purchase 
along the Little Miami, one township, in addition to the usual school sections, 



was set aside for the benefit of " an academy and other public schools and sem- 
inaries of learning." 

Two things should be noted in this connection : First, the foregoing provisions 
were all made before any settlement was planted within the territory to which 
they applied; second, whatever the original intention of Congress may have 
been, these grants established, once for all, the idea that it is the duty of the 
American State to provide schools for its children and that it is the part of wis- 
dom for Congress, both as a land-owner and a governing body, to take measures 
which shall ensure the establishment and assist in the maintenance by the States 
of public schools and colleges. 

As these lands were at first merely reserved from sale and settlement, no steps 
were taken by the territorial Legislature to apply them to the intended purpose. 
When Ohio became a State the school lands already reserved were granted to the 
State to be disposed of by the Legislature. Provision was also made whereby in 
the Western Reserve, the United States and the Virginia Military Districts, not 
included in the earlier legislation, one thirty-sixth of the land should be de- 
voted to schools. This act terminated the direct relations of the United States 
to the schools of Ohio and left in the hands of the Legislature a splendid school 
endowment of 704,000 acres of land. 

The Constitution of 1802, repeating the famous educational clause of the or- 
dinance of 1787, made it the duty of the Legislature to carry out its intent. It 
also provided that all schools, academies and colleges founded upon or supported 
by revenues from the land-grants should be open " for the reception of scholars,, 
students and teachers of every grade without any distinction or preference what- 
ever." The Constitution of 1851 was far more specific and shows by its provisions 
that there had grown up by that time a positive demand for public schools. In plain 
terms it declares the duty of the General Assembly to provide by taxation or other- 
wise " a thorough and efficient system of common schools throughout the State." 

Such have been the organic provisions and constitutional obligations assumed 
by the people of Ohio in regard to public education. What has the State done 
in fulfilling these duties? As Ohio was the first State coming into possession of 
an extensive land endowment for education, she had no precedents to follow and 
could look to no older State for ideas concerning its management. Only the in- 
come arising from the proceeds of the lands could be expended. The fund itself 
must remain intact forever. The policy of leasing the lands was first adopted, 
and all laws on the subject until 1827 provided for leases of various periods and 
terms, the rents "to be impartially applied to the education of the youths" in 
the several townships. The character of the leases, the low appraisals of the 
lands and the terms of payment authorized show conclusively that during the 
greater part of this time the interests of the lessees were more carefully guarded 
by the Legislature than were those of the schools. Several special legislative- 
committees were appointed between 1820 and 1825 to investigate abuses in the 
management of the school lands, and as a result the policy of leasing was 
abandoned and provision made for selling the lands and investing the proceeds. 
It was expected that by this change the school fund would be benefited and the 
income increased. The statute-books and executive reports from this time con- 
tain a curious mixture of wise and unwise suggestion and legislation and many 
complicated transactions concerning this trust fund. Without stopping to re- 
count these measures, not all of them creditable to the wisdom and honor of the 
General Assembly, it may be said that nearly all of the school lands have long 
since been sold, and that those unsold are under perpetual lease at an extremely 
low rental. As fast as the lands were sold the proceeds were paid into the State 
treasury, and the State has pledged itself to pay six per cent, interest thereon 
forever, the interest being annually distributed among the various townships and 
districts for school purposes. As a matter of fact the fund itself has been bor- 
rowed and spent by the State and the annual interest is raised by taxation. The 
fund thus exists only on the books of the State and merely constitutes a legal 
and moral obligation on the part of the people to tax themselves a certain amount 
annually for school purposes. That this disposition of the fund was never con- 
templated when the grant was made cannot be questioned. Of the original grant 
of 704,488 acres about 665,000 acres have been sold, producing a fund of $3,829^- 



551.06, which yielded an income in 1887 of $229,392.90, to which should be added 
the rents of the unsold lands, making a total income from the Congressional land- 
grant of about $240,000. 

In the course of a careful study of this subject a few years since the writer of 
the present sketch reached the following conclusions : 

"That the possibilities of the grant have not been realized is acknowledged 
and regretted by all. The great underlying cause was one by no means peculiar 
to Ohio or to the times — the failure to appreciate the responsibility imposed upon 
the State in guarding this immense trust. It seems undeniable that many of 
her lands were forced into market in advance of any call for their sale. So long 
as the State was the guardian of the property it ought not to have sanctioned 
proceedings which sold land for five, ten or twenty per cent, of what might have 
been realized. 

" Yet, even though much has been wasted, the grants have been instrumental, 
in a degree that cannot be estimated in mere dollars and cents, in promoting the 
cause of education. Perhaps the greatest benefit rendered by the funds has been 
in fostering among the people a desire for good schools. The funds have made 
practicable a system of education which without them it would have been im- 
possible to establish." 

For many years both before and after the land grant began to produce any in- 
come, whatever schools were in existence in Ohio were sustained wholly or prin- 
cipally by private subscription, and by rate bills paid by those whose children 
attended the schools. These were hardly public schools and certainly not free 
schools since, like academies or denominational colleges, they were open only to 
those who could afford to pay for the tuition. 

In 1821 the first law was passed that authorized the levying of a tax for the 
support of schools. By this law authority was given for the division of townships 
into school districts, and for the election of district school committees, who might 
erect school-houses and lay a school tax not greater than one-half the State and 
county tax. While this law committed the State to the idea of taxation for the 
support of schools it was a permission, not a compulsory law, and was not de- 
signed to make " free public schools ; " for the proceeds of the tax were to be used 
only for buying land, erecting buildings, and " making up the deficiency that may 
accrue by the schooling of children whose parents or guardians are unable to pay 
for the same." The day of free schools had not yet arrived. But the idea of local 
taxation for the maintenance of schools has developed from 1821 to the present, 
and in 1887 the local taxes in Ohio for school purposes aggregated $7,445,399.02. 

In 1838 a State Common School Fund of $200,000 was established, made up from 
various sources. This sum was to be annually raised and distributed among the 
various school districts, in addition to the income from the lands and to the local 
taxes for schools. This law marks the beginning of general State taxation for 
school purposes. In 1842 this fund was reduced to $150,000, in 1851 raised to 
$300,000 per annum, and in 1853 abolished. 

In 1825 a law was passed levying in every county a uniform tax of one-half 
mill on the dollar for school purposes. This, too, was in addition to the local 
township and district taxes. The rate of this levy was modified at various times 
until 1853, when the whole system of general taxation for school purposes was 
revised. The township and district taxes were left unchanged, but all other laws 
providing revenue for schools by taxation were repealed, and in their place " for 
the purpose of affording the advantages of a free education to all the youth of 
this State" a u State Common School Fund " was established consisting of the pro- 
ceeds of a tax of two mills upon the dollar on all taxable property. These pro- 
ceeds were to be annually distributed to each county " in proportion to the 
enumeration of scholars." This tax has since 1871 consisted of one mill on the 
dollar, but the valuation of taxable property has so increased that the proceeds 
have not diminished. In 1887 the fund from this source amounted to 

Since 1827 fines for many petty offences have, when collected, been paid over 
to the township treasury for the use of common schools. In 1887 these and 
certain local license fees devoted to the same purpose aggregated $372,685.62. 

The following table shows the growth of the educational system of the State 



during the last thirty years. Complete figures for earlier years are not ac- 






Number of School-houses . 





Income from land grants . . 
Common School Fund (State 

Tax). . . 

Fines, licenses, etc 

Sale of bonds 

$137,533 21 

1,070,767 72 
96,086 57 

$221,800 10 

1,409,403 50 
208,660 92 

$233,660 62 

1,528,278 86 
215,382 10 
328,609 52 

5,569,972 96 

$242,636 76 

1,678,561 12 
372,685 62 
494,011 12 

7,445,399 02 

Local (township and district) 

530,353 19 

3,019,055 72 

Total income (excluding bal- 
ances from previous year) . 

$1,834,740 69 

$4,858,920 24 

$7,875,904 06 

$10,233,293 64 

Total youth between 6 and 21 
Average fund per capita . . 

$2 19 


$4 88 


$7 68 


$9 28 

Total children enrolled in 
Schools ....... 

Average fund per child en- 


$3 04 


$6 89 

$10 90 

$13 34 


Few records of the primitive schools of Ohio have been preserved. Nearly 
everything else of interest, and much that is not, of the doings of the pioneers 
have been faithfully recorded in various places, while little has been said of the 

Ohio was made up of settlers from various parts of the East. They generally 
came in groups and located in groups, and the educational and religious character 
of each of these groups or villages depended mainty upon the previous training 
and habits of the pioneers. As this training had differed in different ones of the 
old States so the educational development of the settlements in Ohio differed 
widely, and these differences have not even to-day entirely disappeared. In set- 
tlements planted by New Englanders schools almost immediately sprang up, while 
in those made by pioneers from some of the central and southern States education 
received far less attention at the outset. 

The records of the Ohio Company show that on March 5, 1788, a resolution was 
adopted by the directors to employ "for the education of the youth and the pro- 
motion of public worship among the first settlers," "an instructor eminent for 
literary accomplishments and the virtue of his character, who shall also superin- 
tend the first scholastic institutions and direct the manner of instruction." Under 
this resolution Rev. Daniel Story was employed, and began his services as preacher 
and teacher at Marietta in the spring of 1789. In July, 1790, the directors appro- 
priated $150 for the support of schools at Marietta, Belpre, and Watertord. 
Again in 1791 money was appropriated by the Ohio Company to assist in main- 
taining schools in the same places and " to engage teachers of such a character as 
shall be approved by the directors." 

Hildreth says that "notwithstanding the poverty and privations of the inhab- 
itants of the garrison, schools were kept up for the instruction of their children 
in reading, writing, and arithmetic nearly all the time during the Indian w r ar." 


The funds were provided partly by the Ohio Company and partly from the lank 
pockets of the settlers. Among the early teachers at Marietta were Jonathan 
Baldwin, Mr. Curtis, and Dr. Jabez True. In Campus Martius, a school was kept 
"in the winter of 1789, in the northwest block-house, by Anselm Tupper, and 
every winter after by different teachers." Among them was Benjamin Slocomb. 

At Belpre, one of the first things done was to provide for teaching the children 
reading, writing, and arithmetic. Bathsheba Rouse, in the summer of 1789, and 
for several subsequent summers, taught in Belpre. She was the first woman, and 
probably the first person, who taught a school of white children in Ohio. In the 
winters a man was hired to teach the school. Among the first teachers at Belpre 
were Daniel Mayo and Jonathan Baldwin, the former a Harvard graduate, the 
latter "a liberally educated man." These schools like those at Marietta were 
supported chiefly by the contributions of the settlers. 

In 1793 and thereafter schools, especially in winter, were "kept" in Waterford. 
In 1792, at Columbia, the first settlement in Hamilton county, a few miles above 
the present site of Cincinnati, a school was opened by Francis Dunleyy. Burnet 
tells of a frame school-house, on the north side of Fourth street in Cincinnati, as 
occupied, though unfinished, in 4794 or 1795. In the Western Reserve the first 
permanent settlement was made in 1796 and schools were probably started very 
soon, though the writer can find no record of any prior to 1802, when one was 
opened in Harpersfield. Among its first teachers were Abraham Tappan and 
Elizabeth Harper. In Athens, where the first pioneer built his cabin in 1797, a 
school was started in 1801 with John Goldthwaite as teacher. The school build- 
ing was of logs and was used for many years. Walker relates the following inci- 
dent of Henry Bartlett, the second teacher of this school. " On one occasion, 
when the scholars undertook, according to a custom then prevalent, to bar the 
master out, and had made all very fast, Mr. Bartlett procured a roll of brimstone 
from the nearest house, climbed to the top of the school-house and dropped the 
brimstone down the open chimney into the fire ; then, placing something over 
the chimne}% he soon smoked the boys into an unconditional surrender." 

The foregoing cases serve to show that in most of the communities a school 
followed close upon the beginning of the settlement. The pioneers in general 
lived up to the full spirit of the famous ordinance, not simply because it was 
law, but because they knew the benefits of schools and desired their children to 
enjoy them. 

These schools were not public schools in any true sense, and not free schools 
in any sense. The land grants were not yet available and school taxes were un- 
known. The teacher made an agreement to " keep school " a certain length of 
time, and those who sent children agreed to pay from one to three dollars for 
each child sent. The school was in reality a private school. The building in 
which a pioneer school was conducted, if a separate building was used, was ex- 
tremely simple and uncomfortable. It was generally from fifteen to eighteen feet 
wide and twenty-four to twenty-eight feet long, and the eaves were about ten feet 
from the ground. Built of logs, its architecture was similar to that of the log- 
cabin of that day even to the " latch-string." The floor was of earth or of pun- 
cheons or smooth slabs. In the more elegant buildings the inside walls were 
covered with boards, but the more common coating was clay mortar. The fur- 
niture consisted principally of rude benches without backs made by splitting 
logs lengthwise into halves and mounting them, flat side up, on four legs or pins 
driven into the ground. Desks similarly though less clumsily made were some- 
times furnished to the " big boys and girls." The room, or at least one end of it, 
was heated from an immense fireplace. There was no blackboard, no apparatus 
of even the rudest description to assist the teacher in expounding the lessons. 

Reading, spelling, writing and arithmetic constituted the course of study, and 
in some districts as late as 1825 a rule was in force prohibiting the teaching of 
any other branches. Text-books were few. Murray's " Reader," Dillworth's or 
Webster's "Speller," Pike's "Arithmetic" and the " Columbian Orator" were the 
usual outfit of the teacher, and each of the pupils generally had one or more of 
the books in the list. Reading and spelling were the great tests of learning, and 
to have mastered arithmetic was to have " acquired an education," at least in the 
smaller districts. 


While all honor should be paid to those who maintained and those who 
attended these schools, and all credit given for the results achieved, it has been 
truly said that "schools worthy of remembrance between 1802 and 1820 were 
known only in the most enterprising towns. The mass of the people had privi- 
leges in such 'common' institutions as might be expected among communities 
in which school-teachers were tolerated but were neither examined for qualifica- 
tion nor encouraged for merit." 

In 1821 the law was passed, already referred to as the first one authorizing 
taxation for the support of schools. This law was, however, simply permission, 
and not until 1825 was any law adopted requiring the levying of taxes for school 
purposes, and providing for the appointment of school examiners. With these 
laws the schools began to improve. Still, in 1837, twelve years later, there were 
few public schools in Ohio. Fortunately in the latter year provision was made 
for a state superintendent of schools, and Hon. Samuel Lewis was appointed to 
the office. His three years of service produced an immediate and permanent 
effect upon the schools. In 1838, as a result of his suggestions, a law was framed 
that placed the schools of Ohio on a sure footing. It provided for a uniform 
system of schools, with county superintendents and township inspectors, and the 
state superintendent at the head to enforce the law and look after the general 
interests of the schools. Other laws were adopted in later years that supple- 
mented and amplified this, and made possible the present efficient schools. 

In 1825 began the system of examining teachers before they were employed y 
but as lato as 1838 the law only required that they should be examined in read- 
ing, writing and arithmetic. These requirements have been raised from time to 
time by the addition of other subjects, but while the great majority of the teach- 
ers in the State to-day are thoroughly competent, the requirements and the 
methods of examination still permit many poorly-equipped teachers to practice 
upon the boys and girls in the rural districts. 

In 1845 the first teachers' institute was held and in 1848 a law was passed pro- 
viding for the appropriation of money in each county for the purpose of having 
such institutes conducted. They are now held annually in most of the counties 
and are a great help to the teachers and hence to the schools. A long and per- 
sistent attempt, beginning in 1817, has been made to have the State establish 
one or more normal schools for the training of teachers. For various reasons all 
attempts have thus far failed, though nearly if not quite every other State in the 
Union has found such schools not merely helpful but necessary to the proper 
equipment of teachers for the public schools. There are in the State several pri- 
vate normal schools which seek to give training to teachers. The majority of 
them are in reality academies affording a general academic education and paying 
more or less subordinate attention to the normal department. 

In December, 1847, was organized the State Teachers' Association, which has 
held annual meetings from then to the present time. While a purely voluntary 
association of teachers, it has in many ways been influential in improving the 
tone of education in Ohio and in bringing about wise school legislation. Among 
its officers and members have been enrolled the best-known names in Ohio educa- 
tional circles. 


In the early schools of Ohio, as of every other State, all the pupils sat and 
recited in one room and to a single teacher, and any systematic gradation or 
classification was impossible even if proposed. The chief impediment was the 
lack of suitable and sufficient school-buildings. Where two or more schools 
existed within a village or city the pupils were divided geographically, not by 
grades, among the several schools. Pupils of all ages and degrees of advance- 
ment sat in the same room. The first systematic gradation and classification of 
pupils in Ohio was in Cincinnati, between 1836 and 1840, by virtue of a special 
law, dividing the city into districts and providing for a building in each district. 
In each building the pupils were separated into two grades, studying different 
subjects and grades of work. This was followed in a few years by the establish- 
ment of a Central High School. In Cleveland the first free school was estab- 
lished in 1834, and in 1840 the schools were graded. Portsmouth, Dayton, 


Columbus, Maumee, Perry sburg and Zanesville soon, by special acts of the Legis- 
lature, organized graded schools. In each of these places provision was made for 
from two to four grades of pupils ; but, except in Cincinnati, no definite course 
of study, such as exists everywhere to-day, was adopted for any of the grades 
until about 1850. 

No sketch of the educational progress of Ohio would be worthy of notice that 
did not describe the Akron law, which when extended to the whole State estab- 
lished the present system of free graded schools. The Akron law, passed in 1847, 
organized the town of Akron into a single district and provided for the election 
of one board of six directors, who should have full control over all the schools 
in the town. It authorized the board to establish a number of primary schools 
and one central grammar school; to fix the terms of transfer from one to 
another; to make and enforce all necessary rules; to employ and pay teachers; 
to purchase apparatus ; to determine and certify annually to the town council 
the amount of money necessary for school purposes ; to provide for the examina- 
tion of teachers. In 1848 the provisions of this law were extended to other 
incorporated towns and cities. In 1849 a general law was passed enabling any 
town of two hundred inhabitants to organize as under the Akron law ; this last 
law provided for the establishment of " an adequate number" of primary schools 
" conveniently located ;" a school or schools of higher grade or grades; for the 
free admission of all white children ; and that the schools must be kept open not 
less than thirty-six weeks in each year. 

Thus was the State provided with a system of free graded schools, under which 
there should be uniformity in grading and unity in management. " By the close 
of the year 1855," says Superintendent R. W. Stevenson, " the free graded system 
was permanently established, met with hearty approval, and received high com- 
mendation and support from an influential class of citizens who had been the 
enemies of any system of popular education supported at the expense of the 
State and by local taxation." 


Public high schools were not known in Ohio before the middle of the century. 
Long before that, however, many private academies had been founded to furnish 
an education superior to that given by the district school. The few colleges 
founded in the first half of the century also maintained preparatory schools, 
which, doing work similar to that of the academy, bridged over the chasm 
between the ungraded school and the college proper. 

The Constitution of 1802 provided for the establishment of academies and col- 
leges by corporations of individuals, and from that time until 1838 public senti- 
ment appears to have crystallized into the idea that private seminaries were the 
proper and only necessary means for attaining an education higher than that of 
the common school. There was apparently felt no public obligation to afford 
educational facilities, beyond instruction in reading, writing and arithmetic, and, 
later, grammar and geography. 

Accordingly in many places academies were started, either as private enter- 
prises or under the general sanction and control of religious sects. In these 
academies, many of which did excellent work and furnished superior advantages 
for those days, most of the men who for the past generation have been promi- 
nent in Ohio either finished their "schooling" or obtained their preparation for 
college. With the rise of the public high school most of these academies closed 
their doors, though a few broadened their courses of study and entered upon 
collegiate instruction. The history of these academies and an account of the 
good done by them is one of the most interesting as well as the most neglected 
chapters of Ohio's educational growth. Without them and without the influence 
of the graduates they sent out, the establishment of a State system of education 
would have been long delayed. 

According to the best accounts Burton Academy, incorporated in 1803, was the 
pioneer among these institutions. Close upon it followed the Dayton Academy, 
which enjoyed a useful and prosperous career until the establishment of the 
high school in that city. In Cincinnati Kinmont's Academy, Madison Institute. 


Locke's Academy, Pickets' Young Ladies' Academy and .others flourished. At 
Chillicothe, Salem, Springfield, Gallipolis, Circleville, Steubenville, Columbus, 
Norwalk and other places successful academies were maintained. Few of them 
are to-day in existence, though about two hundred are known to have been 
founded within the State. In the latest report of the State Commissioner of 
Schools but fourteen academies are listed, and of these two are connected with 
colleges as preparatory schools. Thus thoroughly has the public high school 
supplanted the private academy. 

From an early date in the history of the State the governors were far in 
advance of public sentiment on educational matters. Some of them recom- 
mended the seminaries to a more hearty popular support, while others with a 
truer conception of the duty of the State advocated the establishment of high 
schools, in which instruction should be free, in place of or in addition to these pri- 
vate seminaries which were obliged to charge large tuition fees in order to maintain 
themselves. It was not until the years from 1845 to 1850, however, that the first 
high schools were opened in Cincinnati and Columbus. The experiment was so 
immediately successful that such schools became, in the language of a close 
observer, " a recognized necessity to the existence of the common school sys- 
tem." Even before 1845 a few u higher" schools had been started in smaller 
places, under authority implied in the law of 1838. Among these, and probably 
the first high school in the State, was one at Maumee, started in 1843-4. 

To-day a high school, supported by public funds as a part of the common 
school system, is to be found in nearly every town and village in the State. 
While many children are unwisely withdrawn from school by their parents just 
when they are ready to take up this broadening high-school work, still a large 
percentage of the youth of Ohio avail themselves of the advantages offered. 
Late reports of the educational department of the State show the existence of 
about tfiree hundred high schools, and the number is yearly increasing. 


Ohio is pre-eminently a community of many colleges, the reports showing that 
it possesses more institutions claiming the title of college or university than are 
contained within any other State of the Union. While abundant opportunities 
for obtaining a higher education are thus afforded, there is little doubt that this 
almost abnormal prolificness has been at the expense of strength and high de- 
velopment of many of the colleges. A sketch, first of the colleges supported by 
national endowment and State aid, and then of the older of the private and de- 
nominational colleges follows. 

Ohio University. — The Ohio Company, in its contract with the government, 
obtained a gift of two townships for the endowment of a university, "to be applied 
to the intended object by the Legislature of the State." The townships of Alex- 
ander and Athens, in Athens county, were selected for that purpose. In 1802 
the Territorial Legislature chartered* the American Western University, located it 
in the town of Athens and gave it the two townships. No steps were taken dur- 
ing the territorial days to organize the university, and in 1804 the charter was 
repealed and provision made for the establishment of Ohio University at Athens. 
The lands were appraised and many of them immediately leased on ninety-year 
leases. A revaluation was to be made once in about every thirty years, and a 
rental of six per cent, of each valuation was to be paid annually. The next year 
the law was modified in some parts, but the revaluation clause was not touched. 
When the time for the first revaluation came the Legislature was prevailed upon 
by a strenuous lobby of the lessees to declare that the intention had been to 
repeal the revaluation clause. As a consequence of this unfortunately legal 
action of the General Assembly, two townships of land are to-day under perpetual 
lease at an average rental of about ten cents an acre, the total income from 
rents amounting to about $4,500 per year. The annual income of Michigan 
University from a grant of the same size and kind is over $38,000. 

The university was opened for students in 1809 and the first class was grad- 
uated in 1815, consisting of Thomas Ewing and John Hunter. These men bore 
the first collegiate degrees ever conferred in the Northwest Territory. In 1822 a 


full faculty was organized, consisting of five men. At the outset the old time 
classical course was the only one laid down, with a preparatory department or 
•academy to fit students to enter the freshman class. Within recent years a sci- 
entific course (a course without Greek or Latin) and a normal course have been 
added. The latter is, so far as known, the only provision ever made by the State 
for training teachers. The university has once been obliged to close its doors for 
a few years on account of financial embarrassment, but now seems destined to 
continue its long and honorable career of usefulness. It is a State University in 
that its trustees are appointed by the Governor, and its scanty income is occa- 
sionally increased by all-too-slender appropriations from the State treasury. 

Miami University. — Under the contract between John Cleves Symmes and 
Congress one township of land was donated by the latter for " an academy and 
other public schools and seminaries of learning." Knowing that but one insti- 
tution of learning at the most could be maintained by the income from a single 
township, the Legislature chartered Miami University in 1809 and made it the 
beneficiary of the grant. The same unwise policy, as in the case of Ohio Uni- 
versity, was adopted in disposing of the lands, and the institution has received 
an annual income of but $5,600 from the grant. The college was >oo«ted at 
Oxford, Butler county, and was opened for students in 1824. While it has 
always been crippled by lack of funds and has twice been obliged to suspend for 
periods of ten or twelve years, its influence has been great and its history notable. 
Taking into account its size and its misfortunes, " few institutions have done better 
work or sent forth so large a proportion of graduates who have become eminent 
in the various walks of life." Probably, however, no other college in America 
has ever been obliged to print in any of its catalogues a notice similar to the fol- 
lowing: "Tuition and room-rent must invariably be paid in advance and no 
deduction or drawback is allowed ; and if not paid by the student it is charged 
to the faculty, who are made responsible to the Board for it." Like Ohio Uni- 
versity, it is a semi-State institution, its trustees being selected by the Governor, 
and its starving treasury receives occasional pittances from the State. The Uni- 
versity was reopened in 1885 after a lapse of twelve years, and whether it will 
once more regain the position it once held among Ohio's colleges is a question 
not yet easily answered. 

Ohio State University. — In 1862 a grant of lands was made by Congress to 
each of the States and Territories for u the endowment, support and maintenance 
of at least one college where the leading object shall be, without excluding other 
scientific and classical studies, and including military tactics, to teach such 
branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts, in such 
manner as the Legislatures of the States may respectively prescribe." Under 
this act Ohio received land scrip for 630,000 acres. An institution, first known 
as Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College, and later as Ohio State University, 
was chartered by the Legislature and received the scrip as an endowment, sub- 
ject to the conditions imposed by Congress. This scrip was sold at an extremely 
low price, like the previous college land endowments in Ohio, and produced a 
fund now something more than a half million of dollars, from which the univer- 
sity receives an annual income of six per cent. The university was located at 
Columbus upon a fine farm of three hundred acres, upon which substantial 
buildings were soon erected. The site was purchased and the first buildings 
erected and equipped by a gift of $300,000 from the county of Franklin and city 
of Columbus. The college, now within the city limits of Columbus, was opened 
for students in 1873 and the first class was graduated in 1878. In accordance 
with the terms of the land grant the chief attention is given to instruction in 
agricultural, mechanical and technical branches, but full collegiate courses are 
given, and pursued by many students, in classical and literary lines of work. 
For the last few years the General Assembly has annually appropriated moderate 
sums for carrying on the work so well begun. 

The three foregoing universities are State institutions, amenable to State con- 
trol and obtaining their support from the land endowment of the general govern- 
ment and from State appropriations. Ohio differs from most States in having 
three higher institutions which are in reality a part of the public educational 
system of the State. Whether the interests of education are best conserved by 


the maintenance of three institutions, or whether a union of the three into one 
stronger than either to-day, or a fusion or co-operation of the three under one 
general management would be wiser, are questions that have been discussed for 
some years. In any case the sentiment of the State has definitely crystallized 
into the idea that the State ought to provide at public expense for the higher 
education of its citizens by maintaining one or more public colleges. 

There are also many denominational or private colleges within the State, some 
of them strong and prosperous, and all of them doing to the extent of their ability 
the work of higher education. The limits of this sketch will not permit a de- 
scription of all, but the more prominent of those founded before 1850 may be 
briefly mentioned. 

Kenyon College. — Through the efforts of Bishop Philander Chase, Kenyon 
College was established in 1824, at Gambier, as a college and theological seminary, 
under the control of the Protestant Episcopal Church. The lands were purchased 
and the buildings erected with funds raised in this country and in England. The 
town— which is to-day one of the most beautiful college sites in America — the 
college, and the principal edifices are named respectively after three English 
noblemen. The college was soon opened with a strong faculty and a goodly 
number of students. Financial troubles beset the college, however, and the next 
fifteen years found an emissary of the institution almost constantly in the East 
or in Europe seeking aid for the starving college. In 1841 the college and the 
theological seminary were separated so far as their faculties were concerned. The 
college has done excellent work, and has afforded good facilities for the pursuit 
of the old-time classical course. It drew many of its students from the South, 
and hence suffered severely upon the outbreak of the rebellion. Though not 
large in membership, it has always had a fine body of students, and has main- 
tained a good reputation. In 1886-87 its corps of instructors numbered nine, and 
there were fifty-five students in the collegiate department. 

Western Reserve University. — This institution, now better known as Adel- 
bert College, was chartered in 1826, and opened for students in the same year at 
Hudson, Summit (then Portage) county, in the Connecticut Western Reserve. It 
was designed by the education-loving settlers of the Western Reserve to be an 
independent college, free from ecclesiastical control, but from the outset and until 
the removal of the college to Cleveland the members of the board of trustees were 
all ministers or members of the Presbyterian or Congregational churches, and its 
general policy has been affected by this fact. The objects of the college were " to 
educate pious young men as pastors for our destitute churches," "to preserve the 
present literary and religious character of the State," and "to prepare competent 
men to fill the cabinet, the bench, the bar, and the pulpit." Drawing most of its 
students from the Reserve, the college soon entered upon a prosperous career in 
both the theological and collegiate departments and in its preparatory school. 
In 1859, however, the theological department was closed, and definitely aban- 
doned. The institution has been sustained entirely by donations and students' 
fees. In 1881 a magnificent bequest was made to the collegiate department, suffi- 
cient to erect new and elegant buildings and to increase largely its endowment 
fund, on condition that the collegiate department should be transferred to Cleve- 
land, and called Adelbert College of Western Reserve University. The conditions 
were accepted, and the removal made upon the completion of the new buildings. 
The preparatory school is still maintained at Hudson, and a medical department 
has been united to the University at Cleveland. Like the greater number of Ohio 
colleges, this institution was for some time open to student? of either sex, but in 
1888 the trustees decided that hereafter women should not be admitted. The 
attendance in 1886-87 was seventy-eight, when there were ten members of the 

Dennison University. — This institution, located at Granville, Licking county, 
was chartered in 1832 as the Granville Literary and Theological Institution ; in 
1856 it assumed its present name, in commemoration of a gift from William 
Dennison, of Adamsville, Ohio. Its board of trustees constitute a close corporation, 
under the control of the Baptist denomination, and all of its trustees must belong 
to that church. The college itself is unsectarian in its teachings, the theological 
department having been given up some years ago. The classical and scientific 


€Ourses are offered to students, the former— as in most colleges originally literary 
alone—having the better equipment. In 1886-87 there were eleven instructors 
and eighty students. 

Oberlin College. — This was chartered in 1834 as the Oberlin Collegiate 
Institute, at Oberlin, Lorain county, and in 1850 assumed its present name. The 
institution is under the direction of the Congregational Church, and a theological 
seminary was early established as a part of the college. The board of trustees is 
a close corporation. From the outset, but especially in later years, the college 
has assumed a prominent place among Ohio colleges, indeed, among American 
colleges. Both sexes have always been admitted to its classes, and — for some time 
alone among colleges — it almost from its foundation admitted colored students. 
As it was the pioneer in that regard, its name was soon widespread, and it became 
a strong promoter of anti-slavery principles. It has from time to time extended 
its range, and to-day sustains theological, collegiate, musical, art, and preparatory 
departments. In its collegiate department in 1886-87 were enrolled 400 students 
under a faculty of eighteen members. 

Marietta College. — The Marietta Collegiate Institute, located at Marietta, was 
chartered in 1832. This charter, however, gave the institution no authority to 
confer degrees, and was defective in other particulars. A new charter free from 
these defects was accordingly obtained in 1835, from which year the existence of 
Marietta College dates. The college was founded by some of the men, or their 
immediate descendants, who were instrumental in obtaining the grant of two 
townships for an university in the Ohio Company's purchase. Just why they 
did not lencl their energies solely towards building up the institution (Ohio Uni- 
versity, at Athens) founded on that land-grant it is difficult after this lapse of 
time to determine, unless it be that the growth and development of that institu- 
tion did not accord with the ideas brought to Marietta from New England. The 
following, believed to be from the pen of the late President J. W. Andrews, par- 
tially explains the matter: "After spending forty years or more in removing the 
forest, they (the settlers of Marietta) could no longer postpone the establishment 
of an institution of learning, embodying those principles and methods which had 
made the old colleges of New England so efficient and prosperous. There was a 
deep conviction on the part of many of the most intelligent men in Southeastern 
Ohio that a literary institution of high order was essential to the educational and 
religious interests of a large region, of which Marietta was the centre." The 
board of trustees has always been a close corporation, but there are no restrictions 
as to religious belief of the members. As a fact, the majority of the trustees have 
usually been members of the Presbyterian or Congregational churches. The col- 
lege has been unsectarian in its teachings, but distinctly Christian in both theory 
and practice. It has been a remarkably successful, though never a large institu- 
tion •" and the proportion of graduates to freshmen has probably been larger than 
that of any other Ohio college. Pleasantly located and comfortably equipped for 
classical and literary study, it has closely resembled in its staid dignity the older 
New England colleges. In 1887 its collegiate students numbered eighty-seven, 
its instructors ten. 

Ohio Wesleyan University. — This institution, located at Delaware, under the 
control of the Methodist Episcopal Church, was chartered in 1842. The alumni 
and four Conferences of the church are each represented by five members in the 
board of twenty-five trustees. The endowment of the institution has been con- 
tributed chiefly in small amounts by adherents of the church. The college has 
advanced in its requirements and increased in attendance until it is one of the 
largest colleges in the State. With the possible exception of Oberlin College, the 
Ohio Wesleyan University has been more thoroughly permeated with religious 
sentiment and zeal than any other of the Ohio colleges. The majority of its stu- 
dents belong to families adhering to the Methodist Episcopal Church, and it has 
sent out a large body of graduates. In 1886 there were 336 collegiate students 
and twenty-five instructors. 

Wittenberg College. — This college is located at Springfield, Clark county, 
and was chartered in 1845. It is under the control of the General Synod of the 
Evangelical Lutheran Church, and its trustees are chosen by various local Synods 
of that denomination. The institution was founded to meet the religious and 



educational wants of the Lutheran denomination in that vicinity. A theological 
department has always been a prominent part of the college. The institution 
has never been large, but, with a moderate endowment and comfortable buildings 
and equipment, it has always prospered. In 1886 it had sixty-five students in 
the collegiate department and eleven instructors. 

Otterbein University. — This institution, located at Westerville, Franklin 
county, was chartered in 1849, under the auspices of the United Brethren in Christ, 
and received its name from the founder of that church. Like Wittenberg College, 
and many others in the West, it was established to meet the educational needs 
of a religious denomination, and has drawn its financial support almost solely 
from them. It has always ranked among the smaller colleges of the State, and 
has not always been liberally supported by the church. It was unfortunate in 
losing its main building, including the library and much apparatus, by fire in 
1870. A new building was soon erected, and the institution has continued its 
career, its pathway often beset with the rocks of financial embarrassment that are 
encountered by most small denominational colleges. In 1886 there were seven 
instructors and fifty students in the collegiate department. 

Many other colleges exist in Ohio, some of them strong and prosperous, and 
several professional institutions have been established, while the number of com- 
mercial and business " colleges " is very large. The foregoing are, however, the 
leading colleges or universities, properly so called, founded before the middle of 
the present century, and the limits of this sketch permit mention only of the 
names and a few statistics concerning the others. The. figures given below, as 
well as those that have preceded, are based mainly upon the official report of the 
State Commissioner of Schools. 

No. of 



No. of 









Buchtel College 






Ashland College 





Baldwin University 



Meth. Episcopal 



German Wallace College 



Meth. Episcopal 
Roman Catholic 



St. Joseph's College 





St. Xavier's College 



Roman Catholic 



University of Cincinnati 






Belmont College 

College Hill ' 





Capital University 



Evangel. Lutheran 



Findlay College 





Hiram College 






Mt. Union College 

Mt. Union 




Franklin College 

New Athens 




Muskingum College 

New Concord 


United Presbyteri'n 



Rio Grande College 

Rio Grande 


Free Will Baptist 



Scio College 



Meth. Episcopal 



Heidelberg College 






Urbana University 



New Church 



Wilberforce University 



African Meth. Epis. 



University of Wooster 






Antioch College 

Yellow Sp'ngs 





In conclusion, we may quote the words of Prof. E. B. Andrews, uttered after a 
careful study and discriminating praise of the good results accomplished by many 
of the Ohio colleges : " It is unfortunate that there are in Ohio so many colleges 
of denominational origin, when, with a broader view of the subject of higher 
learning, combinations could have been effected which, without any sacrifice of 
religious influence, would have given us institutions of greater strength and dig- 


nity, and of ampler facilities for affording a broad and generous culture 

This entire misconception of the true functiqn of the college has led to such a 
multiplication of colleges in Ohio that all are hindered and many are dwarfed." 

Authorities consulted in preparing this sketch: Hildreth's " Pioneer History;" Walker's " His- 
tory of Athens County;" American Journal of Education; Knight's "Land Grants for Education in 
the Northwest Territory ; " "A History of Education in the State of Ohio" (Columbus, 1876) ; " His- 
torical Sketches of Higher Educational Institutions in Ohio" (1876); Ohio School Commissioners' 
Reports; Reports of United States Commissioner of Education; Ohio Executive Documents* Ohio 




General John Beatty was born near Sandusky, 
Ohio, December 16, 1828. His education was obtained at 
the district school of a pioneer settlement. His grand- 
father, John Beatty, was an anti-slavery man of the 
James G. Birney school ; from him the present John 
imbibed in boyhood his first political tenets, and to these 
he has adhered somewhat obstinately ever since. In 1852 
he supported John P. Hale for the presidency. In 1856 
he cast his vote for John C. Fremont. In 1860 he was the 
Republican presidential elector for the district which 
sent John Sherman to Congress. When the war broke 
out in 1861, he was the first to put his name to an enlist- 
ment roll in Morrow county. He was elected to the cap- 
taincy of his company, subsequently made lieutenant- 
colonel, then colonel of the Third Ohio Volunteer 
Infantry, and in 1862 advanced to the position of briga- 
dier-general of volunteers. He was with McClellan and 
Rosecrans in West Virginia, summer and fall 1861; with 
General O. M. Mitchel in his dash through Southern JJ 
Kentucky, Middle Tennessee and Northern Alabama in 
the spring of 1862. Returning with General Buell to the 
Ohio river, he joined in the pursuit of Bragg, and on 
October 8, 1862, fought at the head of his regiment in the 
battle of Perry ville, Kentucky. In the December follow- 
ing he was assigned to the command of a brigade of Rous- 
seau's division, and led it through the four days' battle 
of Stone River, closing on the night of January 3, 1863. 
with an assault on the enemy's barricade, on the left of the Murfreesboro' turnpike, which he carried 
at the point of the bayonet. He was with Rosecrans on the Tullahoma campaign, and after the enemy 
evacuated their stronghold, overtook them at Elk river, drove their rear guard from the heights 
beyond, and led the column which pursued them to the summit of the Cumberland. While the army 
rested at Winchester, Tennessee, he was president of a board to examine applicants for commissions in 
colored regiments, and continued in this service until the army crossed the Tennessee river and entered 
on the Chattanooga campaign. In this advance into Georgia his brigade had the honor of being the 
first of Thomas' corps to cross Lookout mountain. He was with Brannan and Negley in the affair at 
Dug Gap, and took part in the two days' fighting at Chickamauga, September, 1863, and in the affair 
at Rossville. At the re-organization of the Army of the Cumberland he was assigned to the command 
of the second brigade of Davis' division Thomas* corps, but was with Sherman at the battle of Mission 
Ridge; and when the rebel line broke he led the column in pursuit of the retreating enemy, overtook 
his rear guard near Graysville, where a short but sharp encounter occurred, in which Gen. George 
Many, commanding the opposing force, was wounded, and his troops compelled to retire in disorder. 
Subsequently he accompanied Sherman in the expedition to Knoxville for the relief of Burnside, and 
the close of this campaign ended his military service. 

Gen. Beatty was elected to the Fortieth Congress from the Eighth Ohio district, and re-elected to the 
Forty-first and Forty-second Congresses, serving first as member of the Committee on Invalid Pensions, 
then as Chairman of the Committee on Public Buildings and Grounds, and finally as Chairman of 
Committee on Public Printing. 

In 1884 he was one of the Republican electors-at-large, and in 1886-7 a member of the Board of 
State Charities. He has since 1873 been engaged in the business of banking at Columbus, Ohio. 

It would be impossible to make an exact estimate of tbe number of men who 
entered the National army from Ohio during the war for the preservation of the 
Union. Those embraced in regimental and company organizations of the State 
can, of course, be enumerated, and, with some degree of accuracy, followed to 
the time of their death, discharge, or final muster out; but these organizations 
did not by any means include all the patriotic citizens of Ohio who left peaceful 
homes to incur the risks of battle for the maintenance of national authority. 
Five regiments credited to West Virginia were made up in large part of Ohio 
men ; the same may be said of two regiments credited to Kentucky ; also of the 
Fifty-fourth and Fifty-fifth Massachusetts Colored Infantry, and of two regi- 
ments of United States colored troops. In addition to those enrolled in regi- 


ments credited to other States, thousands entered the gun-boat service, of whom 
Ohio has no record, while other thousands enlisted in the regular army. 

" From the best prepared statistics of the Provost Marshal-General and Adju- 
tant-General of the U. S. A. and the Adjutant-General of Ohio, excluding re- 
enlistments, 'squirrel-hunters' and militia, and including a low estimate for 
regular enlistments in the army and navy not credited to Ohio, it is found that 
Ohio furnished of her citizens 340,000 men of all arms of the service for war; 
reduced to a department standard, they represent 240,000 three-years soldiers."* 

The State contributed in organized regiments : 

26 regiments of infantry . for three months. 

43 regiments of infantry . .... for 100 days. 

2 regiments of infantry . . . . . . for six months. 

27 regiments of infantry for one year. 

117 regiments of infantry .for three years. 

13 regiments of cavalry .for three years. 

3 regiments of artillery . for three years. 

To these should be added twenty-six independent batteries of artillery, and 
five independent companies of cavalry. 

6,536 Ohio soldiers were killed outright in battle. 

4,674 were mortally wounded and subsequently died in hospital. 

13,354 died of disease contracted in the service. 

In brief, 84 Ohio soldiers out of every 1,000 enlisted men lost their lives in the 
war of the rebellion. 

"The total losses in battle of all kinds in both the American and British 
armies in the seven years' war of the Revolution, excluding only the captured at 
Saratoga and Yorktown, is 21,526. This number falls 4,000 below Ohio's dead- 
list alone during the late war The loss of Ohio officers is known to 

have reached 872, nearly ten per cent, of the grand total of officers."f 

In the two hundred and thirty-one regiments, twenty-six independent batteries 
of artillery, and five independent companies of cavalry which entered the field 
from Ohio, there were but 8,750 drafted men ; all other members of the organiza- 
tions referred to being volunteers. It should be observed, however, that the 
patriotic impulses of many who volunteered during the later years of the war 
were to some extent stimulated by the offer and payment of liberal bounties. 
This fact, without being permitted to detract at all from the credit of the soldier 
who accepted the money, should be remembered to the honor of the loyal citizen 
who paid it cheerfully and promptly. 

No army ever had a more abundant and sympathetic support than that 
accorded by the loyal men and women of the North, who carried forward with 
intense energy the ordinary business of civil life, while sons, brothers and hus- 
bands were in the field. Indeed, when we consider that more than one-half of 
the adult male population of Ohio was in the army, and that probably one-half 
of those who remained at home were unfitted by age or physical infirmity for 
military service, and that very many others were held to their farms and offices 
by business obligations, which could not be honorably disregarded, or family 
ties it would have been cruelty to sunder, we shall be at some loss to determine 
whether those who by their industry and liberality made it possible for an army 
to live, are entitled to less or more credit from the country than those who fought 
its battles and won its victories. To the young there is nothing more attractive 
than war and nothing more precious than martial honors. It must occur, there- 
fore, that the brother who remains at home to provide for the wants of the house- 
hold, and attend to interests which cannot be wholly abandoned, often makes a 
greater sacrifice of inclination and exhibits a more unselfish devotion to duty 
than the one who dons a uniform, and with music, banners and loud hurrahs 
marches to the front. 

It would be very difficult in any work, and wholly impracticable in this, to 
mention by name the private soldiers of Ohio who rendered faithful service to 

* Address Gen. J. "Warren Keifer, at Newark, 1878. 
f Gen. J. Warren Keifer. 



the country, or to make special reference to those even who were killed in battle 
and interred in hurriedly-made graves on the fields where they fought. There 
are none so obtuse, however, as not to know that in patriotism and courage, and 
frequently in education, wealth and natural capacity, the private soldier of the 
Union army was the full equal of those under whom he served, and to whose 
orders he gave prompt and unquestioning obedience. In war, as in politics, all 
cannot be leaders, and often in both spheres the selfish and incompetent push 
clamorously to the front, while men of superior merit stand modestly back, con- 
tent to accept any place in a good work to which accident may assign them. 

While those who bore the brunt and burden of the conflict are, as has been 
suggested, too numerous to receive special recognition, many of them may find 
pleasure in reviewing the list of Ohio generals whom their patience, skill and 
courage helped to render more or less conspicuous in the history of the war : 

Generals : 

Ulysses S. Grant was born at Point Pleas- 
ant, Ohio, April 27, 1822.* 

William T. Sherman, born Lancaster, Feb- 
ruary 8, 1820.* 

Philip H. Sheridan, Somerset, March 6, 
Major- Generals : 

Don Carlos Buell, born Lowell, March 23, 

George Crook, Montgomery county, Sep- 
tember 8, 1828.* 

George A. Custer, Harrison county, De- 
cember 5, 1839.* 

Quincy A. Gillmore, Lorain county, Feb- 
ruary 28, 1825.* 

James A. Garfield, Cuyahoga county, No- 
vember 19, 1831. 

James B. McPherson, Clyde, November 
14, 1828.* 

Irvin McDowell, Columbus, Oct. 15, 1818.* 

Alex. McD. McCook, Columbiana county, 
April 22, 1831.* 

William S. Bosecrans, Delaware county, 
September 6, 1819.* 

David S. Stanley, Wayne county, June 1, 

Bobert C. Schenck, Warren county, Octo- 
ber 4, 1809. 

Wager Swayne, Columbus, 1835. 

Godfrey Weitzel, Cincinnati, Nov. 1, 1835.* 
Major- Generals Resident in Ohio but Born 

Elsewhere : 

Jacob D. Cox, born in New York, October 
27, 1828. 

William B. Hazen, Vermont, September 
27, 1830.* 

Mortimer D. Leggett, New York, April 
19, 1831. 

George B. McClellan, Pennsylvania, De- 
cember 3, 1826.* 

0. M. Mitchel, Kentucky, August 28, 

James B. Steedman, Pennsylvania, July 30, 

Brigadier- Generals of Ohio Birth: those 
having brevet rank of Major-General 
marked with f- 

William T. H. Brooks, born New Lisbon, 
January 28, 1821.* 

William W. Burns, Coshocton, September 
3, 1825.* 

f Henry B. Banning, Knox county, Novem- 
ber 10, 1834. 

C. P. Buckingham, Zanesville, March 14, 

John Beatty, Sandusky, December 16,1828. 

Joel A. Dewey, Ashtabula, September 20, 

f Thomas H. Ewing, Lancaster, August 7, 

fHugh B. Ewing, Lancaster, October 31, 

James W. Forsyth, 1835.* 

t Bobert S. Granger, Zanesville, May 24, 

Kenner Garrard, Cincinnati, 1830.* 
Charles Griffin, Licking county, 1827.* 
Rutherford B. Hayes, Delaware, October 
14, 1822. 

fj. Warren Keifer, Clark county, Jan- 
uary 30, 1836. 

William H. Lytle, Cincinnati, November 
2, 1826. 

John S. Mason, Steubenville, August 21, 

Bobert L. McCook, New Lisbon, Decem- 
ber 28, 1827. 

Daniel McCook, Carrollton, July 22, 1834. 

John G. Mitchell, Piqua, November 6, 

Nathaniel C. McLean, Warren county, 
February 2, 1815. 

f Emerson Opdycke, Trumbull county, 
January 7, 1830. 

Benjamin F. Potts, Carroll county, Jan- 
uary 29, 1836. 

A. Sanders Piatt, Cincinnati, May 2, 1821. 

f James S. Bobinson, Mansfield, October 
11, '1828. 

fBen. P. Bunkle, West Liberty, Septem- 
ber 3, 1836. 

J. W. Reilly, Akron, May 21, 1828. 

William Sooy Smith, Pickaway county, 
July 22, 1830.* 

Joshua Sill, Chillicothe, December 6, 1831.* 

John P. Slough, Cincinnati, 1829. 

Ferdinand Van DeVeer, Butler county, 
February 27, 1823. 

f Charles B. Woods, Licking county.* 

* Graduates of West Point. 



fWilliard Warner, Granville, September 
4, 1826. 

? William B. Woods, Licking county. 
Charles C. Walcutt, Columbus, February 
12, 1838. 

M. S. Wade, Cincinnati, December 2, 1802. 
Brigadier- Generals Resident in Ohio but 

Born Elsewhere: those having brevet rank 

of Major-General marked f. 

Jacob Ammen, born in Virginia, January 
7, 1808.* 

f Samuel Beatty, Pennsylvania, September 
16, 1820. 

fB. W. Brice, Virginia, 1809.* 

Ralph P. Buckland, Massachusetts, Jan- 
uary 20, 1812. 

H. B. Carrington, Connecticut, March 2, 

George P. Este, New Hampshire, April 

30, 1830. 
f Manning F. Force, Washington, D. G, 
December 17, 1824. 
John W. Fuller, England, July, 1827. 
Charles W. Hill, Vermont. 
"August V. Kautz, Germany, January 5, 

George W. Morgan, Pennsylvania. 
William H. Powell, South Wales, May 10, 

E. P. Scammon, Maine, December 27, 

Thomas Kilby Smith, Massachusetts, 1821. 
f John W. Sprague, New York, April 4, 

Erastus B. Tyler, New York. 
John C. Tibball, Virginia.* 
August Willich, Prussia, 1810. 

General Eli Long, for a time Colonel 4th Ohio Cavalry; General S. S. Carroll, 
for a time Colonel 8th Ohio Infantry; and General Charles G. Harker, first 
Colonel of the 65th Ohio Infantry, are not included in the above list, for the 
reason that they were officers of the regular army, and neither by birth nor resi- 
dence Ohio men. 

It would hardly be safe for a reader in search of truth to assume that rank at 
all times, or even generally, indicated the relative merit of officers in the volun- 
teer service. Brevet rank conferred neither additional pay nor authority, and 
near the close of the war the government was prodigal of gifts which cost it 
nothing, and of such gifts gave freely to all for whom they were asked. On the 
other hand it would be a mistake to conclude that some of those brevetted were 
not justly entitled to greater honors and compensation than many whose rank 
was higher and commands larger. It is but .natural for governors to provide well 
for those nearest to them officially and otherwise, for senators and representa- 
tives to be partial to their own kinsfolk and following, and for victorious generals 
to think first of their intimate personal friends. Still the honors were probably 
as fairly awarded as those in civil life. Accident, opportunity, family and social 
influence, when favorable, are important helps in war, as well as in love, politics 
and business. 

It will be observed that the graduates of West Point kept well to the front 
during the war. They were educated for this purpose, and the government exer- 
cised its authority wisely when it sustained them even under circumstances which 
would have been deemed sufficient to retire a volunteer officer in disgrace. It 
may be truthfully said, also, that the officers of the regular army, with few ex- 
ceptions, sustained each other loyally, and never permitted even a straggling 
honor to escape which could by hook or crook be gathered in for the glorification 
of their Alma Mater. 

The officers of Ohio birth whose names are given above, were, with but few 
exceptions, born during the first thirty years of the present century, when Ohio 
was simply a vast wilderness with here and there a clearing and a cabin. Many 
were farmers' sons, who received the rudiments of an education in the log-school 
houses of pioneer settlements during the winter months, and in summer assisted 
their fathers in the rough work of converting heavily timbered lands into produc- 
tive fields. The habits of frugality and industry then attained undoubtedly 
contributed much to their subsequent success. 

In enumerating the Ohio Generals I have followed the course pursued by White- 
law Reid in his " Ohio in the War," but it must be admitted that in doing so a door 
is left wide open for adverse criticism. If Grant should be credited to Ohio be- 
cause he was born in the State, then Generals Halbert E. Paine, of Wisconsin, 
Ben Harrison, of Indiana, Robert B. Mitchell, of Kansas, and others, should also 
be credited to Ohio ; while McClellan, O. M. Mitchell, Hazen, and others should 

* Graduates of West Point. 


be credited to the place of their birth rather than to that of their residence. It 
is apparent, therefore, that the claim usually made by Ohio goes too far or not 
far enough, and that a wiser adjustment of the whole matter could be attained by 
pooling the honors of the war with other loyal States and simply boasting that 
those who won them were American citizens. 

No fair estimate of the magnitude of Ohio's contribution to the war, however,, 
can be obtained without taking into consideration the services of eight men in 
civil life who did more, probably, to insure the success of the Union cause than 
any eight of the Generals whom the State sent to the field. 

Edwin M. Stanton, born at Steubenville, Dec. 19, 1814, Attorney -General United 
States, 1860, and Secretary of War from January, 1862, to August, 1867. 

Salmon P. Chase, born in New Hampshire, January 13, 1808, United States 
Senator from Ohio, Governor of Ohio, and from March, 1861, to 1864, Secretary 
of the Treasury. 

John Sherman, born at Lancaster, May 10, 1823, United States Senator from 
Ohio, and member of the Finance Committee of the Senate. 

Benjamin F. Wade, born in Massachusetts, October 27, 1800, United States Sen- 
ator from Ohio, and Chairman of the Senate Committee on the conduct of the 

William Dennison, born at Cincinnati, November 23, 1815, Governor of Ohio 
from January, 1860, to January, 1862. 

David Tod, born at Youngstown, February 21, 1805, Governor of Ohio from 
January, 1862, to January, 1864. 

John Brough, born at Marietta, September 17, 1811, Governor of Ohio from 
January, 1864, to the close of the war. 

Jay Cooke, born at Sandusky, August 10, 1821, Special Agent United States 
Treasury Department for the negotiation of bonds. 

The population of Ohio probably represented more nearly than that of any 
other State, the people of all the older sections of the Union. Settlers from New 
England and New York predominated in the Western Reserve. Pennsylvania 
had peopled the eastern counties ; Virginia and Kentucky the southern and south- 
western ; and so we find that Grant's father and Rosecrans's came from Pennsyl- 
vania ; Sherman's and Tod's from Connecticut ; McPherson's and Garfield's from 
New York ; McDowell's, Kentucky ; Dennison's, New Jersey ; Gillmore's, Massa- 
chusetts ; Stanton's, North Carolina ; while Chase was born in New Hampshire, 
and Am men, Brice, and Tibball were natives of Virginia. 

It was thus on Ohio soil that the people North and South first met and frater- 
nized, and by their united and harmonious efforts transformed, within less than 
half a century, an unbroken wilderness into a rich and powerful State. 




With an Introductory Sketch Giving the History and Patriotic Objects of the Order. 

fV ' \/ A- : Ky ■.-■'" 

Brev.-Lieut.-Col. E. C. DAWES, TJ. S. V., 
Commander Ohio Commandery. 

Recorder Ohio Commandery. 

The Military Order op the Loyal Legion is an association of officers and 
honorably discharged officers of the army, navy, and marine corps of the United 
States, regular and volunteer, who took part in the suppression of the rebellion. 
It was organized in Philadelphia in 1865. The Order acknowledges as its funda- 
mental principles: (1st) a belief and trust in Almighty God; (2d) true allegiance 
to the United States of America. Its objects are to cherish the memories of the 
war waged for the unity of the Republic, to strengthen the ties of fellowship 
formed by companionship in arms, to advance the best interests of its members, 
to extend assistance to families of deceased members when required, to foster the 
cultivation of military and naval science, and to enforce allegiance to the general 

The Order is organized into State Commanderies, of which there are now seven- 
teen, with a total membership of over 5,000. There is also a National Com- 
mandery-in-Chief, composed of the Commanders, ex-Commanders, Vice-Com- 
manders, ex-Vice-Commanders, Recorders, and ex-Recorders of the different 
Commanderies. The Commandery -in-Chief is the supreme judicial and executive 
body. It meets once a year. It was instituted 21st October, 1885. Previous to 
this time the Pennsylvania Commandery acted as Commandery-in-Chief. 

Gen. Winfield S. Hancock was the first Commander-in-Chief. Upon his death 
Gen. Philip H. Sheridan succeeded him. Col. John P. Nicholson is Recorder- 



in-Chief. The headquarters are at Philadelphia, Pa. A congress composed of 
the Commander-in-Chief, Recorder-in-Chief, and three delegates from each Com- 
mandery assembles once every four years. All legislative powers, not reserved 
by the Constitution to the State Commanderies, are vested in it. The Order is 
not sectarian and is not political, nor is it secret. Its members are known as 
Companions, and are of three classes. The first class is composed of commis- 
sioned officers and honorably discharged commissioned officers of the United 
States army, navy, or marine corps, regular or volunteer, who were actually 
engaged in the suppression of the rebellion. Also, the eldest, direct, male, lineal 
descendants, or male heirs in collateral branches, of officers who died prior to 
31st December, 1885, who at the time of death were eligible. 

To the second class are eligible the eldest sons, twenty-one years of age, of 
living, original members. Upon the death of those through whom they derive 
membership, Companions of the second class become Companions of the first 

A third class is composed of civilians who were distinguished for conspicuous 
loyalty to the government during the Rebellion. 

The diploma of membership and insignia of the Order may be conferred, by a 
vote of a congress of the Order, after nomination by the Commandery-in -Chief, 
upon any gentleman who served during the war of the Rebellion on staff duty 
without commission. 

Those so chosen are known as Members-at-Large, and are recognized as first- 
class Companions of the State Commandery they affiliate with. 

This distinguished honor has been conferred upon two members of the Ohio 
Commandery : the late Col. John H. Devereaux, of Cleveland, who during the 
war was Superintendent of Military railroads in Virginia, and Maj. William D. 
Bickham, of Dayton, who served on the staff of Gen. W. S. Rosecrans. 

The Insignia of the Order is a badge pendant by a link and a ring of gold from 
a tricolored ribbon. The badge is a cross of eight points gold and enamel, with 
rays forming a star. In the centre on the obverse side is a circle with the national 
eagle displayed, and around it the motto, Lex regit arma tuenter. On the reverse 
side are crossed sabres, surmounted by a fasces, on which is the Phrygian cap ; 
around it an arch of thirteen stars and a wreath of laurel ; in the circle about it 
the legend : " M. O. Loyal Legion, U. S., MDCCCLXV." 

The Commandery of Ohio was instituted 7th February, 1883. Its headquarters 
are at Nos. 57 and 59 Fourth street, Cincinnati, where it has neat and commo- 
dious rooms for its office, library, and meetings. It holds seven regular meetings 
each year. At each meeting — except the annual election in May — a paper is 
read by some one of the members, giving his personal recollections of some cam- 
paign or battle in which he was a participant. Two volumes, of 600 pages each, 
of these papers have already been published by the Commandery; and it is 
intended to publish one annually. 


Commander — Brev. Lieut. -Col. E. C. Dawes, U. S. V., Cincinnati. 

Senior Vice-Commander — Maj. -Gen. M. D. Leggett, U. S. V., Cleveland. # 

Junior Vice-Commander — Brev. Col. Cornelius Cadle, Jr., U. S. V., Cincinnati. 

Recorder — Capt. Robert Hunter, U. S. V. , Cincinnati. 

Registrar — Capt. James C. Mitchie, U. S. V. , Cincinnati. 

Treasurer — Brev. Maj. William R. McComas, U. S. V., Cincinnati. 

Chancellor — Maj. George A. Vandegrift, U. S. V., Cincinnati. 

Chaplain — Capt. George A. Thayer, U. S. V. , Cincinnati. 

Council— Brev. Maj. Frank B. James, U. S. V., Cincinnati; Capt. W. E. Crane, U. S. 
V., Cincinnati; Capt. L. T. Schofield, U. S. V., Cleveland; Lieut. -Col. George M. Finch, 
U. S. V., Cincinnati; Brev. Maj. William R. Lowe, U. S. V., Cincinnati. 

Ammon, J. H. , Lieut. -Col. N. Y. V., Boston, 12th Ind. Vol. Cav., Norwalk,. Conn. 

Mass. (Transferred.) (Charter mem- (Transferred.) 

ber.) Austin, D. R., 1st Lieut. 100th O. V. I., 

Abbott, N. B., 1st Lieut. 20th Conn. Vols., Toledo, O. 

Columbus, O. (Charter member.) Abbott, H. R., 1st Lieut. 180th O. Vv L, 

Anderson,' E., Chaplain 37th 111. V. L, Col. Detroit, Mich. 


Ashmun, G. C, 2d Lieut. 7th Ind. Troop, 0. 

V. C., Cleveland, 0. 
Anderson, Latham, Col. 8th Cal. V. I., Capt. 

and Brev. Lieut. -Col. U. S. A., Cincinnati. 
Adae, C. A. G., Capt. 4th O. V. C, Cin- 
cinnati, O. 
Ayres, S. C, 1st Lieut, and Assist. -Surgeon 

U. S. V., Brev. Capt. U. S. V., Cincinnati. 
Abert, J. W., Maj. U. S. Engineers, Brev. 

Lieuto-Col. U. S. A., Newport, Ky. 
Bockee, J. S., Capt. 114th N. Y. V., Brev. 

Lieut. -Col. U. S. V., Louisville, Ky. 
Bickham, W. D., Maj. and Aid-de-Camp on 

Staff of Gen. Rosecrans, Dayton, 0. (Mem- 

mpt* at IfiT'fj'P 1 

Bell, W. H., Maj. and A Q. M., U. S. A, 

Denver, Col. 
Barnett, James, Col., Brev. Maj. -Gen. U. S. 

V., Cleveland, 0. 
Brown, J. Morris, Surg., Maj. U. S. A, Fort 

Omaha, Omaha. (Transferred.) 
Bacon, H. M., Chaplain 63d Ind. V. L, 

Toledo, O. 
Bliven, C. E., Capt., Brev. Maj. U. S. V., 

Chicago, 111. (Transferred.) 
Bigelow, H. W., Capt. 14th O. V. I., To- 

ledo, O. 
Buckland, R. P., Brig. -Gen., Brev. Maj.- 

Gen. U.S. V., Fremont, O. 
Bejl, Jno. N., Capt. 25th Iowa Y. I., Day- 
ton, O. 
Brasher, L. B., 1st Lieut, and Reg. Q. M. 

54th Ky. Mounted Inf., Meeker, Col. 
Baldwin, A. P., Capt. 6th Ohio Bat. Art., 

Akron, O. 
Bell, Jno. B., Maj. 15th Mich. V. I, Brev. 

Lieut. -Col. U. S. V., Toledo, O. 
Barber, G. M., Lieut. -Col. 197th O. V. L, 

Brev. Brig. -Gen. U. S. V., Cleveland, 0. 
Billow, Geo., Capt. 107th O. V. L, Akron. 
Buckland, H. S., Fremont, 0. (Second class. ) 
Bingham, Wm., Cleveland, O. (Third class.) 
Burns, J. M., 1st Lieut. 17th U. S. Inf., 

Fort D. A. Russell, Wyoming Ter. 
Brown, M. G, 1st Lieut, and Reg. Q. M. 

111th O. Y. I., Cleveland, 0. 
Botsford, J. L., Capt. and A. A G, U. S. 

V., Youngstown, O. 
Booth, Chas. A., Brev. Maj., Brev. Lieut. - 

Col. U. S. Y., Capt. and A Q. M. U. S. 

A., Brev. Maj. and Brev. Lieut.-Col, For- 
tress Monroe, Va. 
Brand, T. T., Capt. 18th U. S. Inf., Brev. 

Maj. U. S. A. (retired), Urbana, 0. 
Brooks, M. L., Jr., 1st Lieut, and Assist. - 

Surg. 93d O. Y. L, Cleveland, O. 
Brown, John Mason, Maj. 10th Ky. Y. Cav., 

Col. 45th Ky . Mounted Inf. , Louisville, Ky. 
Brown, Fayette, Maj. and Paymaster U. S. 

A, Cleveland, 0. 
Beatty, John, Col. 3d 0. Y. I., Brig. -Gen. 

U. S. Y., Columbus, 0. 
Ball, E. H., 1st Lieut. 53d 0. Y. I., Ports- 
mouth, 0. 
Burt, M. W., Maj. 22d Mass. Y. I., Brev. 

Col. U. S. Y., Steubenville, O. 
Baldwin, J. G., Captain 2d 0. Y. I., War- 
ren, O. 
Boyd, C. W., Capt. 34th 0. Y. L, Levana, 0. 
Berlin, C, 1st Lieut. 1st N. Y. Light Art, 

Brev. Capt., Brev. Maj. U. S.V., Soldiers' 
Home, Dayton, O. 

Bates, C. S., 1st Lieut. 13th 0. V. I., Cleve- 
land, O. 

Bates, J. H., Brig. -Gen. U. S. Y., Cincin- 
nati, 0. (Charter member.) 

Blair, J. M., Capt. 2d Ky. Vol. Inf., Cin- 
cinnati, O. (Charter member.) 

Bates, Caleb, Maj. and A. D. C. (Dead.) 
(Charter member.) (Died April 7, 1884.) 

Bond, L. EL, 1st Lieut. 88th 0. Y. L, Brev. 
Maj. U. S. V., Cincinnati, O. 

Brown, A. M., Assist. -Surg. 22d 0. Y. I., 
Maj., Acting Staff Surg., U. S. Y., Cin- 
cinnati, 0. 

Brown, Frederick W., 2d Lieut. 1st U. S. 

. Col. Cav., Cincinnati, O. 

Burnet, R. W., Cincinnati, 0. (Third class.) 

Baldwin, W. H., Lieut.-Col. 83d O. V. L, 
Brev. Col. U. S. Y., Brev. Brig. -Gen. U. 
S. Y., Cincinnati, O. 

Burton, A. B., 1st Lieut. 5th O. Y. Light 
Bat. Art., Brev. Capt., Brev. Maj. U. S. 
Y., Cincinnati, O. 

Bard, S. W., 2d Lieut. 2d Mo. Cav., Capt. 
Bard's Ind. O. Y. C, Cincinnati, 0. 

Brachman, W. E., Capt. 47th O. Y. I., Cin- 
cinnati, 0. 

Baker, C. C M 1st Lieut. 6th 0. Y. C., New 
Lisbon, O. 

Burrows, W. S., 2d Lieut. 1st N. Y. Yet. 
Yol. Cav., Cleveland, O. 

Brundage, A. H., Maj., Surgeon 32d 0. Y. 
I., Xenia, O. 

Buck, A. E., Lieut.-Col. 51st U. S. C. I., 
Brev. Col., U. S. V., Atlanta, Ga. 

Brown, Harvey H., Cleveland, O. (Second 
class ) 

Brown; E. F., Col. 28th N. Y. Y. Inf., Sol- 
diers' Home, Dayton, 0. 

Bond, F. S., Maj. and A. D. C, U. S. Y., 
New York City, N. Y. 

Bush, T. J., Capt. 24th Ky. Y. I., Lexing- 
ton, Ky. 

Buchwalter, E. L., Capt. 53d U. S. C. L, 
Springfield, O. 

Bonsall, W. H., 2d Lieut. 1st O. Y. Heavy 
Art. , Los Angeles, Cal. 

Babbitt, H. S., 1st Lieut, and R. Q. M. 31st 
O. Y. I., Dorchester, Mass. 

Bishop, J. C, 1st Lieut. 1st Yet. W. Ya. 
Yol, Inf., Middleport, O. 

Bonnell, D. Y., 1st Lieut. 93d 0. Y. I., Mid- 
dletown, O. 

Beatty, W. G., Maj. 174th 0. Y. I., Card- 
ington, 0. 

Burrows, J. B., Capt. 14th Ohio Batt. Yol. 
Light Art. , Painesville, 0. 

Babbitt, Albert T., 2d Lieut. 93d 0. Y. L, 
Cheyenne, Wyoming Territory. 

Corbin, H. C, Col. and Brev. Gen. U. S. Y., 
Maj. and A. A. G, U. S. Army, Chicago. 

Crowell, J, Capt. and A A G, U. S. V. 
Died Dec. 29, 1885. 

Conger, A. L., 1st Lieut. 115th 0. Y. I., 
Akron, O. 

Clarke, W. C, 1st Lieut. andRegtl. Commis- 
sary 2d 111. Cav. , Lithopolis, O. 

Conrad, J., Col. U. S. A. (retired), Washing- 
ing, D. C. (Transferred.) 


Carnahan, J. R., Capt. 86th Ind. V. I., In- 
dianapolis, Ind. 

Cable, C. A., Capt. 18th 0. V. I, Nelson- 
ville, O. 

Comly, J. M., Col. 23d O. V. L, Brev. Brig.- 
Gen. U. S. V. Died July 26, 1887. 

Clarke, Jno. S., Maj. 8th Ky. V. I., Lexing- 
ton, Ky. 

Casement, Jno. S., Col. 103d 0. V. I, Brev. 
Brig. -Gen., Painesville, O. 

Coe, E. S., Capt. 124th O. V. I, Lieut. -Col 
196th O. V. I., Cleveland, O. 

Gushing, H. K., Maj., Surg. 7th O. V. I., 
Cleveland, O. 

Chance, J., 1st Lieut. 17th U. S. I. Died 
Dec. 11, 1885. 

Cutler, Carroll, 1st Lieut. 85th 0. V. I., 
Cleveland, O. 

Clarke, R. W., Capt. 120th N. Y. V. I, 
Toledo, 0. 

Crumit, C. K., Capt. 53d 0. V. I., Jack- 
son, 0. 

Chamberlin, W. P., 1st Lieut. 23d O. V. I., 
Knoxville, Tenn. 

Crawford, James, Capt. 91st 0. V. I., West 
Union, O. 

Crawford, Geo. S., Co. G, 49th O. V. I, 
Price Hill, Cincinnati, O. 

Crouse, Geo. W., Akron, O. (Third class.) 

Chapman, J. H., Capt. 5th Conn. V. I., 
Capt. Vet. Res. Corps, Soldiers' Home, 
Dayton, O. 

Cope, Alexis, Capt. 15th 0. V. I., Colum- 
bus, O. 

Churchill, M., Col. 27th 0. V. I.,Brev. Brig.- 
Gen. U. S. V., Zanesville, O. 

Coates, B. F., Col. 91st 0. V. I., Brev. Brig.- 
Gen. U. S. V, Portsmouth, O. 

Corbin, D. T., Brev. Maj. U. S. V., Capt. 
Vet. Res. Corps, Capt. 3d Vermont V. I. , 
Chicago, 111. (Transferred.) 

Collins, Chas. L., 2d Lieut. 24th U. S. I., 
Fort Elliott, Texas. (First class by descent. ) 

Cockerill, John A., private, 24th O. V. I., 
New York City, N. Y. (First class by de- 

Campbell, Jno., Capt. 70th O. V. I., Wash- 
ington, D. C. (Transferred.) 

Cooke, Warren W., Capt. 182d 0. V. I., 
Toledo, O. 

Cochran, Robert H., 1st Lieut. 15th O. V. I., 
Toledo, O. 

Comstock, D. W., Capt. 121st Ind. Vols., 
Richmond, Ind. 

Chase, D. H., Capt. 9th Ind. V. I., Capt. 
17th U. S. I., Logansport, Ind. 

Coon, John, Maj., Paymaster U. S. A., 
Cleveland, 0. 

Chance, J. C, Capt. 13th U. S. I., Fort Win- 
gate, New Mexico. 

Chamberlain, H. S., 1st Lieut. O.V.C., Capt. 
and A. Q. M., U. S. Vols., Chattanooga, 

Cox, J. D. , Jr. , Cleveland, 0. (Second class. ) 

Chamberlin, J. W., Capt. 123d 0. V. I., 
Brev. Major U. S. V., Tiffin, 0. 

Cushing, Wm. E., Cleveland, 0. (Second 

Cowan, A., Capt. 1st N. Y. Ind. Battery, L. 
Art., Brev. Lieut. -Col. U. S. Vols., Louis- 
ville, Ky. 

Collamore, G. A., Maj., Surgeon 100th O. V. 
I., Toledo, O. 

Coleman, Horace, Maj., Surgeon 147th O. V. 
I., Troy, 0. 

Conger, Kenyon B., Akron, O. (Second 
class i 

Chester, F. S., Capt. 2d Conn. V. I., Cuya- 
hoga Falls ; 0. 

Cumback, Wm., Maj. and Paymaster U. S. 
A., Greensburg, Ind. 

Crane, W. E., Capt. 4th 0. V. C, Cincin- 
nati, O. (Charter member.) 

Cist, H. M., Maj. and A. A. G., Brev. Brig.- 
Gen. U. S. V., Cincinnati, 0. (Charter 

Cadle, C, Jr., Lieut. -Col. A. A. G., 17th A. 
C, Brev. Col. U. S. V., Cincinnati, O. 

Cox, Theodore, Lieut. -Col., Brev. Col. U. S. 
V. and A. A. G,, 23d A. C, Cincinnati, O. 

Conner, P. S., Ass't Surg. U. S. A., Brev. 
Capt., Brev. Maj. U. S. A., Cincinnati, 0. 

Cullen, Robert, Capt. 74th 0. V. I., Cincin- 
nati, O. 

Cherry, E. V., 1st Lieut. 63d 0. V. I., Cin- 
cinnati. 0. 

Coverdale, R. T., Capt. 48th 0. V. I., Capt. 
and A. Q. M., U. S. V., Cincinnati, O. 

Chamberlin, W. H., Maj. 81st 0. V. L, Cin- 
cinnati, O. 

Carrick, A. L., Maj., Surgeon 2d E. Tenn. V. 
Cav., Cincinnati, O. 

Cochran, T. J., 1st Lieut. 77th O. V. I., Cin- 
cinnati, O. 

Cross, F. G., 1st Lieut. 84th Ind. V. I., Cin- 
cinnati, O. 

Cox, J. D., Maj. -Gen. U. S. V. , Cincinnati, O. 

Cowen, B. R., Maj. and Paymaster, Brev. 
Brig. -Gen. U. S. V., Cincinnati, O. 

Cooke, H. P., Capt. and A. A. G., U. S. V., 
Cincinnati, 0. 

Currie, Geo. E., Lieut. -Col. 1st Inf. Miss. 
Marine Regiment, Dayton, Ky. 

Chisman, Homer, 1st Lieut. 7th Ind. V. I., 
Ludlow, Ky. 

Cavett, G. W., 1st Lieut. 53d O. V. I., Cin- 
cinnati, O. 

Dudley, E. S., 1st Lieut. 2d U. S. Art, Lin- 
coln, Neb. (Transferred.) 

Davies, Samuel W., Capt. 1st O. V. I., Day- 
ton, O. 

De Gress, J. C, Capt. 9th U. S. Cav., Brev. 
Lieut. -Col. (retired), Austin, Texas. 

Devereux, J. H. , Col. and Vol. Aid by ap- 
pointment. Died March 17, 1886. 

De Witt, Calvin, Maj., Surgeon U. S. A., 
Fort Sully, D. T. 

Donnellan, J. W., Lieut. -Col. 27th U. S. C. 
Troops, Laramie, Wyoming Territory. 

Dennis, C. P., 1st Lieut. 47th 0. V. L, Ports- 
mouth, O. 

Du Barry, H. B., 1st Lieut. 88th Ind. V. I., 
Columbus, 0. 

Dawes, E. C. , Maj. 53d 0. V. I., Brev. Lieut. - 
Col. U. S. V., Cincinnati, O. (Charter 
member. ) 

Dawes, R. R., Col. 6th Wis. V. I., Brev. 
Brig. -Gen. U. S. V., Marietta, 0. 

Dayton, L. M., Col. U. S. A., Cincinnati, O. 
(Charter member.) 

De Bus, Henry, Capt. IstU. S. Colored Cav- 
alry. Died Oct. 9, 1887. 


Bay, J. B., Maj. 6th U. S. Colored Cavalry, 
Cincinnati, 0. 

Elwell, John J., Lieut.-Col. and A. Q. M., 

v Brev. Brig. -Gen. U. S. V., Cleveland, 0. 

Enochs, W. H. , Col. 1st Vet. W. Va. I. , Brev. 
Brig. -Gen. U. S. V., Ironton, 0. 

Edwards, Wm. , Cleveland, 0. (Third class. ) 

Ellison, H. C, 1st Lieut, and Adjt. 115th 0. 
Y. I., Cleveland, 0. 

Ewing, E. E., 1st Lieut. 91st 0. V. L, Ports- 
mouth, 0. 

Edgerton, R. A., 1st Lieut. 72d 0. V. L, 
Little Rock, Ark. 

Evans, N. W., Capt. 173d 0. V. L, Ports- 
mouth, 0. 

Emerson, Lowe, 1st Lieut, and Q. M., 15th 
N. J. Vols., Cincinnati, 0. 

Everts, 0,, Maj., Surgeon 20th Ind. V. I., 
College Hill, Cincinnati, 0. 

Foraker, J. B., 1st Lieut. 89th 0. V. L, Brev. 
Capt. U. S. V., Columbus, O. (Charter 

Fuller, J. W., Brig. -Gen., Brev. Maj. -Gen. 
U. S. V., Toledo, 0. 

Faulkner, J. K., Col. 7th Ky. Vol. Cav., 
Louisville, Ky. 

Fenner, A. C, Capt. 63d 0. V. I., Dayton, O. 

Fraunfelter,E., Capt. 114th O.V.I., Akron, O. 

Forbes, S. R, Maj., Surgeon 67th O. V. I., 
Toledo, 0. 

Frazer, A. S., 1st Lieut. 34th 0. V. I., 
Xenia, O. 

Freeman, H. B., Capt. 7th U : S. I., Brev. 
Maj. U. S. A., Ft. Laramie, Wyoming 

Fountain, S. W., 1st Lieut. 8th U. S. Cav., 
Jefferson Barracks, Mo. 

Fowler,. H. R, 2d Lieut. 1st Mass. Heavy 
Art., Toledo, O. 

Foster, Robert S., Brig. -Gen., Brev. Maj.- 
Gen. U. S. V., Indianapolis, Ind. 

Finch, C. M., Maj., Surgeon 9th 0. V. C, 
Columbus, 0. 

Felton, William, Capt. 90th 0. V. L f Brev. 
Maj. U. S. V., Columbus, O. 

Fechet, E. O., 2d Lieut. 2d U. S. Art., 
Hachita, New Mexico. 

Fuller, W. G., Capt. and A. Q. M., Brev. 
Maj., Brev. Lieut.-Col. U. S. V., Gallipo- 
lis, O. 

Ford, D. T. , Youngstown, O. (First class by 

Force, M. R, Brig. : Gen. , Brev. Maj. -Gen. U. 
S. V., Cincinnati, O. (Charter member.) 

Foley, J. L., Maj. 10th Ky. Vol. Cav., Cin- 
cinnati, O. (Charter member.) 

Fox, George B., Maj. 75th O. V. I., Wyom- 
ing, O. 

Finch, Geo. M., Capt. 2d O. V. I., Lieut. - 
Col. 137th O. V. L, Cincinnati, 0. 

Flemming, Robert H., Capt. 77th 0. V. I., 
Ludlow, Ky. 

Ferrell, T. R, 1st Lieut. 18th 0. V. I, Cin- 
cinnati, 0. 

Guthrie, J. V., Maj. 19th 111. Infantry, Cin- 
cinnati, 0. 

Garrard, Jeptha, Col. 1st U. S. Col. Cav., 
Brev. Brig. -Gen. U. S. V., Cincinnati, 0. 

Gagahan, A. J., Lieut, and A. Q. M., 1st 
Tenn. Cav., Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Gano, J. W., 1st Lieut. 75th 0. V. I., Cin- 
cinnati, 0. 
Guenther, R L., Maj. 2d U. S. Art., Brev. 

Col. U. S. A., Little Rock Barracks, Little 

Rock, Ark. 
Gaul, Jos. L., 1st Lieut. 5th 0. V. I., Cin- 
cinnati, 0. 
Grosvenor, ft H., Col. 18th 0. V. I., Brev. 

Brig. -Gen. U. S.V., Athens, 0. 
Goodloe, Wm. Cassius, Capt. and Asst. Adjt.- 

Gen., U. S. V., Lexington, Ky. 
Gottschall, 0. M., 1st Lieut. 93d 0. V. I., 

Dayton, 0. 
Goodspeed, Jos. M., 1st Lieut. 75th 0. V. I., 

Goodspeed, W. R, Maj. 1st Reg. Ohio L. 

Art, Cleveland, 0. 
Greenleaf, C. R., Maj., Surgeon U. S. A., 

Washington, D. ft ■ 
Garretson, Geo. A., 2d Lieut. 4th U. S. Art., 

Cleveland, 0. 
Goodrich, B. R, 1st Lieut., Assist. Surgeon 

35th N. Y. V., Akron, O. 
Gibson, Wm. H., Col. 49th O. V. I., Brev. 

Brig. -Gen. U. S. V., Tiffin, O. 
Goodwillie, Thomas, 1st Lieut. 150th 0. V. 

1., Cleveland, 0. 
Goodwin, E. M. , Acting Assist. Surgeon U. 

S. N., Toledo, 0. 
Godfrey, E. S., Capt. 7th U. S. Cav., Fort 

Riley, Kansas. 
Godwin, E. A., 1st Lieut, and Reg. Q. M. 

8th U. S. Cav., Chicago, 111. 
Galligher, M., 1st Lieut. 16th Penn. V. I., 

Urbana, 0. 
Garfield, Harry A., Cleveland, 0. (First 

class by descent.) 
Granger, M. M., Lieut.-Col. 122d 0. V. I., 

Brev. Col. U. S. V., Zanesville, 0. 
Hickenlooper, A., Lieut.-Col. U. S. V., Brev. 

Brig. -Gen. U. S. V., Cincinnati, 0. (Char- 

t^r member 1 
Hunt, C. B., Lieut. -Col. 2d Mo. Cav., Cin- 
cinnati, O. 
Hosea, L. M., Capt. and Brev. Maj., 16th U. 

S. Inf., Cincinnati, O. 
Hurd, E. O., Capt. 39th O. V. I., Cincin- 
nati, 0. 
Hawthorn, L. R., Capt. and Brev. Major U. 

S. V., Newport, Ky. 
Hawkins, M. L., 1st Lieut. 36th 0. V. I., 

Cincinnati, 0. 
Healy, R. W., Col. 58th Illinois V. I., Brev. 

Brig. -Gen. U. S. V., Cincinnati, O. 
Heath, T. T., Col, 5th O. V., Cavalry, Brev. 

Brig. -Gen. U. S. V., Cincinnati, O. 
Hunter, Robert, Capt. 74th O. V. I., Cincin- 
nati, 0. 
Hall, J. C, Capt. 55th Mass. V. I., Brev. 

Major U. S. v., Cincinnati, 0. 
Harris, L. A., Col. 2d O. V. I., Col. 137th 

0. V. I., Cincinnati, O. 
Heam, J. A., Capt. 16th U. S. Inf., Brev. 

U. S. A. (retired), Newport, Ky. 
Hoeltge, Augustus, Assist. Surg. 47th 0. V. 

I., Cincinnati, 0. 
Hereon, Win. ft, Acting Ensign U. S. N. t 

Cincinnati, 0. 
Houghton, R N., 2d Lieut. 17th 0. V. Batt'y 

Light Art. , Columbus, 0. 


Hayes, Rutherford B., Brev. Maj.-Gen. U. 

S. V., Fremont, 0. (Charter member.) 
Harris, Win. H., Capt., Brev. Major, Brev. 

Lieut. -Col. U. S. A., Cleveland, 0. 
Holter, M. J. W., Lieut.-Col. 195th 0. V. L, 

Brev. Brig. -Gen. U. S. V., Batavia, 0. 
Howard, W. C, 2d Lieut. 17th Ohio Batt'y, 

St. Paul, Minn. (Transferred.) 
Hay, John, Major and A. A. Gen., Brev. 

Col. U. S. V., Cleveland, O. 
Herrick, John F., Lieut.-Col. 12th 0. V. C, 

Cleveland, 0. 
Hamilton, J. K., Capt. 113th 0.>Y. I, To- 
ledo, O. r 
Howe, George W., 1st Lieut. 1st Reg. Ohio 

Vol. Art., Cleveland, O. 
Hitchcock, Peter M., 1st Lieut. andR. Q. M. 

20th O. V. I, Cleveland, O. 
Hazen, W. B., Brig. -Gen. U. S. A., Maj.- 
Gen. U. S. V. (Transferred.) (Dead.) 
Hayes, Birchard, Toledo, 0. (Second class.) 
Harris, Ira, Lieut. -Com. U. S. N., Kensing- 
ton, 111. (Transferred.) 
Hutchins, John C, 1st Lieut. 2d 0. V. C, 

Cleveland, O. 
Haynes, Wm. E., Lieut.-Col. 10th 0. V. C, 

Fremont, O. 
Hodge, Noah, 1st Lieut andAdjt. 52dU. S. 

Col. Inf., San Diego, Cal. 
Harter, George D., 1st Lieut. 115th 0. V. I., 

Canton, 0. 
Herrick, Henry J., Maj., Surgeon 17th 0. 

V. L, Cleveland, O. 
Hay, Charles E., 1st Lieut. 3d U. S. Cav., 

Brev. Capt. U. S. A., Springfield. LI. 
Himes, I. N.. Maj., Surgeon 73d 0. V. L, 

Cleveland, O. 
Hager, J. B., Capt. 12th Ind. V. I, 

Capt. 14th U. S. Inf. (Died August 

28, 1885.) 
Hale, Clayton, Capt. 16th U. S. I., Brev. 

Lieut. -Col. U. S. A., El Paso, Texas. 
Hoffman, Lewis, Capt. 4th Ind. O. Batt., 

Light Art. , Cincinnati, O. 
Hanna, H. M., Cleveland, 0., Paymaster 

U. S. Navy. 
Hayes, Webb C. , Cleveland, 0. (First class 

by descent.) 
Hamilton, Wm. D., Col. 9th O. V. C, Brev. 

Brig. -Gen. U. S. V., Columbus, O. 
Hutchins, H. A., Maj., Paymaster U. S. A., 

Brev. Lieut. -Col. U. S. V., New York 

City, N. Y. 
Hayes, R. P., Fremont, 0. (First class by 

descent. ) 
Herenden, G. B., 1st Lieut, and Adjt. 44th 

N. Y. Y. Inf., Cleveland, O. 
Heistand, H. 0. S., 1st Lieut. 11th U. S. 

Inf., Oswego, N. Y. (First class by de- 
Hutchins, John, Cleveland, 0. (Third class.) 
Hood, Robert N., Capt. 2d Tenn. Y. C., 

Knoxville, Tenn. 
Harrison, Benjamin, Col. 70th Indiana V. I., 

Brev. Brig. -Gen. U. S. V. , Indianapolis, Ind. 
Isom, J. F., Capt. 25th Ills. V. L, Cleve- 
land, 0. 
Isham, A. B., 1st Lieut. 7th Mich. V. C, 

Walnut Hills, Cincinnati, 0. 
Ingersoll, Joseph, Capt. 76th Ills. V. I., 

Cleveland, O. 

Jones, F. J., Capt. U. S. V., Brev. Maj. U. 
S. V., Cincinnati, 0. 

James, F. B., Capt. 52d 0. V. I., Brev. 
Maj. U. S. V., Cincinnati, O. 

Jones, George E., Acting Assist. -Surgeon 
U. S. Navv, Cincinnati, O. 

Jones, J. K., 2d Lieut. 24th 0. V. I., Co- 
lumbus, O. 

Jacobs, Wm. C, Maj., Surgeon 81st 0. V. I., 
Akron, O. 

Jackson, Joseph R., Capt. 69th Ind. V. I., 
Union City, Ind. 

Johnson, R. M., Col. 100th Ind. V. I., 
Santa Fe, New Mexico. 

Johnston, J. R., 2d Lieut. 25th Vol. Batt. 
O. Y. Light Art., Canfield, 0. 

Kendall, F. A., Capt. 25th U. S. I. (retired), 
Cleveland, O. (Charter member.) 

Kilpatrick, Robert L, Col. U. S. A. (re- 
tired) , Springfield, O. (Charter member. ) 

Kilbourne, James, Capt. 95th 0. Y. I. , Brev. 
Lieut-Col., Brev. Col. U. S. V., Colum- 
bus, O. 

Kellogg, A. G., Commander U. S. N., Wash- 
ington, D. C. (Transferred.) 

Knapp, A. A, Capt. 40th 0. Y. I., Union 
City, Ind. 

Kelly, R. M., Col. 4th Ky. Y. I., Louis- 
ville, Ky. 

Kellogg, C. W., Capt. 29th O. Y. I., Brook- 
line, Mass. (Transferred.) 

Kirk, E. B., Maj., Quartermaster U. S. A, 
Atlanta, Ga. 

Keifer, J. Warren, Col. 110th O. Y. I., 
Brev. Brig. -Gen. U. S. Y., Brev. Maj.- 
Gen. U. S. Y., Springfield, 0. 

Kell, W. H., 1st Lieut. 22d U. S. I., Fort 
Lewis, Colo. 

Knefler, Fred'k, Col. 77th Ind. Y. I., Brev. 
Brig.-Gen. U. S. Y., Indianapolis, Ind. 

Kennedy, Robert P., Col. 196th O. Y. 
I., Brev. Brig.-Gen. U. S. Y., Bellefon- 
taine, O. 

Kimball, W. C, Capt. and Com. of Sub. U. 
S. Y., Tiffin, O. 

Kemper, G. W. H., Assist. -Surgeon 17th 
Ind. Y. I., Muncie, Ind. 

Kauffman, Albert B., Capt. 8th U. S. Cav., 
Fort Clarke, Texas. 

Kirby, T. H., 1st Lieut. 36th Ind. Y. I., 
Muncie, Ind. 

Kemper, A. C, Capt. and Assist. Adjt. -Gen. 
U. S. Y., Cincinnati, O. (Charter mem- 
ber. ) 

Kuhn,W. E., Capt. 47th 111. Inf., Capt. and 
A. A. G. U. S. Y., Cincinnati, 0. 

Lane, P. P., Col. 11th O. Y. I., Cincinnati, 
O. (Charter member.) 

Lukens, E. J., 1st Lieut. 2d 0. Y. Cav., 
Cincinnati, 0. (Charter member.) 

Lowe, W. R., Capt. 19th U. S. Inf., Brev. 
Maj. U. S. A., Cincinnati, 0. 

Lloyd, H. P., Capt. 22d N. Y. Y. C, Brev. 
Maj. U. S. V ; , Cincinnati, O. 

Lane, H. M., Cincinnati, 0. (Second class.) 

Lovell, E. H. , Cincinnati, 0. (First class by 
descent. ) 

Locke, Jos. M., Capt. 14th U. S. I. and Brev. 
Lieut.-Col. U. S. A.. Cincinnati, O. 

Lewis, G. W. , 2d Lieut. 111th O. Y. I. , Cleve- 
land, O. 


Little, Geo. W., Lieut, and R. Q. M. 60th 
0. V. I., Cleveland, 0. 

La Motte, Brev. Brig. -Gen. U. S. Y. (Trans- 
ferred. Dead. Charter member.) 

Lewis, John V. H., Capt. and A. Q. M. U. 
S. V., Boston, Mass. (Charter member.) 

Leggett, M. D., Maj.-Gen. U. S. V., Cleve- 
land, 0. (Charter member.) 

Lybrand, A. , Capt. 73d 0. Y. I. , Delaware, 0. 

Lostutter, D., Capt. 7th Ind. Y. I., Aurora, 

Laird, George F., Capt. 4th 0. Y. I, Kings- 
ton, New Mexico. 

Leggett, L. L. , Cleveland, O. (Second class. ) 

Loving, Starling, Maj., Surgeon 6th O. Y. I., 
Columbus, O. 

Lindsay, C. D., 1st Lieut. 67th 0. Y. I., 
Toledo, O. 

Lewis, John R., Maj. 44th U. S. I, Col. U. 
S.A., Atlanta, Ga. 

Lewis, R. H., 1st Lieut. 1st Del. Ind. Batt. 
Heavy Art. , Chicago, Ills. (Transferred. ) 

Lafferty, N. B., Assist. -Surgeon 1st O. 
Heavy Art., Hillsboro, 0. 

Lynch, Frank, Lieut. -Col. 27th O. Y. I., 
Cleveland, 0. 

Lybrand, R. G., Capt. 192d 0. Y. I., Del- 
aware, 0. 

Luckey, J. B., Capt. 3d O. Y. C. , Elmore, O. 

Mitchell, John G., Col. 118th O. Y. L, Brev. 
Maj.-Gen. U. S. Y., Columbus, 0. 

Morey, H. L, Capt. 75th 0. Y. I., Hamil- 
ton, 0. 

Morrison, Walter, * Capt. 9th 0. Y. C, Co- 
lumbus, O. 

Munson, Gilbert D., Lieut. -Col. 78th O.Y. L, 
Brev. Col. U. S. Y., Zanesville, O. 

Milward. H. K., Lieut. -Col. 18th Ky. Y. L, 
Brev. Col. U. S. Y., Lexington, Ky. 

Miller, S. J. F., Acting Asst. -Surgeon U. S. 
A., Soldiers' Home, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Mitchell, John T., Lieut. -Col. 66th O. Y. I., 
Urban a, 0. 

McAllister, A., Capt. 10th U. S. Colored 
Heavy Art, Brev. Maj., Brev. Lieut. -Col. 
U. S. Y., Cleveland, 0. 

Meade, Alfred N., Capt. 128th O. Y. I., 
Cleveland. O. 

Mitchell, John, 1st Lieut. 32d O. Y. I., Nor- 
walk, 0. 

Mundy, W. H., 1st Lieut, and Adjt. 23d Ky. 
Y. I., Louisville, Ky. 

Matthews, W. S., Capt. 60th O. Y. I, Brev. 
Capt. U. S. Y., Pasadena, Cal. 

Mansfield, I. F., 1st Lieut. 105th O. Y. I., 
Cannelton, Pa. 

Marvin, U. L, Capt. 5th Reg. U. S. Colored 
Troops, Brev. Maj. U. S. Y., Akron, O. 

Macauley, Daniel, Col. 11th Ind. Y. I., Brev. 
Brig. -Gen. U. S. Y., No. 45 Broadway, 
New York City, N. Y. 

Madeira, John D., Capt. 73d O. Y. I., Chil- 
licothe, 0. 

Morgan, W. J., Capt. 41st 0. Y. I., Cleve- 
land, 0. 

Molyneaux, J. B., Capt. 7th O.Y. I., Cleve- 
land, O. 

Marshall, W. S., Maj. 5th Iowa Y. I., Chat- 
tanooga, Tenn. 

McDowell, H. C, Capt. and A. A. G. U. S. 
V., Lexington, Ky. 

McClymonds, J. W., 1st Lieut. 104th O.Y. I, 
Massillon, 0. 

McMillen, W. L., Col. 95th 0. Y. L, Brev. 
Brig. -Gen., Brev. Maj.-Gen. U. S. Y., 
New Orleans, La. 

McNaught, J. S., Capt. 20th U. S. I., Mad- 
ison, Wis. 

Mcllvaine, D. B., Capt. 14th W. Ya. Y. I., 
82 Chambers St., New York City, N. Y. 

McCown, A. F., Maj. 13th W. Ya. Y. L, 
Point Pleasant, W. Ya. 

McGinnis, G. F., Brig.-Gen. U. S. Y., In- 
dianapolis, Ind. 

McGinniss, J. T., Capt. 13th U.S.I., Brev. 
Maj. U. S. A., Olney, 111. (Retired.) 

McCook, Alex. McDowell, Col. 6th U. S. L, 
Brev. Maj.-Gen. U. S, A., Fort Leaven- 
worth, Kansas. 

Mattox, A. H., 1st Lieut. 17th Ohio Batt., 
Light Art. , Cincinnati, O. (Charter mem- 

Monfort, E. R., Capt. 75th 0. Y. I, Cin- 
cinnati, 0. 

Moore, F. W„ Col. 83d O. Y. I, 1st Lieut. 
19th U. S. I, Brev. Brig.-Gen. U. S. Y., 
Cincinnati, 0. 

Michie, J. C, Capt. 1st U. S. Yeteran Inf., 
Covington, Ky. 

Merrill, W. E., Col. 1st U. S. Yet. Y. Engi- 
neers, Lieut. -Col. Corps of Engineers, 
Brev. Col. U. S. A., Cincinnati. 0. 

Murdock, James E. , Avondale. (Third class. ) 

Mosler, Max, 2d Lieut. 108th 0. Y. I., Cin- 
cinnati, 0. 

Mitchell, J. B., 1st Lieut. 83d 0. Y. L, Cin- 
cinnati, O. 

Miller, F. C, 2d Lieut. 1st Reg. 0. Y. Light 
Art, Newport, Ky. 

Moore, W. A., Capt. 7th Rhode Island Y. I., 
Newport, Ky. 

McClung, D. W., Capt. and A. Q. M., U. S. 
Y., Cincinnati, O. 

McComas, W. R., Capt. 83d O. Y. I, Brev. 
Maj. U. S. Y., Cincinnati, O. 

McCormick, A. W., Capt. 77th O. V. I., 
Brev. Maj., Brev. Lieut. -Col. U. S. Y., 
Cincinnati, O. 

McGrath, John, Cincinnati, O. (Second 
class ) 

McCormick, J. H., Capt. 148th O. Y. I, 
Rays, Jackson county, O. 

McCormick, F. R. , Washington, D. C. (Sec- 
ond class/) 

McCurdy, John, Major, Surgeon 11th O. Y. 
L, Youngstown, 0. 

Molyneaux, Wm. Y. , Cleveland, . (Sec- 
ond class.) 

Madigan, M. F., Lieut. 27th 0. Y. I., Cleve- 
land, 0. 

Meyer, E. S., Brev. Brig.-Gen. U. S. Y., 
Cleveland, O. 

Myers, L. D., Capt. and Q. M. U. S. Y., 
Columbus, 0. 

McClure, Chas., Brev. Col. U. S. Y., Major 
and Paymaster IT. S. A., El Paso, Texas. 

McDonald, I. H., 2d Lieut. 9th U. S. Cav., 
Urban a, 0. 

McMillin, E., 2d Lieut. 2d W. Ya. Yol. Cav., 
Columbus, O. 

McCullough, S. M., 1st Lieut. 5th W. Ya, 
Y. I., Washington, D. C. 


Neil, H. M., Capt. 22d 0. Batt. Vol. Light 
Art, Columbus, O. 

Norton, H. D., Capt. 32d Mass V. I., Brev. 
Major U. S. V., Washington, D. C. 

Neil, John B., Major 46th 0. V. I., Colum- 
bus, O. 

Neubert, H. G., Capt. 14th 0. V. I, Tole- 
do, 0. 

Nesbitt, W. B., 1st Lieut. 12th O. V. L, 
Lieut. -Col. 176th O. V. L, 1st Lieut. 25th 
U. S. Infantry, Xenia, O. 

Neff, E. W. S., 2d Lieut. 1st Regiment O. 
V. Heavy Art. , Cleveland, O. 

Neff, C. A. (Second class.) Cleveland, 0. 

Noyes, E. P., Col. 39th O. Y I., Brev. Brig.- 
Gen. U. S. V., Cincinnati, 0. (Charter 

Nichols, G. W., Capt. and A. A. D. C, Brev. 
Lieut. -Col. U. S. A. (Died Sept. 15, 

Neff, G. W., Col. 88th 0. Y.I., Brev. Brig.- 
Gen. U. S. V., Cincinnati, 0. 

Neil, Wm., Columbus, O. (Second class.) 

Neil, Moses H., Major 1st O. Y. C, Colum- 
bus, O. 

Nash, Sumner, 1st Lieut. 115th O. V. L, 
Akron, 0. 

Noble, C. H., Capt. 16th U. S. Infantry, San 
Antonio, Texas. 

Oglevee, J. F., 1st Lieut. 98th O. Y. I., Co- 
lumbus, O. 

Osborn, Hartwell, Capt. 55th O. Y. L, Chi- 
cago, 111. 

Ostrander, J. S., 1st Lieut. 18th U. S. Inf., 
Richmond, Ind. 

Offley, R. EL, Lieut. -Col. U, S. A, Fort D. 
A. Russell, Wyoming Territory. 

Overturf, J. W., 1st Lieut. 91st 0. Y I., 
Brev. Capt., Brev. Major U. S. Y., Ports- 
mouth, O. 

Otis, Elmer, Col. 8th U. S. Cav., Fort Davis, 

Partridge, C. A, 1st Lieut. 48th 0. Y. I., 
Cincinnati, O. 

Potter, J. M., 1st Lieut. 117th Colored U. S. 
Infantry, Cincinnati, O. 

Payne, E. B., Lieut. -Col. 37th Ills. Y. I., 
and Brev. Brig. -Gen. U. S. Y, Cleveland. 

Pierson, J. L., Major 2d New Jersey Yol. 
Cav., Painesville, O. (Charter member.) 

Potter, J. B., Surgeon 30th O. Y I. (Died 
March 27, 1887.) 

Pickands, James, Col. 124th 0. Y. I, Cleve- 
land, O. 

Perkins, Geo. T., Lieut. -Col. 105th 0. Y. I., 
Brev. Col. U. S. Y, Akron, O. 

Pease, Wm. B., Capt. 9th U. S. Inf. (retired), 
Astor House, New City. 

Parrott, E. A, Col. 1st 0. Y I„ Dayton, 0. 

Parrott, H. E., 1st Lieut. 86th O. V. L, Day- 
ton, O. 

Peck, B. B., 1st Lieut, and Adjt. 27th Mass. 
Yol. Inf., Indianapolis, Ind. 

Penney, C. G, Capt. 6th U. S. Inf., High- 
wood, 111. 

Piatt, J. D., Lieut. -Col. 10th 0. Y.C., Day- 
ton, O. 

Perry, Oran, Lieut. -Col. 69th Ind. Y.I., In- 
dianapolis, Ind. 

Park, Horace, Col. 43dO.Y.L, Columbus,0. 

Pierson, H. W. , Wernersville, Penn. (Third 

Patton, A. G., Lieut. -Col. IstN. Y. Mounted 

Rifle Yols. , Columbus, O. 
Patterson, E. L., Capt. 79th 0. Y. I., Cleve- 
land, O. 
Peck, Wm. H. H., Capt. 5th Yer. Y. I., 

Capt. 19th Yet. Res. Inf., Cleveland, 0. 
Peelle, S. J., 2d Lieut. 57th Ind. Y. I., In- 
dianapolis, Ind. 
Payne, W. S., Capt. 2d La. Yol. Inf., Fos- 

toria, O. 
Pettit, S., 1st Lieut. 104th 0. Y. I., New 

Lisbon, 0. 
Prindle, J. A., Capt. 7th Yer. Y. I., Cleve- 
land, 0. 
Pettit, J. S., 1st Lieut. 1st U. S. L, Benicia 

Barracks, Cal. (Second class. ) 
Perkins, S. J., Capt. and A. Q. M., U. S. Y., 

Sharon, Pa. 
Powell, Eugene, Col. 193d 0. Y. L, Brev. 

Brig. -Gen. U. S. Y, Delaware, 0. 
Putnam, Douglass, Lieut. -Col. 92d O. Y. I., 

Ashland, Ky. 
Price, E. H., Capt. 11th 0. Y I., Chatta- 
nooga, Tenn. 
Pollard, J. K., 2d Lieut. 182d 0. Y. L, West 

Union, O. 
Quinn, Timothy, Lieut. -Col. 7th N. Y. Cav., 

Washington, D. C. 
Ruhm, John, 1st Lieut. 15th U. S. Col. Inf., 

Nashville, Tenn. 
Rice, A. Y, Col. 57th 0. Y. I., Brig. -Gen. 

U. S. Y, Ottawa, O. • 
Rice, Owen, Capt. 153d Penn. Yol. Inf., 

Chicago, 111. 
Robertson, R. S., 1st Lieut. 93d N. Y. Inf., 

Brev. Capt. U. S. Y., Ft. Wayne, Ind. 
Ricks, A. J., 1st Lieut, 104th O. Y. I., Mas- 

sillon, O. 
Ratliff, R. W., Col. 12th O. Y. C, Brig. -Gen. 

U. S. Y. Died Sept. 14, 1887. 
Ranney, H. C, Capt., A. A. G., U. S. Y., 

Cleveland, O. 
Reilly, W. W., Capt. 30th 0. Y. G, Ports- 
mouth, O. 
Rees, J.. Capt. 27th O. Y. I., Newark, O. 
Rule, Wm., 1st Lieut, and Adjt. 6th Tenn. 

Y. I., Knoxville, Tenn. 
Robinson, James S., Brig. -Gen., Brev. Maj.- 

Gen. U. S. Y, Columbus, O. 
Rodgers, J. H., Major, Surgeon 104th 0. Y. 

I., Springfield, 0. 
Rannells, W. J., Capt. 75th O. Y. I., Mc- 

Arthur, 0. 
Raynor, W. H., Col. 56th 0. Y. I., Brev. 

Brig. -Gen. U. S. Y., Toledo, 0. 
Riley, C. T., 1st Lieut, and R. Q. M., 71st 

0. Y. I., Troy, 0. 
Roots, L. H. , Capt. , Brev. Major, and Brev. 

Lieut. -Col. U. S. Y., Little Rock, Ark. 

Raynolds, J. M. , (private soldier), Las Yegas, 

New Mexico. (First class bv descent. ) 
Rose, J. T, Rev., Syracuse, N. Y. (First 

class by descent. ) 
Roberts, C. S., Capt. 17th U. S. L, FortD. 

A. Russell, Wyoming Territory. 
Rose, Thos. E., Col. 77th Penn. Y. I., Brev. 

Brig. -Gen. U. S. Y., Capt. 16th U. S. I., 


Brev. Major U. S. A., Brev. Lieut. -Col. 
U. S. A., Fort Concho, Tex. 

Bathbone, E. G., Hamilton, O. (First class 
by descent.) 

Baper, J. T., 1st Lieut, and Adjt. 26th O. 
Y. I, Chillicothe, O. 

Boberts, J. D., 1st Lieut, and Adjt. 53d O. 
V. I., Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Biebsame, C, Capt. 116th Illinois Vol. Inf., 
Bloomington, 111. 

Bichards, Channing, Capt. 22d O. V. I., Cin- 
cinnati, O. (Charter member.) 

Bifenberick, B. P., Capt. 4th 0. V. C, Cin- 
cinnati, O. 

Beynolds, J. K., 1st Lieut. 6th 0. V. I., Cin- 
cinnati, O. 

Beamy, Thad. A., Major, Surgeon 122d O. 
Y. I., Cincinnati, O. 

Bobison, A. B., Capt. 39th 0. V. I., Pleasant 
Bidge, 0. 

Bochester, M., Capt. and A. A. Gr., U. S. Y., 
Lieut. -Col. and A. A. G., U. S. V., Cin- 
cinnati, O. 

Smith, S. B., Capt. 93d 0. Y. I., Ludlow 
Falls, 0. (Charter member.) 

Smith, Orland, Col. 73d O. V. I., and Brev. 
Brig. -Glen. U. S. V., Cincinnati, 0. 

Swing, P. F., Capt. 9th O. Y. C, Cincin- 
nati, O. 

Stoms, H. G., Capt. 39th 0. Y. I., Cincin- 
nati, 0. 

Sechler, T. M., 1st Lieut. 2d Ohio Heavy 
Art., Cincinnati, O. 

Stewart, J. B., Capt. 17th Ind. Y. I., Cin- 
cinnati, O. 

Scarlett, J. A., Ensign U. S. Navy, Cincin- 
nati, 0. 

Shattuc, W. B., 1st Lieut. 2d 0. Y. C, Cin- 
cinnati, 0. 

Schwarz, G. W., Capt. 2d Perm. Y. Cav., 
Cincinnati, O. 

Selbert, A, Capt. 183d O. Y. I., Cincin- 
nati, O. 

Speed, J. B., 1st Lieut, and Adjt. 27th Ky. 
Y. I., Louisville, Ky. 

Schenck, S. C. (First class by descent. ) To- 
ledo, O. 

Swaine, P. T., Col. 22d U. S. I., Fort Keogh, 
Montana Territory. 

Sanderson, Fred. M., Capt. 21st Mass. V.I., 
Cleveland, O. 

ScoSeld, Levi T., Capt, 103d O. Y. I., and 
Top. Engineer, 23d A. C, Cleveland, 0. 

Storer, J. B., Capt. 29th O. Y. I., Akron, 0. 

Smith, Brewer, Capt. 65th 0. Y. I., Brev. 
Major U. S. V., Crown Hill, W. Ya. 

Scovill, E. A., Lieut.-Col. 128th O. Y. L, 
Cleveland, O. 

Stanley, David S., Col. 22d U. S. I., Brig.- 
Gen. and Brev. Major-Gen. U. S. A., San 
Antonio, Texas. 

Sherman, H. S., 1st Lieut, and Adjt. 120th 
0. Y. I., Cleveland, 0. 

Shields, J. C, Capt 19thO. Batt. Yol. Light 
Art, Cleveland, 0. 

Strong, E. E 1st Lieut. 16th Conn. Y. I., 
Cleveland, 0. 

Scovill, E. T. , Cleveland, 0. (Second class. ) 

Smith, W. H. H., 1st Lieut. 21st Batt. 0. 
Y. Light Art, Toledo, O. 

Speed, G. K., Capt. 4th Ky. Y. C. Died 
February 12, 1887. 

Smith, Wm, Capt 2d O. Y. Cav. Died 
October 11, 1886. | 

Smith, A. J., Capt. 4th N. Y. Heavy Art, 
Brev. Maj. U. S. V., Cleveland, 0. 

Stevenson, B. F., Maj., Surgeon 22d Ky. Y. 
Inf., Visalia, Ky. 

Sterling, J. T., Lieut.-Col. 103d 0. Y. I., 
Brev. Col. U. S. Y. (Transferred.) 

Sanderson, T. W., Col. 10th O. Y. I, Brev. 
Brig. -Gen. V. S. Y., Youngstown, 0. 

Shively, J. W., Surgeon U. S. N., Kent, 

Stafford, S. B., Capt. 15th IT. S. I., Fort 
Bandall, Dak. Terr. 

Steward, T. L., 1st Lieut. 11th 0. Y. I., 
Dayton, 0. 

Speed, Thos., 1st Lieut, and Adjt. 12th Ky. 
Y. I., Louisville, Ky. 

Smith, 0. M., 1st Lieut. 22d U. S. I., San 
Antonio, Tex. 

Steward, L. T., Chicago, Ills. (Second class.) 

Shaw, W. L., Capt. 11th 0. Y. L, Brev. 
Maj. U. S. Y., Minneapolis, Minn. 

Strong, II. C, 1st Lieut, and Beg. Q. M. 
128th O. Y. I., Newark, 0. 

Stone, B. F., Capt 73d 0. Y. I., Chilli- 
cothe, 0. 

Shanks, T. P., 1st Lieut 9th Ky. Yol. Cav., 
Louisville, Ky. 

Shellenberger, J. K., 1st Lieut 64th 0. Y. 
I., Helmboldt, la. 

Sherman, W. T., Gen. U. S. A., New York 
City, N. Y. 

Strickland, D. W., Lieut.-Col. 48th N. Y. Y. 
I., Aspen, Col. 

Smith, C. H., Maj. 27th 0. Y. I., Cleve- 
land, O. 

Stewart, J. E., Capt 167th 0. Y. L, Brev. 
Col. U. S. Y., Springfield, 0. 

Sullivant, L. S., Maj. 113th O. Y. I., Colum- 
bus, 0. 

Skinner, B. M., Maj. 9th W. Ya. Y. I., 
Pomeroy, 0. 

Speed, James, Hon. (Third class.) (Died 
June 15, 1887.) 

Sargent, H. S., Capt. 12th N. H. Y. I., 
Cleveland, O. 

Seibert, John, Capt. 13th 0. Y. I., Colum- 
bus, 0. 

Scranton, E. E., Capt. 65th 0. Y. I., Alli- 
ance, 0. 

Steele, H. K., Maj., Surgeon 44th 0. Y. I., 
Dayton, 0. 

Starr, W. C, Lieut -Col. 9th Ya. Y. I., 
Bichmond, Ind. 

Thomas, David W., Capt 29th O. Y, I., 
Akron, 0. 

Townsend, E. F., Lieut.-Col. 11th U. S. I., 
Fort Gates, Dak. Terr. 

Thurstin, W. S., Capt. 111th 0. Y. I., To- 
ledo, 0. 

Townsend, Amos, 1st Lieut. 1st Beg. 0. Y. 
Lt Art, Cleveland, 0. 

Thompson, A. C, Capt. 105th Penn. Y. I., 
Portsmouth, 0. 

Taylor, John, 2d Lieut. 70th 0, Y. L, West 
Union, 0. 


Taylor, John H., 2d Lieut. 143d 0. V. L, 
East Liverpool, 0. 

Tyler, R B., Capt. 74th N. Y. V. I., Brev. 
Maj., Brev. Lieut. -Col U. S. V., Chatta- 
nooga, Tenn. 

Tillman, W., Maj. and Pavm., Brev. Lieut. - 
Col. U. S. A., Louisville, Ky. 

Thompson, Jno. T., 2d Lieut. 2d U. S. Art., 
Mt. Vernon, Ala. (First class by descent.) 

Taylor, V. C, 1st Lieut. 84th 0. V. I., 
Cleveland. 0. 

Thrift, R. W„, Maj., Surgeon 49th O. V. L, 
Lima, O. 

Tillotson, E., 1st Lieut. 27th U. S. I., Ur- 
bana, 0. 

Thomas,* Samuel, Col. 64th U. S. C. I., 
Brev. Brig. -Gen. U. S. V, N. Y. City. 

Todd, Samuel A., 1st Lieut. 44th O. Y. L, 
1st Lieut. 8th O. Y. C, Springfield, O. 

Yan De Man, J. H., Capt. 66th 0. Y. I., 
Assist. -Surg. 10th 0. Y. I., Chattanooga, 

Yoris, A. C, Col. 67th 0. Y. I, Brev. 
Brig., Brev. Maj. -Gen. U. S. V., Akron, O. 

Yance, A. F., Maj. and Paym. U. S. V., 
Urbana, O. 

Yance, Wilson, 1st Lieut. 14th U. S. C. T., 
Brev. Capt. U. S. V., Findlay, O. 

Vandearift, Geo. A., 1st Lieut. 2d 0. Y. I., 
Maj. 137th O. Y. I., Cincinnati, O. 

Yan Yoast, J., Col. 9th U. S. I. (retired), 
Cincinnati, 0. 

Yan Dyke, A. M., Capt. and A. A. G. U. S. 
V., Brev. Maj. U. S. Y., Wyoming, O. 

Walcutt, Chas. C, Brig. -Gen., Brev. Maj.- 
Gen. U. S. V., Lieut. -Col. 10th U. S. C, 
Columbus, O. (Charter member.) 

Wills, A. W., Capt. and A. Q. M., Brev. 
Lieut. -Col. U. S. V., Nashville, Tenn. 

Wood, E. Morgan, Capt. 15th U. S. I., 
Dayton, 0. 

Wilson, G. W., 1st Lieut, and Adjt. 54th O. 
Y. I., Hamilton, O. 

Wood, Thomas J., Brig. -Gen., Maj. -Gen. U. 
S. A. (retired), Dayton, O. 

Wright, G. B., Col. 106th O. Y. I., U. S. 
Mil. Storekeeper, Columbus, O. 

Woodruff, Carle A., Capt. 2d U. S. Art., 
Brev. Lieut. -Col. U. o. A., Fort Leaven- 
worth. Kan. 

Wilson, Harrison, Col. 20th 0. Y. I., Sid- 
ney, 0. 

Wake, Norman, Maj. 189th 0. Y. I., To- 
ledo, 0. 

Welch, G. P., 1st Lieut, and Adjt. 10th Yer. 
V. I., Cleveland, O. 

Waite, Richard, Capt. 84th 0. Y. I., To- 
ledo, 0. 

Whitbeck, H. N., Lieut.-Col. 65th 0. Y. I, 
Brev. Brig. -Gen. U. S. V., Cleveland, O.- 
Wilson, W. C, Col. 135th Ind. Y. I., La- 
fayette, Ind. 

Williams, W. S., Capt. 3d Ind. 0. Bat. Yol. 
Light Art., Canton, O. 

Wood, Chas. 0., Lieut.-Col. 8th Cal. Inf., 
Brev. -Col. U. S. Y., Capt. 9th U. S. I., 
Akron, O. 

Wilcox, A. M., Capt., Com. U. S. Y., Brev. 
Maj. U. S. Y., St. Louis, Mo. (Trans- 

Warner, Willard, Col. 180th O. Y. I., Brev. 
Brig. -Gen., Brev. Maj.-Gen. U. S. Y., 
Tecumseh, Ala. 

Whittlesey, R. D., 1st Lieut. 1st Beg. 0. Y. 
Art, Toledo, 0. 

Walker, Wm. T., Toledo, 0. (Third class.) 

Williams, W. W., Pay Director U. S. N., 
San Francisco, Cal. 

Williams, A. J., 2d Lieut. 7th O. Y. I., 
Cleveland, O. 

Wolcott, J. L., 2d Lieut. 67th O. Y. I., To- 
ledo, 0. 

Weist, J. R., Maj., Surgeon 1st U. S. Col. 
Troops, Richmond, Ind. 

Ward, Jno. H., Lieut.-Col. 27th Ky. Y. I., 
Louisville, Ky. 

Wright, James T. , Indianapolis, Ind. (Sec- 
ond class.) 

Wedemeyer, Wm. G., Capt. 16th U. S. I., 
San Antonio, Tex. 

Wilson, Robert, Capt. 12th 0. Y. I., Mid- 
dletown, O. 

Watson, C. T., Capt. and A. Q. M., Brev. 
Maj. U. S. V., Atlanta, Ga. 

Welch, J. M., Maj, 18th 0. Y. I., Athens, 0. 

Wagner, A., 2d Lieut. 6th 0. Y. C, Akron, O. 

Walden, W. A., Capt. 36th 0. Y. I., Co- 
lumbus, 0. 

Webster, E. F., 1st Lieut. 25th 0. Battery 
Light Art., Wellington, O. 

Williams, W. H., Maj. 42d O. Y. L, Welling- 
ton, 0. 

Wilson, C. L., Maj., Surgeon 75th O. Y. I., 
Indianapolis, Ind. 

White, W. J., Capt. 4th U. S. Col. Heavy 
Art., Brev. Maj. U. S. Y., Springfield, O. 

Wight, E. B., Maj. 24th Mich. Y. L, Cleve- 
land, O. 

Wallace, Lew., Maj.-Gen. U. S. Y., Craw- 
fordsville, Ind. 

Wilson, Wm. M., Capt. 122d 0. Y. I., 
Xenia, O. 

Wasson, A. M. S., 3d Assist. -Eng. U. S. N., 
Cincinnati, O. 

Warnock, Wm. R., Maj. 95th 0. Y. I., Brev. 
Lieut. -Col. U. S. V., Xenia, O. 

Williams, E. Cort, Acting Ensign U. S. N. , 
Cincinnati, O. 

Whitfield, S. A., Lieut. -Col. 123d U. S. Col. 
Inf., Cincinnati, O. 

Wiltsee, W. P., Capt. Benton Cadets, Cin- 
cinnati, O. 

Wilson, R. B., 1st Lieut. 194th O. Y. I., 
Cincinnati, O. 

Wilshire, J. W., 2d Lieut. 45th 0. Y. I., 
Cincinnati, O. 

White, Ambrose, Private 2d Ky. Y. I., Cin- 
cinnati, O. (First class by descent.) 

Warwick, N. R., 2d Lieut. 91st 0. Y. I., 
Cincinnati, O. 

Wilson, C. P., Mai and Surgeon 138th 0. Y. 
I., Cincinnati, U. 

Weber, Daniel, Col. 39th 0. Y. I., Cincin- 
nati, O. 

Werner, F. J., 1st Lieut. 106th 0. Y. I., 
Cincinnati, 0. 

Wallace,F. S.,Maj.82dO.Y. I., Cincinnati, O. 

Youtsey, T. B., 1st Lieut. 37th Ky. V. I., 
Newport, Ky. 

Total Roll of Names 560 


New members admitted November 1th, 1888. 

For the First Class : 

Crook, George, Maj.-Gen. U. S. A., Chi- 
cago, 111. 

Doolittle, Charles Camp, late Brig. -Gen. 
and Brevet Maj.-Gen. U. S. V.. Toledo, 0. 

Friesner, W. S., late Lieut. -Col. 58th 0. 
,V. L, Logan, 0. 

Foote, Allen R, late 2d Lieut. Co. U B," 
21st Mich. V. I., Cincinnati, 0. 

Ford, Collin, late Major and Brevet-Col. 
100th U. S. Col. Inf., Cincinnati, 0. 
> Gillett, Simeon Palmer, late Lieut. -Com. 
U. S. N., Evansville, Ind. 

Hipp, Charles, late Major 37th Begt. 0. 
V. I., St. Marys, O. 

Jones, Wells S. , late Brevet Brig. -Gen. U. 
S. V., Waverly, O. 

Lewis, Edwin R, late Capt. Co. u C," 21st 
Mass. Inf. , Crawfordsville, Ind. 

Markbreit, Leopold, late Capt. 28th 0. V. 
I., Cincinnati, 0. 

McConnell, Ezra, late 1st Lieut. 30th 0. 
V. I., Flushing, 0. 

Beese, Henry Bickham, Major and Pay- 
master U. S. A., Lancaster, O. 

Stubbins, Benjamin Ambrose, late Surgeon 
14th Vet. Ky. V. L, Gallipolis, 0. 

Thruston, Gates Phillips, late Brig. -Gen. 
U. S. V., Nashville, Tenn. 

Williams, Edward P., late Capt. and Com- 
missary of Subsistence, U. S. V., Ft. Wayne, 

Of the First Glass by Descent: 

Burbank, Clayton S., 1st Lieut. 10th Inf., 
eldest living son of the late Col. Sidney Bur- 
bank, U. S. A., Fort Lyon, Col. 

Stuckey, J. D., late Sergeant 73d 0. V. I. ; 
eldest living brother of the late Samuel W. 
Stuckey, Capt. Co. "C," 90th 0. V. I., 
Washington C. H., O. 

For the Second Glass: 

Marvin, David L. , eldest living son of 
Companion U. L. Marvin, late Major 5th IL 
S. Colored Troops, Columbus, 0. 





Arthur St. Clair [1], 1788-1802. Charles W. Byrd [2], Hamilton County, 1802-3. Edward 
Tiffin [3], Ross, 1803-7. Thomas Kirker [4], Adams, 1807-8. Samuel Huntington, Trumbull, 
1808-10. Return Jonathan Meigs [5], Washington, 1810-14. Othniel Looker [*], Hamilton, 1814. 
Thomas Worthington Ross, 1814-18. Ethan Allen Brown [6], Hamilton, 1818-22. Allen Trim- 
ble [*], Highland, 1822. Jeremiah Morrow, Warren, 1822-6. Allen Trimble, Highland, 1826-30. 
Duncan McArthur, Ross, 1830-32. Robert Lucas, Pike, 1832-6. Joseph Vance, Champaign, 
1836-8. Wilson Shannon, Belmont, 1838-40. Thomas Corwin, Warren, 1840-2. Wilson 

Shannon [7], Belmont, 1842-4. Thomas W. Bartley [*], Richland, 1844. Mordecai Bartley, 
Rishland, 1844-6. William Bebb, Butler, 1846-9. Seabury Ford [£], Geauga, 1849-50. Reuben 
Wood [9], Cuyahoga, 1850-3. William Medill [10], Fairfield, 1853-6. Salmon P. Chase, Ham- 
ilton, 1856-60. William Dennison, Franklin, 1860-2. David Tod, Mahoning, 1862-4. John 
Brough [11], Cuyahoga, 1864-5. Charles Anderson [f], Montgomery, 1865-6. Jacob D. Cox, 
Trumbull, 1866-8. Rutherford B. Hayes, Hamilton, 1868-72. Edward F. Noyes, Hamilton, 
1872-4. William Allen, Ross, 1874-6. Rutherford B. Haves [12], Sandusky, 1876-7. Thomas 
L. Young [f], Hamilton, 1877-8. Richard M. Bishop, Hamilton, 1878-80. Charles Foster, 
Seneca, 1880-4. George Hoadly, Hamilton, 1884-6. Joseph B. Foraker, Hamilton, 1886-90. 

[1] Arthur St. Clair, of Pennsylvania, was Governor of the Northwest Territory, of which Ohio was a part, from July 13, 
1788, when the first civil government was established in the Territory, until about the close of the year 1802, when he was 
removed by the President. 

[2] Secretary of the Territory, and was Acting Governor of the Territory after the removal of Governor St. Clair. 
[3] Resigned March 3, 1807, to accept the office of United States Senator. 

[4] Return Jonathan Meigs was elected Governor on the second Tuesday of October, 1807, over Nathaniel Massie, who 
contested the election of Meigs on the ground " that he had not been a resident of this State for four years next preceding 
the election as required by the Constitution," and the General Assembly, in joint convention, decided that he was not 
eligible. The office was not given to Massie, nor does it appear from the records that he claimed it, but Thomas Kirker, 
Acting Governor, continued to discharge the duties of the office until December 12, 1808, when Samuel Huntington was 
inaugurated, he having been elected on the second Tuesday of October in that year. 

5] Resigned March 25, 1814, to accept the office of Postmaster-General of the United States. 
°6] Resigned January 4, 1822, to accept the office of United States Senator. 
]7J Resigned April 13, 1844, to accept the office of Minister to Mexico. 

[8] The result of the election in 1848 was not finally determined in joint convention of the two houses of the General 
Assembly until January 19, 1849, and the inauguration did not take place until the 2'2d of that month. 
9] Resigne-1 July 15, 1853, to accept the office of Consul to Valparaiso. 

10J Elected in October, 1853, for the regular term, to commence on the second Monday in January, 1854. 
11] Died August 29, 1865. 

"12] Resigned March 2, 1877, to accept the office of President of the United States. 
*] Acting Governor. Succeeded to office, being the Speaker of the Senate, 
't J Acting Governor. Succeeded to office, being the Lieutenant-Governor. 



William Medill, 1852-4. James Myers, 1854-6. Thomas Ford, 1856-8. Martin Welker, 
1858-60. Robert C. Kirk, 1860-2. Benjamin Stanton, 1862-4. Charles Anderson, 1864-6. 
Andrew G. McBurney, 1866-8. John C. Lee, 1868-72. Jacob Mueller, 1872-4. Alphonso 

Hart, 1874-6. Thomas L. Young [1], 1876-7. H. W. Curtiss [2], 1877-8. Jabez W. Fitch, 
1878-80. Andrew Hickenlooper, 1880-2. R. G. Richards, 1882-4. John G. Warwick, 1884-6. 
Robert P. Kennedy [3], 1886-7. Silas A. Conrad, 1887-8. William C. Lyons, 1888-90. 

l s Became Governor, vice Rutherford B, Hayes, who resigned March 2, 1877, to become President of the United States. 

'2] Acting Lieutenant- Governor, vice Thomas L. Young. 

3] Resigned to take a seat in Congress. 

4] Acting Lieutenant-Governor, vice Robert P. Kennedy. 



NOVEMBER 29, 1802. 

Edward Tiffin, President and representative from the county of Ross. 
Adams County. — Joseoh Darlinton, Israel Donalson and Thomas Kirker. 
Belmont County. — James Caldwell and Elijah Woods. 
Clermont County. — Philip Gatch and James Sargent. 
Fairfield County. — Henry Abrams and Emanuel Carpenter. 

Hamilton County. — John W. Browne, Charles Willing Byrd, Francis Dunlavy, William Goforth, 
John Kitchel, Jeremiah Morrow, John Paul, John Riley, John Smith and John Wilson. 



Jefferson County.— Kudolph Bair, Geoxge Humphrey, John Milligan, Nathan Updegraff and Bez- 
aleel Wells. 
Ross County. — Michael Baldwin, James Grubb, Nathaniel Massie and T. Worthington. 
Trumbull County. — David Abbott and Samuel Huntington. 

Washington County. — Ephraim Cutler, Benjamin Ives Gillman, John Mclntire and Rufus Putnam. 
Thomas Scott, secretary of the convention. 



MARCH 10, 1851. 

S. J. Andrews, Cuyahoga County. Ed. Archbold, Monroe. Wm. Barbee, Miami. Joseph 
Barnett, Montgomery. David Barnett, Preble. Wm. S.Bates, Jefferson. Alden J. Bennett, 
Tuscarawas. John H. Blair, Brown. Jacob Blickensderfer, Tuscarawas. A. G. Brown, 
Athens. Van Brown, Carroll. R. W. Cahill, Crawford. L. Case, Licking. F. Case, Hock- 
ing. David Chambers, Muskingum. John Chaney. Horace D. Clark, Lorain. Wesley Clay- 
pool, Ross. George Collings, Adams. Friend Cook, Portage. Otway Curry, Union. Wm. 
P. Cutler, Washington. G. Volney Dorsey, Miami. Thos. W. Ewart, Washington. John 
Ewing, Hancock. Jos. M. Farr, Huron. L. Firestone, Wayne. Elias Florence, Pickaway. 
Robert Forbes, Mahoning. H. N. Gillet, Lawrence. John Graham, Franklin. H. C. Gray, 
Lake. Henry H. Gregg. Jacob J. Greene, Defiance. John L. Greene, Ross. W. S. Groes- 
beck, Hamilton. C. S. Hamilton, Union. D. D. T. Hard, Jackson. A. Harlan, Greene. 
W. Hawkins, Morgan. Jas. P. Henderson, Richland. Reuben Hitchcock, Cuyahoga. Peter 
HitchcocK, Geauga. G. W. Holmes, Hamilton. Geo. B. Holt, Montgomery. John J. Hoot- 
man, Ashland. V. B. Horton, Meigs. S. Humphreville, Medina. John H. Hunt, Lucas. 
B. B. Hunter, Ashtabula. John Johnson, Coshocton. J. Dan Jones, Hamilton. Wm. Ken- 

non, Hamilton. Jas. B. King, Butler. S. J. G. Kirkwood, Richland. Thomas J. Larsh, Pre- 
ble. Wm. Lawrence, Guernsey. John Larwell, Wayne. Robert Leech, Guernsey. D. P. 
Leadbetter, Holmes. Jas. Loudon, Brown. John Lidey, Perry. H. S. Marion, Licking. 

Samson Mason, Clark. Wm. Medill, Fairfield. Matthew H. Mitchell, Knox. Samuel Moor- 
head, Harrison. Isaiah Morris, Clinton. Chas. McCloud, Madison. J. McCormick, Adams. 
Simeon Nash, Gallia. S. F. Norris, Clermont. C. J. Orton, Sandusky. Wm. S. C. Otis, Sum- 
mit. Thomas Patterson, Highland. Daniel Peck, Belmont. Jacob Perkins, Trumbull. 
Samuel Quigley, Columbiana. * Rufus P. Ranney, Trumbull. Chas. Reemelin, Hamilton. 
Adam N. Riddle, Hamilton. D. A. Robertson, Fairfield. Ed. C. Roll, Hamilton. Wm. Saw- 
yer, Auglaize. Sabirt Scott. John Sellers, Knox. John A. Smith, Highland. George J. 
Smith, Warren. Benj. P. Smith, Wyandot. Henry Stanberry, Franklin. Benj. Stanton, Lo- 
gan. Albert V. Stebbens, Henry. Richard Stillwell, Muskingum. E. T. Stickney, Seneoa. 
Harmon Stidger, Shelby. James Struble, Hamilton. J. R. Swan, Franklin. L. Swift, Sum- 
mit. Joseph Thompson, Stark. Jas. W. Taylor, Erie. H. Thompson, Stark. N. S. Towns- 
hend, Lorain. Elijah Vance, Butler. Joseph Vance, Champaign. W. M. Warren, Delaware. 
Thos. A. Way, Monroe. J. Milton Williams, Warren. Elzey Wilson. E. B. Woodbury, 
Ashtabula. Jas. S. Worthington, Ross. 




James M. Varnum. Samuel H. Parsons. John Armstrong. John C. Symmes. William 
Barton. George Turner. Rufus Putnam. Joseph Gillman. Return J. Meigs. 


Samuel Huntington, Cuyahoga County. William Sprigg, Jefferson. Daniel Symmes, Hamil- 
ton. Thomas Morris, Clermont. Ethan Allen Brown, Hamilton. John McLean, Warren. 
Jacob Burnet, Hamilton. Peter Hitchcock, Geauga. Elijah Hayward, Hamilton. Henry 
Brush, Ross. John C. Wright, Jefferson. Ebenezer Lane, Huron. Matthew Birchard, Trum- 
bull. Edward Avery, Wayne. William B. Caldwell, Hamilton. Return Jonathan Meigs, 
Washington. Georgo Tod, Trumbull. Thomas Scott, Ross. William W. Irwin, Fairfield. 
Calvin Pease, Trumbull. Jessup N. Couch, Hamilton. Charles R. Sherman, Fairfield. Gus- 
tavus Swan, Franklin. John M. Goodenow, Jefferson. Reuben Wood, Cuyahoga. Joshua 
Collett, Warren. Frederick Grimke, Ross. Nathaniel C. Read, Hamilton. Rufus P. Spalding, 
Summit. Rufus P. Ranney, Trumbull. 


Thomas W. Bartley, Richland County. Allen G. Thurman, Ross. William B. Caldwell, 
Hamilton. William Kennon, Belmont. Jacob Brinkerhoff', Richland. Ozias Brown, Marion. 
Milton Sutliff, Trumbull. W r illiam Y. Gholson, Hamilton. Hocking H. Hunter, Fairfield. 
Luther Day, Portage. George W. Mcllvaine, Tuscarawas. Walter F. Stone, Erie. William 
J. Gilmore, Preble. John W. Okey, Franklin. Nicholas Longworth, Hamilton. Wm. H. 
Upson, Summit. Selwyn N. Owen, Williams. William T. Spear, Trumbull. Thaddeus A. 
Minshall, Ross. John A. Corwin, Champaign. Rufus P. Ranney, Trumbull. Robert B. War- 
den, Franklin. Joseph R. Swan, Franklin. Chas. C. Converse, Muskingum. Josiah Scott, 
Butler. William V. Peck, Scioto. Horace Wilder, Ashtabula. William White, Clarke. 
John Welsh, Athens. William H. West, Logan. George Rex, Wayne. W. W. Boyuton, Lor- 
ain. Wm. W. Johnson, Lawrence. John H. Doyle, Lucas. Martin D. Follett, Washington. 
Gibson Atherton, Licking. Marshall J. Williams, Fayette. Franklin J. Dickman, Cuyahoga. 




Josiah Scott, Crawford County. D. Thew Wright, Hamilton. Thos. Q. Ashburn [1], Clermont. 
W. W. Johnson, Lawrence. Luther Day [2], Portage. 

[1] Appointed in place of Henry C. Whitman, from Hamilton County, who resigned in March, 1876. 
[2] Appointed in place of Richard A. Harrison, from Franklin County, who resigned in January, 1876. 


Moses M. Granger, Muskingum County. Franklin J. Dickman, Cuyahoga. John McCauley, 
Seneca. George K. Nash, Franklin. Charles D. Martin, Fairfield. 



Rodney Foos, 1866-75. Arnold Green, 1875-8. Richard J. Fanning, 1878-81. Dwight 
Crowell, 1881-4. J. W. Cruikshank, 1884-7. Urban H. Hester, 1887-90. 


From 1802 to 1850 the secretaries were elected for three years by joint ballot of the Senate and House 
of Representatives. Since 1850* the elections have been by the people for terms of two years each. 

Winthrop Sargent [*], 1788-98. Wm. H. Harrison [*], 1798-9. Charles Willing Byrd [*], 

1799-1803. Wm. Creighton, Jr., 1803-8. Jeremiah McLene, 1808-31. Moses H. Kirby, 1831-5. 
B. Hinkson, 1835-6. Carter B. Harlan, 1836-40. William Trevitt, 1840-1. John Sloane, 
1841-4. Samuel Galloway, 1844-50. Henry W. King, 1850-2. William Trevitt, 1852-6. 
James H. Baker, 1856-8. Addison P. Russell, 1858-62. Benjamin R. Cowen, 1862. Wilson S. 
Kennon, 1862-3. Wm. W. Armstrong, 1863-5. Wm. H. Smith, 1865-8. John Russell, 1868-9. 
Isaac R. Sherwood, 1869-73. Allen T. Wikoff, 1873-5. William Bell, Jr., 1875-7. Milton 
Barnes, 1877-81. Charles Townsend, 1881-3. James W. Newman, 1883-5. James S. Robin- 
son, 1885-9. 

[*] Secretary of the Northwest Territory. 




John Armstrong r l], 1792-1803. William McFarland, 1803-16. Hiram M. Curry [2], 1816-20. 
Samuel Sullivan, 1820-3. Henry Brown, 1823-35. Joseph Whiten. ill, 1835-47. Albert A. 

Bliss Elyria), 1847-52. John G. Breslin, 1852-6. W. H. Gibson [3], 1856-7. A. P. Stone, 

1857-62. G. V. Dorsev, 1862-5. W. Hooper, 1865-6. S. S. Warner, 1866-72. Isaac Welsh [4], 
1872-5. Leroy W. Welsh, 1875-6. John M. Millikin, 1876-8. Anthony Howells, 1878-80. 
Joseph Turney, 1880-4. Peter Brady, 1884-6. John C. Brown, 1886-90. 

1] Treasurer of the Northwest Territory. 

[2] Resigned February, 1820. 

3] Resigned June, 1857. 

4] Died November 29, 1875, during official term. 



W. B. Thrall, 1859-62. Joseph H. Riley, 1862-5. Moses R. Brailey, 1865-71. William T. 
Wilson, 1871-7. 




Thomas Gibson, 1803-8. Benjamin Hough, 1808-15. Ralph Osborn, 1815-33. John A. 
Brvan, 1833-9. John Brough, 1839-45. John Woods, 1845-52. William D. Morgan, 1852-6. 
Francis M.Wright, 1856-60. Robert W. Taylor, 1860-3. Oviatt Cole, 1863-4. James H. God- 
man, 1864-72. James Williams, 1872-80. John F. Oglevee, 1880-4. Emil Kiesewetter, 1884-8. 
Ebenezer W. Poe, 1888-92. 



Henry Stanbery, 1846-51. Joseph McCormick, 1851-2. George E. Pugh, 1852-4. George W. 
McCook, 1854-6. Francis D. Kimball, 1856. C. P. Wolcott, 1856-61. James Murray, 1861-3. 
L. R. Critchfield, 1863-5. William P. Richardson, 1865. Chauncey N. Olds, 1865-6. William 
H. West, 1866-70. Francis B. Pond, 1870-4. John Little, 1874-8. Isaiah Pillars, 1878-80. 
George K. Nash, 1880-4 James Lawrence, 1884-6. Jacob A. Kohler, 1886-8. David K. Wat- 
son, 1888-90. 



Cornelius R. Sedan, 1803. Samuel Finley, 1803-7. David Ziegler, 1807. Thomas Worthing- 
ton, 1807-9. Joseph Kerr, 1809-10. Isaac Van Horn, 1810-19. William Daugherty, 1819-28. 
Samuel C. Andrews, 1828-37. William Daugherty, 1837-9. Jacob Medary, Jr., 1839-41. Ed- 
ward H. Cumming, 1841-5. Thomas W. H. Mosely, 1845-51. J. W. Wilson, 1851-57. H. B. 
Carrington, 1857-61. C. P. Buckingham, 1861-2. Charles W. Hill, 1862-4. Ben. R. Cowen, 
1864-8. Ed. F. Schneider, 1868-9. William A. Knapp, 1869-74. James O. Amos, 1874-6. 
A. T. Wikoff, 1876-7. Charles W. Karr, 1877-8. Luther M. Meily, 1878-80. William H. 
Gibson, 1880-1. S. B. Smith, 1881-4. E. B. Finley, 1884-6. H. A. Axline, 1886-90. 



Samuel Lewis, [1] 1837-40. Hiram H. Barney, 1854-57. Anson Smythe, 1857-63. C. W. H. 
Cathcart, 1863. Emerson E. White, 1863-66. John A. Norris, 1866-9. William D. Henkle, 
1869-71. Thomas W. Harvey, 1871-5. Charles S. Smart, 1875-8. J. J. Burns, 1878-81. 
D. F. DeWolf, 1881-4. Leroy D. Brown, 1884-7. Eli T. Tappan, 1887-90. 

[1] From 1840 to 1854 the Secretaries of State were the eti-officio School Commissioners. 



Alexander McConnell, 1836-8. John Harris, 1836-8. R. Dickinson, 1836-45. T. G. Bates, 
1836-42. William Wall, 1836-8. Leander Ransom, 1836-45. William Rayen, 1839-40. 

William Spencer, 1842-5. O. Follett, 1845-9. J. Blickensderfer, Jr., 1845-52. Samuel Forrer, 
1845-52. E. S. Hamlin, 1849-52. A. P. Miller, 1852-55. George W. Manypenny, 1852-53. 
James B. Steedman, 1852-6. Wayne Griswold, 1853-7. J. Blickensderfer, Jr., 1854-8. A. G. 
Conover, 1856-60. John Waddle, 1857-60. R. L. Backus, 1858-61. John L. Martin, 1859-62. 
John B. Gregory, 1860-3. Levi Sargent, 1861-4. John F. Torrence, 1862-5. James Gamble, 
1863-4. James Moore, 1864-71. John M. Barrere, 1864-70. Philip D. Herzing, 1865-77. 
Richard R. Porter, 1870-76. Stephen R. Hosmer, 1872-5. Martin Schilder, 1875-81. Peter 
Thatcher, 1876-9. J. C. Evans, 1877-80. George Paul, 1879-85. James Fullington, 1880-3. 
Stephen R. Hosmer, 1881-84. Leo Weltz, 1883-4. Henry Weible, 1883-6. John P. Martin, 
1884r-7. C. A. Flickinger, 1885-91. Wells S. Jones, 1886-9. William H. Hahn, 1887-90. 



George B. Wright, [1] 1867-71. Richard D. Harrison, [2] 1871-2. Orlow L. Wolcott, 1872-4. 
John G. Thompson, [3] 1874-76. Lincoln G. Delano, 1876-8. William Bell, Jr., 1878-80. J. S. 
Robinson, [4] 1880-1. Hylas Sabine, 1881-3. Hylas Sabine, 1883-5, Henry Apthorp, 1885-7. 
William S. Capeller, 1887-9. 

1] Resigned October, 1871, 
*2J D«ed April, 1872. 
3] Resigned December, 1875. 
4) Resigned February, 1881. 



L. L. Rice, 1860-4. William O. Blake, 1864. W. H. Foster, 1864-7. L. L. Rice, 1867-75. 
Charles B. Flood, 1875-7. William W. Bond, 1877-9. William J. Elliott, 1879-81. J. K. 
Brown, 1881-3. J. K. Brown, 1883-5. W. C. A. De la Court, 1885-7. Leo Hirsch, 18S7-9. 



William F. Church, 1872-5. William D. Hill, 1875-8. Joseph F. Wright, 1878-81. Charles 
H. Moore, 1881-4. Henry J. Reinmund, 1884-7. Samuel E. Kemp, 1887-90. 



H. J. Walls, 1877-81. Henry Luskey, 1881-5. Larkin McHugh, 1885-7. Alonzo D. Fas- 
sett, 1887-9. 



Andrew Roy, 1874-8. James D. Posten, 1878-9. David Owens, 1879-80. Andrew Roy, 
1880-4. Thomas B. Bancroft, 1884-8. R. M. Hazeltine, 1888-92. 


Henry Dorn, 1885-9. 





S. H. Hurst, 1886-7. F. A. Derthick, 1887-8. F. A. Derthick, 1888-90. 



John L. Harper, 1817-8. John Mcllvain, 1818-20. David S. Brodrick, 1820-4. Zachariah 
Mills, 1824-42. Thomas Kennedy, 1842-5. John Greiner, 1845-51. Elijah Hayward, 1851-4. 
James W. Taylor, 1854-6. William T. Coggeshall, 1856-62. S. G. Harbaugh, 1862-74. Walter 
C. Hood, 1874-5. H. H. Robinson, 1875-7. R. M. Stimson, 1877-9. H. V. Kerr, 1879-81. 
Joseph Geiger, 1881-3. Howard L. Conard, 1883-5. H. W. Pierson, 1885-6. Frank B. Loomis, 
1886-7. John M. Doane, 1887-90. 


James H. Beebe, 1867-80. Frank N. Beebe, 1880-89. ' 







Post-office address. 



Adams, Perry M. 
Alexander, J. Park 











Barrett, Isaac M. 



Spring Valley 

Merchant Milling. 


Braddock, John S. 



Mt. Vernon 

Real Estate. 


Brown, Harmon W. 



Cincinnati, Sta'n "C" 

f TicketAgentUnion 
( Passenger Station. 
Real Estate. 


Carlin, William L. 





Cole, Amos B. 


Scioto . 




Coulter, Thomas B. 



Steuben ville 



Crook, Walter 






Cowgill, Thomas A. 






Cutler, James 






Davis, Theodore F. 






Dorr, Anthony I. 






Ford, George H. 






Geyser, William 






Glover, George W. 






Huffman, Joseph G. 



New Lexington 



Kerr, Winfield S. 




a a 


Lindsey, Frank L. 




li it 


Massie, David M.* 




a it 


Mack, Henry 






Mehaffey, Robert 





25th Morison, David 




Real Estate. 

18th Mortley, David H. 




Retired Merchant. 

8th Raunells, William J. 





2d Rath bone, Estes G. 





1st Richardson, James C. 




Paper Manufacturer. 

12th Robertson, Andrew J. 




Marble Dealer. 

16th Sinnett, Edwin 





IstStueve, Henry 




Lime and Cement D'r. 

23dStull, John M. 





21st Snyder, Thomas C. 





25th Taylor, Vincent A. 





9th Townsend, Charles 





10th Wallace, William T. 




11 li 

30th.Zimmermann, Joseph 









Post-office address. 



Joseph W. SI 



West Union 

County Auditor. 


William E. ^ 






John T. McC 




A ttorney-at-Law. 



Elbert L. La 











Post-office address. 



Em mitt Tompkins 





Melville D. Shaw 



u n 


Christian L. Poorman 





Alex. T. McKelvey 


St. Clairsville 



William W. Pennell 



School Teacher. 


Frank. R. .Vinnedge 





John H. Fimple 


Carroll ton 



Samuel M. Taylor 



11 it 


George C. Rawlins 



11 . n 


Elkany B. Holmes 





Wilford C. Hudson 





William T. Cope 





John Y. Williams 





Jesse B. Forbes 





Philip Schuler 


Gal ion 

Real Estate. 


John J. Stranahan 


Chagrin Falls 


* (i 

Edward J. Kennedy 



Real Estate. 


John P. Haley 





Evan H. Davis 





Jere A. Brown 





William T. Clark 





Andrew C. Robeson 



it n 

Defiance & Paulding 

John L. Geyer 





John S. Gill 





Fred. Ohlemacher 


Sandusky City 



Thomas H. Dill 





D. I. Worth ington 


Washington C. H. 

A ttorn ey-at-La w. 


Lot L. Smith 



it ti 


John B. Lawlor 





Estell H. Rorick 



Physician. - 


Jehu Eakins 




Geauga and Lake 

Hosmer G. Tryon 





Andrew Jackson 



Lumber Merchant. 


William E. Boden 





Charles Bird 





Charles L. Doran 





Byron S. Wydman 





Walter Hartpence 





John C. Hart 





William Copeland 



Market Master. 


Oliver Outcalt 





Frederick Pfiester 



Superintendent Asso. 


Frederick Klensch 





Henry Brown 





Michael F. Eggerman 





Jasper N. Lantz 





Dennis D. Donovan 



Gen'l Business Man. 

Jonah Britton 





Carl H. Buerhaus 





Thomas Armor 





Lewis C. Lay 1 in 



Attorn ey : at-Law. 


Benjamin F. Kitchen 





Charles W. Clancey 



J a 


Frank V. Owen 




Lake and Geauga 

Hosmer G. Tryon 





Alfred Robinson 





Samuel L. Blue 





William W. Beatty 





William A. Braman 



Real Estate. 


Charles P. Griffin 





James C. Messer 


East Toledo 



Daniel Boyd 


Plain City 



Lemuel C. Ohl 


Mineral Ridge 

" and Teacher. 


Boston G. Young 



A ttorney-at-La w. 


Thomas Palmer 





Walter W. Merrick 





Charles M. LeBlond. 



tt te 


Noah H. Albaugh 





James H. Hamilton 





Wickliffe Belville 





Martin Eidemiller 





Wilson S. Harper 





Leroy S. Holcomb 



J u 


George Kreis 










Post-office address. 



Daniel H. Gaumer 




« ° 

John C. McGregor 



Teacher and Farmer. 


Capell L. Weems 



Attorn ey-at-Law. 


William E. Bense 


Port Clinton 

Real Estate & Loans. 

Paulding & Defiance 

John L. Geyer 





Nial R. Hysell 





ThaddeusE. Cromley 





John W. Barger 





Friend Whittlesey 





Andrew L. Harris 



Attorney -at-Law. 


Amos Boehmer 


Fort Jennings 

n ti 


James E. Howard 





William H. Reed 



Lumber Merchant. 


James Hunt 





Joseph P. Coates 



" " " 


Elisha B. Hubbard 





Jackomyer C. Counts 





John E. Monnot 





George W. Wilhelm 





Henry C. Sanford 





Mark Ames 


Newton Falls 



Thomas H. Stewart 


Church Hill 



Francis Ankney 


New Philadelphia 



John H. Shearer 




Van Wert 

Levi Meredith 


Van Wert 



Stephen W. Monahan 


Hamden Junction 



William T. Whitacre 





John Strecker 





John W. Baughman 





Robert Ogle 





George B. Spencer 





Matthias A. Smalley 



Real Estate. 



Assistant Adjutant- General 
Commissioner of Labor Statistics 
Comra'r of Railroads & Telegraphs 
Dairy and Food Commissioner 
Eugineer of Public Works 
Law Librarian 
Inspector of Mines 
Inspector of Oils 
Inspector of Workshops 
Meteorological Bureau 
Superintendent of Insurance 
State Geologist 
State Librarian 
Supervisor of Public Printing 
Secretary of Board of State Charities 
Secretary State Board of Agriculture 


Henry A. Axline 
William S. Wickham 
Alonzo D. Fassett 
Wm. S. Cappeller 
F. A. Derthick 
Samuel Bachtell 
Frank N. Beebe 
Thomas B. Bancroft 
Louis Smithnight 
Henry Dorn 
George H. Twiss 
Samuel E. Kemp 
Edward Orton 
John M. Doane 
L. Hirsch 
Albert G. Byers 
L. N. Bonham 














Term of office. 

Years. Expires. 





2d Monday in Jan., 
February 16, 1889. 
March 12, 1889. 
May, 1888. 
May 22, 1888. 
September 27, 1889. 
April 30, 1888. 
May 14, 1888. 
April 29, 1889. 
Not specified. 
June 3, 1890. 
Not specified. 
April 18, 1889. 
April 14, 1889. 

One January 11, 1888. 






John McLean, [1] 1829-61; born 1785, died 1861. Noah H. Swayne, [2] 1862-81; born 1805, 

died 1884. Salmon P. Chase, [1] 1864-73; born 1808, died 1873. Morrison R. Waite, [1] 

William B. Woods, 1880-87 ; born 1824, died 1887. 

1874-87 ; born 1816, died 1887. 
Matthews, 1881. 

[1] Chief-Justices. 
[21 Resigned. 

J. Warren Keifer, 47th Congress ; December 5, 1881, to March 4, 1883 ; born 1836. 



William Henry Harrison, 1841 ; born 1773, died 1841. 
died 1885. Rutherford B. Hayes, 1877-81; born 1817. 

died 1881. 

Ulysses S. Grant, 1869-77; born 1822, 
James A. Garfield, 1881 ; born 1831, 


Thomas Ewing, Secretary of Treasury. Appointed March 5, 1841, by William H. Harrison; April 6, 

1841, by John Tyler. 
Thomas Corwin, Secretary of Treasury. Appointed July 23, 1850, by Millard Fillmore. 
Salmon P. Chase, Secretary of Treasury. Appointed March 7, 1861, by Abraham Lincoln. 
John Sherman, Secretary of Treasury. Appointed March 8, 1877, by Rutherford B. Hayes. 
Ulysses S. Grant, ad interim Secretary of War. Appointed August 12, 1867. 
William T. Sherman, Secretary of War. Appointed September 9, 1869, by Ulysses S. Grant. 
Alphonso Taft, Secretary of War. Appointed March 8, 1876, by Ulysses S. Grant. 
Thomas Ewing, Secretary of Interior. Appointed March 8, 1849, by Zachary Taylor. 
Jacob D. Cox, Secretary of Interior. Appointed March 5, 1869, by Ulysses S. Grant. 
Columbus Delano, Secretary of Interior. Appointed November 1, 1870, by Ulysses S. Grant; March 

4, 1873, by Ulysses S. Grant. 
Return J. Meigs, Jr., Postrnaster-General. Appointed March 17, 1814, by James Madison; March 4, 

1817, by James Monroe ; March 5, 1821, by James Monroe. 
John McLean, Postmaster-General. Appointed June 26, 1823, by James Monroe; March 4, 1821, by 

John Q. Adams. 
William Dennison, Postmaster-General. Appointed September 24, 1864, by Abraham Lincoln ; March 

4, 1865, by Abraham Lincoln; April 15, 1865, by Andrew Johnson. 
Henry Stanbery, Attorney-General. Appointed July 23, 1866, by Andrew Johnson. 
Alphonso Taft, Attorney-General. Appointed May 26, 1876, by 'Ulysses S. Grant. 
William Windom, [1] Secretary of Treasury. Appointed March 4, 1881, by James A. Garfield; October 

20, 1881, by Chester A. Arthur. 
Edwin M. Stanton, Attorney-General. Appointed December 20, 1860, by James Buchanan ; Secretary 

of War, January 15, 1862, by Abraham Lincoln; March 4, 1865, by Abraham Lincoln; April 15, 

1865, by Andrew Johnson. 

[1] Born in Ohio. 


1st.— 1789-1791. 
2d.— 1791-1793. 
3d.— 1793-1795. 

4th.— 1795-1797. 

5th.— 1797-1799. 

6th.— 1799-1801. 

7th.— 1801-1803. 

8th.— 1803-1805. 

9th.— 1805-1807. 
10th.— 1807-1809. 
11th.— 1809-1811. 
12th.— 1811-1813. 
13th.— 1813-1815. 

14th.— 1815-1817. 
15th.— 1817-1819. 
16th.— 1819-1821. 
17th.— 1821-1823. 
18th.— 1823-1825. 
19th.— 1825-1827. 
20th.— 1827-1829. 

21st.— 1829-1831. 

22d.— 1831-1833. 

23d.— 1833-1835. 
24th.— 1835-1837. 
25th.— 1837-1839. 
26th.— 1839-1841. 

27th.— 1841-1843. 
28th.— 1843-1845. 
29th.— 1845-1847. 
30th.— 1847-1849. 
31st.— 1849-1851. 

32d.— 1851-1853. 

33d.— 1853-1855. 
34th.— 1855-1857. 
35th.— 1857-1859. 
36th.— 1859-1861. 
37th.— 1861-1863. 
38th.— 1863-1865. 

39th.— 1865-1867. 
40th.— 1867-1869. 

41st.— 1869-1871. 

42d.— 1871-1873. 

43d.— 1873-1875. 
44th.— 1875-1877. 
45th.— 1877-1879. 
46th.— 1879-1881. 
47th.— 1881-1883. 
48th.— 1883-1885. 
49th.— 1885-1887. 
50th.— 1887-1889. 


William H. Harrison, [1] Hamilton co., 6 Cong. Paul Fearing, Washington co., 7 Cong. 

William McMillan, [2] Hamilton co., 6 Cong. 

[1] Resigned to accept office of Governor of the Territory of Indiana. 
[2J Vice Harrison, resigned. 


Thomas Worthington, [3] Ross county, 8,9, 11 to 

13 Congress. 
John Smith, [1] Hamilton co., 8 to 10 Cong. 
Edward Tiffin, Ross co., 10, 11 Cong. 
Return J. Meigs, [2] Washington co.. 10, 11 Cong. 

Alexander Campbell, Brown co., 11, 12 Cong. 
Stanley Griswold, Cuyahoga co., 11 Cong. 
Jeremiah Morrow, Warren co., 13 to 15 Cong. 
Joseph Kerr, [4] Ross co., 13 Cong. 
Benjamin Ruggles, Belmont co., 14 to 22 Cong, 



Wm. A. Trimble, [5] Highland co., 16, 17 Cong. 
Ethan A. Brown, [0] Hamilton co., 17, 18 Cong. 
William H. Harrison, [7] Hamilton co., 19, 20 

Jacob Burnet, [8] Hamilton co., 20, 21 Cong. 
Thos. Ewing, [9] Fairfield co., 22 to 24, 31 Cong. 
Thomas Morris, Clermont co., 23 to 25 Cong. 
William Allen, Ross co., 25 to 30 Cong. 
Benjamin Tappan, Jefferson co., 26 to 28 Cong. 
Thomas Corwin, [10] Warren co., 29 to 31 Cong. 

Salmon P. Chase, [11] Hamilton co., 31 to 33, 37 

Benjamin F. Wade, Ashtabula co., 32 to 40 Cong. 
George E. Pugh, Hamilton co., 34 to 36 Cong. 
John Sherman, [12] Richland co., 37 to 45, 47 to 50 

Allen G. Thurman, Franklin co., 41 to 46 Cong. 
Stanley Matthews, [13] Hamilton co., 45 Cong. 
George H. Pendleton, Hamilton co., 46 to 48 Cong. 
Henry B. Payne, Cuyahoga co., 49, 50 Cong. 

1] Resigned. 

2 Vice Smith, resigned. 

3 Resigned December 8, 1810, to accept office of Governor of Ohio. 
[4 Vice Worthington, resigned. 

5 J Died in 1822 from the effects of a wound received in the battle at Fort Erie, in the war of 1812. 

6] Vice Trimble, deceased. 

'7] Resigned in 1828 to accept appointment of Minister to Colombia. 

8] Vice Harrison, resigned. 

9] Vice Corwin, deceased. 

Died in 1849, prior to the convening of the 31st Congress, to which he was elected. 
Resigned to accept appointment of Secretary of the United States Treasury. 
w j Vice Chase, resigned. Re-igned in 1877 to accept appointment of Secretary of the United States Treasury. James 
A. Garfield was elected Senator by the 64th Assembly on the 14th of January, 1880. He declined the office on the 18th 
of January, 1881, having in the meantime been nominated to the Presidency of the United States by the Republican party, 
and John Sherman was elected Senator in his place. 
[13] Vice John Sherman, resigned. 


Alexander, John, Greene county, 13, 14 Congress. 
Allen, William, Ross co., 23 Cong. 
Alexander, James, Jr., Belmont co., 25 Cong. 
Allen, Jno. W., Cuyahoga co., 25, 26 Cong. 
Andrews, Sherlock J., Cuyahoga co., 27 Cong. 
Allen, William, Darke co., 36, 37 Cong. 
Ashley, James M., Lucas co., 36 to 40 Cong. 
Ambler, Jacob A., Columbiana co., 41, 42 Cong. 
Atherton, Gibson, Licking, 46, 47 Cong. 
Anderson, C. M., Darke co., 49 Cong. 

Beall, Rezin, Wayne co., 13 Cong. 
Barber, Levi, Washington co., 15, 17 Cong. 
Beecher, Philemon, Fairfield co., 15 to 16, 18 to 

20 Cong. 
Brush, Henry, Ross co., 16 Cong. 
Bartley, Mordecai, Richland co., 18 to 21 Cong. 
Bell, James M., Guernsey co., 23 Cong. 
Bond, William Key, Ross co., 24 to 26 Cong, 
Brinkerhoff, Jacob, Richland co., 28, 29 Cong. 
Brinkerhoff, Henry R., Huron co., 28 Cong. 
Bell, John, Sandusky co , 31 Cong. 
Bell, Hiram, Darke co., 32 Cong. 
Barrere, Nelson, Adams co., 32 Cong. 
Busby, George H., Marion co., 32 Cong. 
Ball, Edward, Muskingum co., 33, 34 Cong. 
Bliss, George, Portage co.", 33 Cong. 
Bliss, Philemon, Lorain co., 34, 35 Cong. 
Bingham, John A., Harrison co., 34 to 37, 39 to 

42 Cong. 
Blake, Harrison G., Medina co., 36, 37 Cong. 
Bliss, George, Wayne co., 38 Cong. 
Buckland, Ralph P., Sandusky co., 39, 40 Cong. 
Bundy, Hezekiah S., Jackson co., 39, 43 Cong. 
Beatty, John, Morrow co., 40 to 42 Cong. 
Banning, Henry B., Hamilton co., 43 to 45 Cong. 
Berry, John, Wyandot co., 43 Cong. 
Butterworth, Benj., Hamilton co., 46 to 50 Cong. 
Brown, Charles E., Hamilton co., 49, 50 Cong. 
Booth man, M. M., Williams co., 50 Cong. 

Creighton, William, Jr., Ross co., 13, 14 Cong. 
Caldwell, James, Belmont co., 13, 14 Cong. 
Clendenen, David, Trumbull co., 13, 14 Cong. 
Campbell, John W., Adams co., 15 to 19 Cong. 
Chambers, David, Muskingum co., 17 Cong. 
Creighton, Wm., Jr., Pickaway co., 20 to 22 Cong. 
Crane, Jos. H., Montgomery co., 21 to 24 Cong. 
Corwin, Thomas, Warren co., 22 to 26, 36, 37 Cong. 
Cook, Eleutheros, Huron co., 22 Cong. 
Chaney, John, Fairfield co., 23 to 25 Cong. 
Coffin, Charles D., Columbiana co., 25 Cong. 
Cowen, Benjamin S., Belmont co., 27 Cong. 
Cunningham, Francis A., Preble co., 29 Cong. 
Cummins, John D., Tuscarawas co., 29, 30 Cong. 

Canby, Richard S., Logan co., 30 Cong. 
Crowell, John, Trumbull co., 30, 31 Cong. 
Campbell, Lewis D., Butler co., 31 to 35, 42 Cong. 
Corwin, Moses B., Champaign co., 31, 33 Cong. 
Cable, Joseph, Carroll co., 31, 32 Cong. 
Cartter, David K., Stark co., 31, 32 Cong. 
Cockerill, Joseph R., Adams co., 35 Cong. 
Cox, Samuel S., Franklin co., 35 to 38 Cong. 
Carey, John, Wyandot co., 36 Cong. 
Cutler, W T illiam P., Washington co., 37 Cong. 
Cary, Samuel F., Hamilton co., 40 Cong. 
Clarke, Reader W., Clermont co., 40 Cong. 
Cowen, Jacob P., Ashland co., 44 Cong. 
Cox, Jacob D., Lucas co., 45 Cong. 
Converse, George L., Franklin co., 46 to 48 Cong. 
Campbell, J. E., Butler co., 49, 50 Cong. 
Cooper, William C, Knox co., 49, 50 Cong. 
Crouse, George W., Summit co., 50 Cong. 

Davenport. John, Belmont co., 20 Cong. 
Duncan, Alexander, Hamilton co., 25 to 28 Cong. 
Doane, William, Clermont co., 26, 27 Cong. 
Dean, Ezra, Wayne co., 27, 28 Cong. 
Delano, Columbus, Knox co., 29, 39 Cong. 
Duncan, Daniel, Licking co., 30 Cong. 
Dickinson, Rudolphus, Sandusky co., 30, 31 Cong. 
Disney, David T., Hamilton co., 31 to 33 Cong. 
Day, Timothy C, Hamilton co., 34 Cong. 
Dickinson, Edward F., Sandusky co., 41 Cong. 
Dodds, Ozro J., Hamilton co., 42 Cong. 
Danford, Lorenzo, Belmont co., 43 to 45 Cong. 
Dickey, Henry L., Highland co., 45, 46 Cong. 
Dawes, Rufus R., Washington co., 47 Cong. 

Edwards, John S., Trumbull co., 13 Cong. 
Edwards, Thomas ()., Fairfield co., 30 Cong. 
Evans, Nathan, Guernsey co., 30, 31 Cong. 
Ellison, Andrew, Brown co., 33 Cong. 
Emrie, Jonas R., Highland co., 34 Cong. 
Edgerton, Sidney, Summit co., 36, 37 Cong. 
Eckley, Ephrairn R., Carroll co., 38 to 40 Cong. 
Eggleston, Benjamin, Hamilton co., 39, 40 Cong. 
Edgerton, Alfred P., Defiance co., 32, 33 Cong. 
Ewing, Thomas, Fairfield co., 45, 46 Cong. 
Ellsbury, W. W., Brown co., 49 Cong. 

Findlay, James, Hamilton co., 19 to 22 Cong. 
Florence, Elias, Pickaway co., 28 Cong. 
Faran, James J., Hamilton co., 29, 30 Cong. 
Fries, George, Columbiana co., 29, 30 Cong. 
Fisher, David, Clinton co., 30 Cong. 
Finck, William E., Perry co., 38, 39 Cong. 
Foster, Charles, Seneca co., 42 to 45 Cong. 
Finley, Ebenezer B., Crawford co., 45, 46 Cong. 



Follett, John F., Hamilton co., 48 Cong. 
Foran, Martin A., Cuyahoga co., 48 to 50 Cong. 

Gazlay, James W., Hamilton co., 18 Cong. 
Goodenow, John M., Jefferson co., 21 Cong. 
Goode, Patrick G., Shelby co., 25 to 27 Cong. 
Giddings, Joshua R., Ashtabula co., 25 to 35 Cong. 
Gaylord, James M., Morgan co., 32 Cong. 
Galloway, Samuel, Franklin co., 34 Cong. 
Groesbeck, William S., Hamilton co., 35 Cong. 
Gurley, John A., Hamilton co., 36, 37 Cong. 
Garfield, James A., Portage co., 38 to 46 Cong. 
Gunckel, Lewis B., Montgomery co., 43 Cong. 
Gardner, Mills, Fayette co., 45 Cong. 
Geddes, George W., Richland co., 46 to 49 Cong. 
Green, Frederick W., Seneca co., 32, 33 Cong. 
Grosvenor, C. H., Athens co., 49, 50 Cong. 

Harrison, William H., Hamilton co., 15, 16 Cong. 
Harrison, John Scott, Hamilton co., 33, 34 Cong. 
Herrick, Samuel, Muskingum co., 15, 16 Cong. 
Hitchcock, Peter, Geauga co., 15 Cong. 
Hamer, Thomas L., Brown co., 23 to 25, 30 Cong. 
Howell, Elias, Licking co., 24 Cong. 
Harper, Alexander, Muskingum co., 25 Cong. 
Hunter, William H., Huron co., 25 Cong. 
Hastings, John, Columbiana co., 26, 27 Cong. 
Harper, Alexander J., Jr., Muskingum co., 28, 29, 

32 Cong. 
Hamlin, Edward S M Lorain co., 28 Cong. 
Hunter, William F., Monroe co., 31, 32 Cong. 
Hoagland, Moses, Holmes co., 31 Cong. 
Harlan, Aaron, Greene co., 33 to 35 Cong. 
Horton, Valentine B., Meigs co., 34, 35, 37 Cong. 
Hall, Lawrence W., Crawford co., 35 Cong. 
Howard, William, Clermont co., 36 Cong. 
Helmick, William, Tuscarawas co., 36 Cong. 
Hutchiiis, John, Trumbull co., 36, 37 Coug. 
Harrison, Richard A., Madison co., 37 Cong. 
Hutchins, Wells A., Scioto co., 38 Cong. 
Hayes, Rutherford B., Hamilton co., 39, 40 Cong. 
Hubbell, James R., Delaware co., 39 Cong. 
Hamilton, Cornelius S., Union co., 40 Cong. 
Hoag, Truman H., Lucas co., 41 Cong. 
Hurd, Frank H., Lucas co., 44, 46, 48 Cong. 
Hill, William D., Defiance co., 46, 48, 49 Cong. ' 
Hart, Alphonso, Highland co., 48 Cong. 

Irwin, William W., Fairfield co., 21, 22 Cong. 

Jennings, David, Belmont co., 19 Cong. 
Jones, Benjamin, Wayne co., 23, 24 Cong. 
Johnson, Perley B., Morgan co., 28 Cong. 
Johnson, John, Coshocton co., 32 Cong. 
Johnson, Harvey Ef., Ashland co., 33 Cong. 
Johnson. William, Richland co., 38 Cong. 
Jewett, Hugh J., Franklin co., 43 Coug. 
Jones, John S., Delaware co., 45 Cong. 
Jordan, Isaac M., Hamilton co., 48 Cong. 

Kilbourne, James, Franklin co., 13, 14 Cong. 
Kennon, William, Belmont co., 21, 22, 24 Cong. 
Kennon, William, Jr., Belmont co., 30 Cong. 
Kilgore, Daniel, Harrison co., 23 to 25 Cong. 
Keifer, J. Warren, Clarke co., 45 to 48 Cong. 
Kennedy, Robert P., Logan co., 50 Cong. 

Leavitt, Humphrey H., Jefferson co., 21 to 23 

Lytle, Robert T., Hamilton co., 23 Cong. 
Leadbetter, Daniel P., Holmes co., 25, 26 Cong. 
Loomis, Andrew W., Columbiana co., 25 Cong. 
Lahm, Samuel, Starke co., 30 Cong. 
Lindsley, William D., Erie co., 33 Cong. 
Lawrence, William, Guernsey co., 35 Cong. 
Leiter, Benjamin F., Stark co., 35 Cong. 
Long, Alexander, Hamilton co., 38 Cong. 
Le Blond, Francis C, Mercer co., 38, 39 Cong. 
Lawrence, Wm., Logan co., 39 to 41, 43, 44 Cong. 
Lamison, Charles N., Allen co., 42, 43 Cong. 

Le Fevre, Benjamin, Shelby co., 46 to 48, 49 Cong. 
Leecfom, John P., Adams co., 47 Cong. 
Little, Johnj Greene co., 49 Cong. 

McLean, John, Warren co., 13, 14 Cong. 
McArthur, Duncan, Ross co., 13, 18 Cong. 
McLean, William, Miami co., 18 to 20 Cong. 
McLene, Jeremiah, Franklin co., 23, 24 Cong. 
McDowell, Joseph J., Highland co., 28, 29 Cong. 
McCauslin, William, Jefferson co., 28 Cong. 
McKinney, John F., Miami co., 38, 42 Cong. 
McMahon, John A., Montgomery co., 44 to 46 

McKinley, William, Jr., Stark co., 45 to 50 Cong. 
McClure, Addison S., Wayne co., 47 Cong. 
McCormick, John W., Gallia co., 48 Cong. 
Morrow, Jeremiah, Warren co., 8 to 10, 12, 26, 27 

Muhlenburg, Francis, Pickaway co., 20 Cong. 
Mitchell, Robert, Muskingum co., 23 Cong. 
Mason, Samson, Clarke co., 24 to 27 Cong. 
Morris, Calvary, Athens co., 25 to 27 Cong. 
Medill, William, Fairfield co., 26, 27 Cong. 
Mathiot, Joshua, Licking co., 27 Cong. 
Mathews, James, Coshocton co., 27, 28 Cong. 
Moore, Heman A., Franklin co., 28 Cong. 
Morris, Joseph, Monroe co., 28, 29 Cong. 
Morris, Jonathan D., Clermont co., 30, 31 Cong. 
Miller, John K., Knox co., 30, 31 Cong. 
Maynard, Robert, Miami co., 48 Cong. 
Mott, Richard, Lucas co., 34, 35 Cong. 
Moore, Oscar F., Scioto co., 34 Cong. 
Miller, Joseph, Ross co., 35 Cong. 
Martin, Charles D., Fairfield co., 36 Cong. 
Morris, James R., Monroe co., 37, 38 Cong. 
Mungen, William, Hancock co., 40, 41 Cong. 
Morgan, George W., Knox co., 40 to 42 Cong. 
Moore, Eliakim H., Athens co., 41 Cong. 
Monroe, James, Lorain co., 42 to 46 Cong. 
Morey, Henry L., Butler co., 47, 48 Cong. 

Newton, Eben, Mahoning co., 32 Cong. 
Nichols, Matthias H., Allen co., 33 to 35 Cong. 
Noble, Warren P., Seneca co., 37, 38 Cong. 
Nugen, Robert H., Tuscarawas co., 37 Cong. 
Neal, Lawrence T., Ross co., 43, 44 Cong. 
Neal, Henry S., Lawrence co., 45 to 47 Cong. 

Olds, Edson B., Pickaway co., 31 to 33 Cong. 
O'Neill, John, Muskingum co., 38 Cong. 
Outhwaite, J. H., Franklin co., 49, 50 Cong. 

Patterson, John, Belmont co., 18 Cong. 
Patterson, William, Richland co., 23, 24 Cong. 
Parish, Isaac, Guernsey co., 26 Cong. 
Pendleton, Nathaniel G., Hamilton co., 27 Cong. 
Pendleton, Geo. H., Hamilton co., 35 to 38 Cong. 
Potter, Emery D., Lucas co., 28 to 31 Cong:. 
Perrill, Augustus L., Pickaway co., 29 Cong. 
Parrish, Isaac, Morgan co., 29 Cong. 
Plants, Tobias A., Meigs co., 39, 40 Cong. 
Peck, Erasmus D., Wood co., 41, 42 Cong. 
Perry, Aaron F., Hamilton co., 42 Cong. 
Parsons, Richard C, Cuyahoga co., 43 Cong. 
Poppleton, Early F., Delaware co., 44 Cong. 
Payne, Henry B., Cuyahoga co., 44 Cong. 
Page, David R., Summit co., 48 Cong. 
Pugsley, Jacob J., Highland co., 50 Cong. * 

Ross, Thomas R., Warren co., 16 to 18 Cong. 
Russell, William, Adams co., 20 Cong. 
Russell, William, Scioto co., 21, 22, 27 Cong. 
Root, Joseph M., Huron co., 29, 30 Cong. 
Root, Joseph M., Erie co., 31 Cong. 
Ritchey, Thomas, Perry co., 30, 33 Cong. 
Riddle, Albert G., Cuyahoga co., 37 Cong. 
Robinson, James W., Union co,, 43 Cong. 
Rice, Americus V., Putnam co., 44, 45 Cong. 
Ritchie, James M., Lucas co., 47 Cong. 
Robinson, James S., Hardin co., 47, 48 Cong. 



Rice, John B., Sandusky co., 47 Cong. 
Romeis, John, Lucas co., 49, 50 Cong. 
Bidgway, Joseph, Franklin co., 25, 27 Cong. 

Shannon, Thomas, Belmont co., 19 Cong. 
Shields, James, Butler co., 21 Cong. 
Stanberry, William, Licking co., 21, 22 Cong. 
Spangler, David, Coshocton co., 23, 24 Cong. 
Sloane, Jonathan, Portage co., 23, 24 Cong. 
Storer, Bellamy, Hamilton co., 24 Cong. 
Shepler, Matthias, Stark co., 25 Cong. 
Swearengen, Henry, Jefferson, 25, 26 Cong. 
Sweeney, George, Crawford co., 26, 27 Cong- 
Starkweather, David A., Stark co., 26, 29 Cong. 
Stokeley, Samuel, Jefferson co., 27 Cong. 
Schenck, Robert C, Montgomery co., 28 to 31, 38 

to 41 Cong. 
St. John, Henry, Seneca co., 28, 29 Cong. 
Stone, Alfred P., Franklin co., 28 Cong. 
Sawyer, William, Mercer co., 29, 30 Cong. 
Sweetzer, Charles, Delaware co., 31, 32 Cong. 
Stanton, Benjamin, Logan co., 32, 34 to 36 Cong. 
Sapp, William R., Knox co., 33, 34 Cong. 
Shannon, Wilson, Belmont co., 33 Cong. 
Stuart, Andrew, Jefferson co., 33 Cong. 
Sherman, John, Richland co., 34 to 37 Cong. 
Shellabarger, Samuel, Clarke co., 37, 39, 40, 42 

Spalding, Rufus P., Cuyahoga co., 38 to 40 Cong. 
Strader, Peter W., Hamilton co., 41 Cong. 
Stevenson, Job E., Hamilton co., 41, 42 Cong. 
Smith, John A., Highland co., 41, 42 Cong. 
Sprague, William P., Morgan co., 42, 43 Cong. 
Sayler, Milton, Hamilton co., 43 to 45 Cong. 
Smith, John Q., Clinton co., 43 Cong. 
Sherwood, Isaac R., Williams co., 43 Cong. 
Southard, Milton I., Muskingum co., 43 to 45 

Savage, John S., Clinton co., 44 Cong. 
Schultz, Emanuel, Montgomery co., 47 Cong. 
Seney, George E., Seneca co., 48 to 50 Cong. 
Sloan, John, Wayne co., 16 to 20 Cong. 

Thompson, John, Columbiana co., 19, 21 to 24 

Taylor, Jonathan, Licking co., 26 Cong. 
Taylor, John L., Ross co., 30 to 33 Cong. 
Taylor, Ezra B., Trumbull co., 47 to 50 Cong. 
Taylor, Joseph T., Guernsey co., 48, 50 Cong. 
Taylor, Isaac H., Carroll co., 49 Cong. 

Tilden, Daniel R., Portage co., 28, 29 Cong. 
Thurman, Allen G., Ross co., 29 Cong. 
Townshend, Norton S., Lorain co., 32 Cong. 
Townsend, Amos, Cuyahoga co., 45 to 47 Cong. 
Tompkins, Cydnor B., Morgan co., 35, 36 Cong. 
Trimble, Carey A., Ross co., 36, 37 Cong. 
Theaker, Thomas C, Belmont co., 36 Cong. 
Thompson, A. C, Scioto co., 49, 50 Cong. 

Upson, William H., Summit co., 41, 42 Cong. 
Updegraff, Jonathan T., Jefferson co., 46, 47 Cong. 

Vance, Joseph, Champaign co., 17 to 23, 28, 29 

Vinton, Samuel F., Gallia co., 18 to 24, 28 to 31 

Van Meter, John I., Pike co., 28 Cong. 
Vallandigham, Clement L., Butler co., 35 to 37 

Van Trump, Philadelph, Fairfield co., 40 to 42 

Vance, John L., Gallia co., 44 Cong. 
Van Vorhes, Nelson H., Athens co., 44, 45 Cong. 

Wright, John C, Jefferson co., 17 to 20 Cong. 
Wilson, William, Licking co., 18 to 20 Cong. 
Whittlesey, Elisha, Trumbull co., 18 to 25 Cong. 
Woods, John, Butler co., 19, 20 Cong. 
Webster, Taylor, Butler co., 23 to 25 Cong. 
Weller, John B., Butler co., 26 to 28 Cong. 
Wood, Amos E., Sandusky co., 31 Cong. 
Whittlesey, William A., Washington co., 31 Cong. 
Welch, John, Athens co., 32 Cong. 
Wade, Edward, Cuyahoga co., 33 to 36 Cong. 
Watson, Cooper K., Seneca co., 34 Cong. 
White, Chilton A., Brown co., 37, 38 Cong. 
Worcester, Samuel T., Huron co., 37 Cong. 
Welker, Martin, Wayne co., 39 to 41 Cong. 
Wilson, John T., Adams co., 40 to 42 Cong. 
Winans, James J., Greene co., 41 Cong. 
Woodworth, Laurin D., Mahoning co., 43, 44 Cong. 
Walling, Ansel T., Pickaway co., 44 Cong. 
Warner, A. J., Washington co., 46, 48, 49 Cong. 
Wilkins, Beriah, Tuscarawas co., 48 to 50 Cong. 
Williams, E. S., Miami co., 50 Cong. 
Wick ham, Charles P., Huron co., 50 Cong. 

Young, Thomas L., Hamilton co., 46, 47 Cong. 
Yoder, S. S., Allen co., 50 Cong. 

Duncan Mc Arthur resigned April 5, 1815. 

John S. Kd wards resigned April, 1813. 

Kezin Beall resigned August 18, 1814. 

John McLean resigned in 1816 to accept office of Judge of the Supreme Court of Ohio. 

John C. Wright resigned from the 17th Congress. 

W^IuMm 6 ^!^©?, 1 ^!- 6 , resigned December 14, 1814. He also resigned in 1828, after second election, to accept the 
appointment of Judge of the United States District Court, but was not confirmed by the United States Senate 
John M. Goodenow resigned April 14, 1830. 

Robert T. Lytle resigned October 16, 1834, and re-elected November 8, 1834. .... 

Humphrey H. Leavitt resigned July 10, 1831, to accept office of Judge of the United States District Court of Ohio. 
Elisha Whittlesey resi ned in 1838.^ 
Andrew W. Loomis resigned in 1837. 

Thomas Corw^n^esfgned'from 26th Congress to accept office of Governor of Ohio. He also resigned from the 37th Con- 
gress to accept the appointment of Minister to Mexico. 

Joshua K. Giddings resigned in 1842 ; re-elected April 26, 1842. 

Heman A. Moore died in 1844. 

Henry R. Brinkerhoff died in 1844. , v„*„- 

Gen. Thomas L. Hamer died in Mexico prior to the convening of the 30th Congress, to which he was elected, being 
at that time in the military service of the United States. 

Kodolphu* Dickinson resigned from the 31st Congress to accept office of Secretary of the United States Treasury. 

Amos E. Wood died in l s 50. ^ T 

Seat of Lewis D. Campbell in the 35th Congress was given to Clement L. Vallandigham on contest. 

John Sherman resigned from 35th Congress to accept office of United States Senator. 

Rutherford B. Hayes resigned in 1867 to accept office of Governor of Ohio. 

Cornelius S. Hamilton died December 22, 1867. 

Truman H. Hoag died in 1870. 

Jam°e l s A. cSldw^sdectJdSenator by the 64th General Assembly on the 14th day of January, 1880. He decHned the 
office on the 18th day of January, 1881, having in the meantime been nominated to the Presidency of the United States Dy 
the Republican party, and John Sherman was elected Senator in his place. 


Ohio has borne to the States of the Farther West a similar relation to that of 
Virginia to the West and Southwest, inasmuch as she has been a great source of 
emigration. Ohio people and their children largely occupy the land as it stretches 
on towards the setting sun, and wherever they go illustrate an extraordinary af- 
fection for their mother State such as is shown by the emigrants from none other. 
They do this by the formation of Ohio Societies. Even in California the sons 
of Ohio, as they look out on the Pacific, have not forgotten to form an Ohio So- 
ciety. In Kansas there is an association of ex-Ohio soldiers that numbers 10,000 
on its muster rolls. But the most singular fact, as showing the tendency of the 
sons of Ohio to keep alive their youthful memories, is that in the metropolis of 
the nation they should be the very first to form a State Society. 

The formation of societies among citizens of different parts of the country and 
of foreign countries residing in New York city is, however, by no means a novel 
idea. The New England Society was organized some eighty years ago, the object 
being to commemorate the landing of the pilgrims, to promote friendship, charity 
and mutual assistance and for literary purposes. St. Andrew's Society, which is 
composed of Scotchmen and the sons of Scotchmen who reside in New York, 
was established in 1756. The Southern Society, composed of former residents 
of the twelve Southern States ; the Holland Society, the Liederkranz, the Arion, 
St. Patrick and the Canadian Society are all similar organizations, but the Ohio 
Society of New York is the pioneer State Society of the metropolis. The follow- 
ing interesting history and information is extracted from the first annual report 
of Secretary Homer Lee, presented to the society November 29, 1888: 

The first step of which any record can be found toward establishing an Ohio 
Society was a call printed in the Boston papers on the 25th day of January, 1788, 
not quite 101 years ago, when eleven delegates met at the Bunch of Grapes 
tavern in Boston and organized by electing Gen. Rufus Putnam president and 
Winthrop Sargent secretary. This w T as undoubtedly the first Ohio Society. It 
was called the " Ohio Company of Associates," and was intended to promote emi- 
gration to Ohio and to develop that portion of the national domain then a part 
of the State of Virginia. 

The next step taken was at the outbreak of the civil war, when there was 
formed in the parlors of one of Ohio's fair daughters residing on Murray Hill, 
New York city, a Society composed mainly of Ohio ladies and gentlemen, which 
held weekly meetings, and which was afterwards known throughout the land as 
the " Sanitary Fair." 

The object was to send supplies, clothing, medicines, etc., to the soldiers at the 
front. A handsome silk and satin banner was made at a cost of some $500, upon 
which was a beautiful and embroidered coat of-arms of the State of Ohio, to be pre- 
sented to the bravest Ohio regiment. As might have been expected, there was much 
rivalry for the possession of this prize, as glowing descriptions of the oeautiful 
souvenir were given by the newspapers of that time. The commanding officers 
were appealed to, but could not be prevailed upon to decide the question, because, 
as one officer put it, u it could not easily be decided which was the bravest where 
all the regiments by their valor and heroism had covered themselves with glory." 
At the close of the war the Seventh Ohio Volunteer Infantry of Cleveland secured 
the prize. 

This, however, was not carried further, but several members of our Society were 
among the number, as follows : William L. Strong, Augustus D. Juilliard; Tf heron 
R. Butler, Albert W. Green, Thomas Reed, Joel Reed, A. Jennings, D. M. Porter, 
Samuel Hawk, Frank Work and Clinton Work. 

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The Ohio Soldier's Aid Society was formed about the same time at the Fifth 
Avenue Hotel, of which Theron R. Butler was elected president and John R. Cecil 
treasurer. Committees were appointed to assist all the sick and wounded soldiers 
belonging to Ohio regiments from the Armv of the Potomac that could be found 
m the hospitals of New York and vicinity/ Hundreds of disabled Ohio soldiers 
were sent home transportation free. Over $15,000 were expended in this good 

Upon the occasion of the funeral of the late Hon. Salmon P. Chase, in 1877, 
the subject again came up and was warmly discussed by a large number of 
Ohioans who were residents of New York at that time, but no decisive steps were 
taken. Several of the gentlemen who were most active are also members of the 
Ohio Society. Among them were Henry L. Burnett, Whitelaw Reid, S. S. Cox, 
Algernon S. Sullivan and others. 

Some of the younger Ohioans in New York again endeavored to form an Ohio 
Society in the winter of 1874. Several meetings were held at the Hotel St. Ger- 
main, Broadway and Twenty-second street, where they endeavored to put the 
"Buckeye Club" on its feet. This, also, was but a glimmer. Several of those 
are likewise among the present members of the Society, viz.: Wm. M. Hoffer, 
Giles N. Howlett, Henry C. Ehlers and Homer Lee. 

Still another and last attempt was the one out of which the present Society 
sprang. It was rewarded with better success, however, for when a paper was cir- 
culated in this city, in 1885, to see whether a dozen "Buckeyes" could be 
united on this matter, it was found that over thirty responded, and with such 
spirit and enthusiasm that there was no longer any doubt that the time had at 
last arrived for organization. 

This paper, which is the nucleus of the Ohio Society, has among its signers 
representatives of all the former attempts (except General Putnam's ), and is as 

" New York, October 7th, 1885. 
^ "We, the undersigned, hereby agree to unite with each other to form an Asso- 
ciation to be known as 4 The Ohio Association in New York,' and to that end 
will meet at any place designated, for the purpose of completing such organization 
upon notice given to us whenever twelve persons shall have signed this agree- 
ment. There is to be no expense incurred until the organization is completed 
and assented to by each member. 

" C. W. Moulton, Joseph Pool, Thomas Ewing, Homer Lee, Samuel Thomas, 
Wm. Perry Fogg, Milton Sayler, Mahlon Chance, L. M. Schwan, Jay 0. 
'Moss, M. L Southard, Anton G. McCook, W. M.Safford, Calvin S. Brice, 
J. W. Harmon, J. Q. Howard, David F. Harbaugh, Wm. L. Strong, 
Hugh J. Jewett, Warren Higley, Cyrus Butler, Carson Lake, A. J. C. 
Foy6, Henry L. Burnett and Wallace C. Andrews." 

Notice was sent to the subscribers of the above paper to meet at the offices of 
Ewing & Southard, 155 Broadway, on the 13th of November, 1885. A majority 
of the signers being present, Gen. Thomas Ewing was elected president, pro tern., 
and David E. Harbaugh, secretary, pro tern. The following committee of ten on 
permanent organization was appointed : C. W. Moulton, Wm. Perry Fogg, Cyrus 
Butler, J. Q. Howard, Mahlon Chance, M. I. Southard, David F. Harbaugh, War- 
ren Higley, Calvin S. Brice, Joseph Pool. 

On the 20th of the same month another meeting was held at the same place, 
and this committee was enlarged by the addition of the following names : Carson 
Lake, Homer Lee, J. W. Harmon, making a total of thirteen members. 

At this meeting the committee on permanent organization presented a draft of 
a proposed constitution and by-laws for the Society, copies of which were printed 
and distributed among the former residents of Ohio living in New York and vi- 
cinity, to see whether the desirable names could be obtained. This call was re- 
sponded to quickly by over 125 " Buckeyes." A meeting was called promptly by 
the president pro tern., at the Fifth Avenue Hotel, on the evening of the 13th of 
January, 1886, at which over one hundred gentlemen w T ere present. 

This was the first gathering of note, and all present were elated at the interest 
shown. The Ohio Society of New York was permanently organized at this meet- 


ins. An election was held and the following persons were chosen to he officers 
of the society: President, Thomas Ewing; Vice-Presidents , Whitelaw Reid, 
Waser Swayne, Wm. L. Strong, Hugh J. Jewett, Algernon S. Sullivan ; Secretary 
Homer Lee: Recording Secretary, Carson Lake; Treasurer, William Perry Jogg. 
A Governing Committee was also appointed, as follows : Henry L. Burnett, chair- 
man • Calvin S. Brice, Andrew J. C. Foye, A. D. Juilliard, George Follett, Stephen 
B. Elkins, Jerome D. Gillett, C. W. Moulton, Joseph Pool. 

The president and the five vice-presidents were appointed a committee to trame 
a constitution and code of by-laws for the government of the society. 

Being without permanent quarters, the society accepted invitations trom 
various hotels whose proprietors were Ohioans. The first regular monthly meet- 
ing was held on the 1st of February at the Windsor Hotel. 

The committee appointed presented a draft of constitution and by-laws, which 
was unanimously adopted. ,,•,,,, o-i tt i „ 

On the 26th of February a special meeting was held at the Gilsey House, when 
the subject of procuring club rooms was first acted upon. It was decided to 
lease the floor at 236 Fifth Avenue, which was promptly done. On the 8th ot 
March, 1886, the second monthly meeting was held at the Grand Central Hotel, 
when a Committee on History and Art was appointed by the president, as fol- 
lows: J. Q. Howard, Cyrus Butler, Wm. Henry Smith, C. H. Applegate, A. J. 
Rickoff, J. Q. A. Ward, J. H. Beard. e n nm . TV,« m n« 

A Committee on Entertainment was also appointed, as follows lhomns 
Ewing W. C. Andrews, R. C. Kimball, Wm. L. Strong, Homer Lee, W. L. Brown, 
Bernard Peters, Carson Lake, Henry L. Burnett, C. W. Moulton. 

At about this time a discussion took place as to the date upon which Ohio was 
admitted as a State into the Federal Union, with a view of celebrating the anni- 
versary with a banquet. It was developed that there are no less than seven dif- 
ferent dates given by historians for the auspicious event as follows : April 28, 18U/, 
April 30, 1802, June 30, 1802, November 29, 1802, February 19, 1803, March 1, 

Th'e a April "meeting was held on the 6th day of that month at the Murray Hill 
Hotel A satisfactory date as to Ohio's admission could not be determined upon. 
A banquet was voted, however, and May 7th was fixed upon as the date ; not be- 
cause that date had anything to do with Ohio's natal day but as the most con- 
venient one upon which Delmonico's banqueting hall could be secured. 

There was inclement weather on the evening of the banquet but out ot the two 
hundred and twenty-two seats subscribed for, two hundred and twenty members 
and guests were seated. The banquet was attended by many eminent- sons ot 
Ohio from Washington and elsewhere. It was a gratifying success and a tore- 
runner of further pleasant reunions. The banqueters lingered until a late hour. 
Few such enthusiastic gatherings have ever graced Delmonico s board. 

The June and July meetings were devoted to routine business, and it was de- 
cided to omit the August meeting. At the June meeting however, the first of a 
series of papers was read by Mr. J. Q. Howard, subject, "An Outline of Ohio 
History." At the September meeting Mr. J. Q. Mitchell favored the society ma 
like manner, the subject being "The Second Settlement of Marietta At the 
October meeting Mr. James Beard delivered an extemporaneous address on Hiram 
Powers, the sculptor, replete with interesting reminiscences. At the November 
meeting Mr. Warren Higley read a paper on "The Second Settlement of Ohio at 

Ci A C t thfend of the first year of its existence the society had nearly three hun- 
dred members on its roll. The following extract from the second annual report 
of Secretary Lee gives some very interesting facts in regard to the members of 
the soS ''and th'eir occupation 7 It is a record of great interests under the con, 
trol of Ohio men, and is a roll of honor to which the citizens of the State as well 
as the members of the society can point with laudable pride mtm hm 

The membership of the society numbers 303, of whom 237 are active members 


at-law 24 railways, 9; Insurance, 7 ; bankers. 29; real estate, 3; hotel proprie- 
tors; 6; pr'ess> ; dergymen, 2 j artists, 11 ; miscellaneous, 16, and public life, 15. 


Among the latter is the Vice-President of the United States, the Chief- Justice of 
the United States Supreme Court, the Governor of Ohio and two ex-Governors, 
the Secretary of State and one ex-Secretary, several United States Senators and 
Members of Congress from Ohio and other States with which they have since be- 
come identified. 

Four of our members are presidents of New York City National Banks. 

The Western Union Telegraph and the Metropolitan Telephone Companies are 
both managed and legally advised by other members of the society. 

The New York Steam Heating Company and th Standard Gas Light Company, 
both of which occasionally take possession of our streets, are Ohio institutions. 

The new aqueduct is not only being engineered by Buckeyes, but is also financed 
largely by Ohio men. 

The Standard Oil Company, which has representatives in every town between 
the Atlantic and the Pacific, the Lakes and the Gulf, also came here from Ohio 
and is largely identified in our society. 

The Windsor, Murray Hill, Grand Central and the Ashland are among the 
hostelries controlled by Buckeyes. 

The Associated Press is managed by one of our members; the New York 
Tribune, the World, the News, the Daily Graphic and the Brooklyn Times are con- 
trolled by others. 

The Erie, the East Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia, the Housatonic, Lake Erie 
and Western, New York and New England, Richmond Terminal, Memphis and 
Charleston and nine other railways are represented here by their directors and 
managers in this society. 

The inventors of the two principal electric lighting systems of the United 
States, Edison and Brush, are Ohio men. 

Rooms of the Society, 236 Fifth Ave., Between Twenty-seventh and Twenty-eighth Sts. 


President — Thomas Ewing. 
Vice-Presidents— Whitelaw Reid, George Hoadly, Wager Swayne, Charles W. Moulton, Algernon S. 

Secretary— Home* Lee. 

Recording Secretary— William Ford Upson. 

Treasurer — William Perry Fogg. 

Trustees— Henry L. Burnett, Andrew J. C. Foye\ George Follett, Joseph Pool, John Dickson, W. H. 

Eckert, Chas. T. Wing, Henry K. Enos, L. C. Hopkins. 
Governing Committee (the President, Recording Secretary, and Treasurer, Members ex-officio)— Henrr 
L. Burnett, Andrew J. C. Foy6, Geo. Follett, Joseph Pool, John Dickson, W. H. Eckert, Chas. T. 
Wing, Henry K. Enos, L. C. Hopkins. 


JULY, 1888. 

Abbey, Henry E., Akron. Andrews, W. C, Youngstown. Applegate, C. H., Highland Co. 
Armstrong, Geo. E., Cleveland. Armstrong, P. B., Cincinnati. Ashley, James M., Toledo. At- 
kinson, W. H., Cleveland. Archbold, John D., Leesburg. Adams, Henry H., Cleveland. 

Bartlett, Geo. S., Mt. Gilead. Beard, D. C, Painesville. Beard, Henry, Painesville. Beard, 
W. H., Painesville. Beasley, A. W., Ripley. Belt, Washington, St. Louisville. Bidwell, F. 
H., Toledo. Bonnet, J. N., Zanesville. Bostwick, J. A., Cleveland. Brainard, Frank, Salem. 
Brainard, W.H., Salem. Brewster, S. D., Madison. Brice, Calvin S., Lima. Brown, Walston H., 
Cincinnati. Brown, W. L., Youngstown. Bruch, C. P., Canton. Brundrett, H. B., Cincinnati. 
Bryant, Stanley A., Mt. Vernon. Buckingham, G., McConnellsville. Burnett, Henry L., Cin- 
cinnati. Busbey, Hamilton, Clark Co. Butler, Cyrus, Norwalk. Butler, Richard, Norwalk. 
Buckingham, C. L., Berlin Heights. Bostwick, W. W., Cincinnati. Bosworth, T. B., Marietta. 
Bodman, E. C, Toledo. Baker, W. D., Cleveland. Bonnet, S. Frank F., Zanesville. Brock- 
way, H. H., Cleveland. Bosworth, F. H., Marietta. Bunnell, J. H., Massillon. Bliss, C. F., 
Wooster. Bruch, E. B., Canton. Baker, W. H., Cleveland. 

Chance, Mahlon, Fremont. Chandler, J. M., Mansfield. Clark, Heman, Portage Co. Cor- 
wine, R. M., Cincinnati. Corwine, Quinton, Cincinnati. Crall, L. H., Cincinnati. Critten, T. 
IX, Piqua. Cox, S. S., Columbus. Caldwell, W. H., Cincinnati. Corwine, John, Cincinnati. 
Converse, J. Stedman, Urbana. 

Dickson, John, Cincinnati. Donaldson, Andrew, Cincinnati. Doren, D., Wooster. Doyle, 
George, Steubenville. DeMilt, H. R., West Jefferson. Dunn, W. S., Fletcher. Doyle, Alexan- 
der, Steubenville. Dunham, S. T., Cleveland, Dorsey, Stephen W., Oberlin. 

Eckert, Thomas T., Wooster. Eckert, T. T., Jr., Wooster. Eckert, W. H., Wooster. Edger- 
ton, D. M., Mansfield. Elkins, Stephen B., Perry Co. Ellis, John W., Cincinnati. Enos, H. 
K., Millersburgh, Holmes Co. Este, W. M., Cincinnati. Ewing, Thomas, Lancaster. Essick, 
S. V., Alliance. 

Foy6i Andrew J. C, Mt. Gilead. Fleischmann, Max, Cincinnati. Fogg, Wm. Perry, Cleveland. 


Follett, Austin W., Granville. Follett, George, Johnstown. Foyg, Frank M., Mt. Gilead. 
French, Hamlin Q., Delaware. Fackler, Geo. W. S., Cincinnati. Foote, Edward B., Euclid. 

Gillett, M. G., Upper Sandusky. Gillett, Francis M., Upper Sandusky. Gillett, Jerome D., 
Upper Sandusky. Gillett, Mori Ho H., Upper Sandusky. Glassford, Henry A M Cincinnati. 
Goddard, Calvin, Cleveland. Gorham, A. S., Cleveland. Granger, John T., Zanesville. Green, 
Albert W., Nonh Bloomfield. Green, Edwin M., North Bloomfield. Grojean, J. H., Canton. 
Guiteau, John M., Marietta. Gard, Anson A., Tremout City. Gunnison, Austin, Cincinnati. 

Hain, Isaiah, Circleviile. Hall, P. D., Akron. Hammond, D. S., Delaware. Harbaugh, 
David F., Cleveland. Harman, Geo. V., Canal Dover. Harman, Granville W., Canal Dover. 
Harman, John W., Canal Dover. Hawk, Wm. S., Canton. Heaton, Wm. W., Salem. Hewson, 
J. H., Cincinnati. Higley, Warren, Cincinnati. Hine, C. C, Massillon. Hoffer, Wm. M., Mans- 
field. Hopkins, L. C., Cincinnati. Howard, James Q, Columbus. Howlett, Giles N., Mans- 
field. Hoyt, Colgate, Cleveland. Handy, Parker, Cleveland. Halstead, Marshall, Cincinnati. 
Hoagland, C. N., Miami Co. Hoadly/ George, Cincinnati. Hobbs, H. H., Cincinnati. Hollo- 
way, J. F., Cleveland. Hibbard, George B., Ironton. Hazlett, Wm. Converse, Zanesville. 

Irvine, James, Toledo. Imgard, Julius, Wooster. 

Jennings, P. S., Cleveland. Jeffords, John E., Columbus. Jewett, Hugh J., Zanesville. Juil- 
liard, A. D., Bucyrus. Jacobs, A. L., Lima. Johnson, Edgar M., Cincinnati. Johnston, J. W., 
Zanesville. - . _ _ _ 

Kimball, R. C, Canton. King, Thomas S., New Philadelphia. Knisely, Wm.. Tuscarawas 
Co. Kingsbury, F. H., Columbus. , 

Lahm, Frank M., Mansfield. Lake, Carson, Akron. Lauer, E., Cincinnati. Leavitt, John 
B., Cincinnati. Lee, Homer, Mansfield. Loveland, F. C, Wellington. Linn, Fred. D., Mt. 
Gilead. Le Fevre, Ben, Maplewood. 

Mayo, Wallace, Akron. McCook, Anson G., Steubenville. McCracken, W. V., Bucyrus. 
McFall, Gaylord, Mansfield. McGill, Geo. W., Lancaster. Merser, Isaac P., Marlboro*. Mil- 
ler, J. W., Springfield. Mitchell, John Q., Mt. Vernon. Monett, Henry, Columbus. Moore, 
Cary W., Zanesville. Moore, L. B., Mt. Gilead. Moss, J. O., Sandusky. Moulton, John Sher- 
man, Cincinnati. Munson, Wm. S., Cincinnati. Morgan, Henry M., Mt. Vernon. Morgan, 
Rollin M., Mt. Vernon. Milmine, George, Toledo. Morgan, David, Wilmington. Morse, 
Horace J., Norwalk. McNally, J. Flack, Springfield. Moore, Robert, Cincinnati. Milmine, 
Chas. E.,- Toledo. 

Newton, Ensign, Canfield. Nye, Theodore S., Marietta. 

Oldham, J. L., Springfield. . 

Palmer, Lowell M., Chester. Peet, Wm. C, London, O. Peters, Bernard, Marietta. Phillipp, 
M. B., Cincinnati. Peixotto, B. F., Cleveland. Pool, Harwood R., Elyna. Prentiss, F. J., 
Cleveland. Prentiss, F. C, Cleveland. Pritchard, Daniel, Cleveland. Packard, S. S., Cincin- 
nati. Pease, Geo. L., Painesville. Peet, Chas. B., London, O. Peixotto, Geo. D. M., Cleveland. 
Pool, Joseph, Cleveland. Peixotto, M. P., Cleveland. Parker, S. Webber, Chagrin Falls. 

Reid, Whitelaw, Cincinnati. Rickoff, A. J., Cleveland. Ricksecker, Theodore, Canal Dover. 
Rodarmor, John F., Ironton. Rogers, Wm. A., Springfield. 

Sadler, J. F., Lucas Co. Safford, W. M., Cleveland. Schooley, John C, Cincinnati. Schwan, 
Louis M., Cleveland. Scott, Geo., Canton. Shillito, Wallace, Cincinnati. Shoppell, R. W., 
Columbus. Shotwell, Theodore, Cincinnati. Smith, John A., Carey. Smith, Wm. Henry, Cin- 
cinnati. Southard, Milton I., Zanesville. Sprague, Chas., Wooster. Stout, John W., Wooster. 
Strong, W. L., Mansfield. Struble, I. J., Chesterviile. Swayne, Wager, Columbus. Spooner, 
Chas. W., Cincinnati. Smith, Richard, Jr., Cincinnati. Sisson, H. H., Marietta. Sterling, 
Theodore W., Cleveland. Stebbins, W. R., Monroeville. Shayne, C. C, Cincinnati. Short, John 
C. Clarksville. Shunk, Albert, Mansfield. Sterling, Willis B., Cleveland. Schaffer, Onesi- 
miis P., Youngstown. Smith, Wm. Sooy, Athens. Simpson, C. S., Cincinnati. 

Terrell H. L., Cleveland. Thomas, Samuel, Columbus. Thomson, F. A., Cincinnati. Thyng, 
Chas. H. 'Cleveland. Tidball, W. L., Mansfield. Tunison, Joseph S., Cincinnati. Taft, Henry 
W., Cincinnati. Tuttle, Franklin, Portage Co. Tangeman, Geo. P., Hamilton. Taggart, W. 
Rush, Salem. 

Upson, Wm. Ford, Akron. . 

Vaillant, Geo. H., Cleveland. Vance, Wilson, Findlay. Van Brimmer, Joshua, Delaware. 

Waggoner, Ralph H., Toledo. Ward, J. Q. A., Urbana. Whitehead, John, Worthington. 
Wing; Frank E., Gambier. Wright, M. B., Cincinnati. Work, Frank, Columbus. Wright, H. 
A., Cleveland. Wheeler, F. H., Cleveland. 
Zachos, J. C, Cincinnati. Zinn, Chas. H., Sidney. 


Allison, Wm. B., U. S. Senate. Arms, C. D., Youngstown, O. Anderson, W. P., Cincinnati, O. 
Alger, Russell A., Detroit, Mich. Alms, William, 54 Worth street, N. Y. 

Barber, A. L., Washington, D. C. Bonnell, H. O., Youngstown, O. Bonnell, W. S., Youngs- 
town, O. Beardslee, John B., 328 Broadway, N. Y. Byrne, John, Mills Building, N. Y. 

Card, Henry P., Cleveland, O. Cooper, John S., Chicago. Cooper, Wm. C, Mt. Vernon, O. 
Conger, A. L., Akron, O. Corning, Warren H., Cleveland, O. m 

Dale, T. D. f Marietta, O. Dawes, E. C, Cincinnati, O. Dayton, L. M., Cincinnati. Donald- 
son, Thomas, Philadelphia, Pa. Drake, F. B., Toledo, O. 

Eaton, John, Marietta, O. . TTr 

Fairbanks, Chas. W., Indianapolis, Ind. Foster, Charles, Fostona, O. Fordyce, S. W., bt. 
Louis, Mo. 

Griffith, G. F., Dayton, O. Goodrich, B. F., Akron, O. # 

Hibben, J. H., 335 Broadway, N. Y. Hayes, R. B., Fremont, O. Hinkle, A. H., Cincinnati, O. 
Hale, Harvey W., 326 Broadway, N. Y. 

Jewett, W. K., Bridgeport, Conn. Jones, J. P., U. S. Senate. 

Kohler, J. A., Akron, O. Kimball, W. C., 35 Warren street, N. Y. 

Loup- J. A., Akron, O. Loud, Enos B., Paris, France. Lynch, Wm. A., Cleveland, O. 

McFadden, F. T., Cincinnati, O. Matthews, Stanley, Washington, D. C. McBride, John H., 


Cleveland, O. Means, Wm., Cincinnati, O. McGettigan, John E., Indianapolis, Ind. Mattox, 
A. H., Cincinnati, O. Morrison, Walter, Columbus, O. McGillin, E.M., Cleveland, O. Marble, 
G. L., Toledo, O. 

Neil, John G., Detroit, Mich. 

Post, Chas. A., Cleveland, O. Payne, Henrv B., U. S. Senate. Plumb, P. B., U. S. Senate. 
Perdue, E. H., Cleveland, O. Parsons, S. H., Ashtabula, O. Powell, J. H., 657 Broadway, N. Y. 

Reinmund, H. J., Lancaster, O. RobisoH, David, Jr., Toledo, O. 

Shotwell, Wm. W., Minneapolis, Minn. Sherman, John, U. S. Senate. Smith, Orland, Cincin- 
nati, O. Scott, Frank J., Toledo, O. Stettinius, John L., Cincinnati. Shayne, John T., 
Chicago, 111. 

Townsend, Amos, Cleveland, O. Tod, George, Youngstown, O. Tod, John, Cleveland, O. 

Upson, Wm. H., Akron, O. 

W T ick, Caleb B., Youngstown, O. Wick, Henry K., Youngstown, O. Wolf, Simon, Washing- 
ton, D. C. Woodward, J. H., San Francisco, Cal. 


Died in 1886. — Mr. William Hunter, Mr. J. Monroe Brown. 

Died in 1887. — General W. B. Hazen, Mr. Henry De Buss, Mr. George Emerson, Mr. J. M. Edwards, 
Hon. Algernon S. Sullivan, Gen. Thomas Kilby Smith. 
Died in 1888.— Col. Charles W. Moulton, Chief-Justice Morrison R. Waite, Col. Chas. T. Wing. 




James Quay Howard is a native of Newark, 
Licking county, Ohio. His mother was the daughter 
of Judge Quigley, of Pennsylvania. His father, 
Beacon George W. Howard, was a soldier in the war 
of 1812 and his grandfather an officer in the war of 
the Revolution. James Q. Howard was fitted for 
college at Granville and was* graduated at Marietta 
College with honors. In 1859 he delivered the Mas- 
ter's Oration and received the second degree. He 
was admitted to the bar at Columbus, having studied 
law with Hon. Samuel Galloway. 

In 1860, at the request of Follett, Foster & Co., the 
publishers of the "Lincoln and Douglas Debates," he 
wrote a brief " Life of Abraham Lincoln," which was 
translated into German. On September 6, 1861, he 
was appointed by Mr. Lincoln United States Consul 
at St. John, New Brunswick. The Chesapeake piracy 
'Case, the Calais bank raid, bringing about the cap- 
ture of blockade- runners and enforcing Stanton's 
passport orders, conspired to render the duties of con- 
sul at this great shipbuilding port on the Bay of 
Fundy as responsible as those of any like officer in 
the service. The authorities at Calais, Maine, gave 
Consul Howard credit for having saved the town 
from destruction by fire. A dozen blockade-runners 
were captured through information which he fur- 
nished. He received the frequent thanks of Secretary Seward for "zeal and activity" and his com* 
mendation for "fidelity and ability." 

On returning home in 1867 Mr. Howard purchased an interest in the Ohio State Journal, and, while 
an editorial writer on that paper, his articles on finance were commended widely and copied by the 
New York press. While writing for the reviews and magazines, his address before the Alumni of 
Marietta College, in 1871, was characterized by Charles Sumner as "admirable, practical, useful." 

In 1876 he was Selected by the immediate friends of Governor Hayes to write the authorized life of 
the Republican candidate for the Presidency, published by Robert Clark & Co., of Cincinnati. He 
was soon after placed on the editorial force of the New York Times, where he wrote all the articles on 
the important subject of counting the electoral vote. 

In 1877 he was appointed to a position in the New York Custom House, and in the following year 
was nominated and confirmed as an assistant appraiser of merchandise. In 1880 he was deemed most 
worthy of promotion to the responsible office of Chief Appraiser, one of the two national offices of 
largest discretionary power, outside of the Cabinet. It is through the work of the appraiser's depart- 
ment at New York that the government is supplied with the bulk of its revenue. Mr. Howard has 
held important office under five presidents of the United States, and passed the United States Senate 
three times by a unanimous vote. His present home is on the border of Central Park, New York city. 
The paper which follows was originally delivered before the Ohio Society of .New York. 

I purpose to present the briefest possible outline of that Ohio field of biogra- 
phy and history which it would be both pleasant and profitable, for all Ohioans 
especially, to explore. That Territorial and State history relates to historical 
events and historical men. Some of these far-reaching events worthiest of out 
particular study are: the first permanent settlement at Marietta in the spring of 
1788; the second settlement at Columbia near the site of Cincinnati, in the 
autumn of the same year; the establishment of a Territorial government with 
Gen. Arthur St. Clair as the first and only duly commissioned Territorial Gov- 
ernor; the formation of the first four counties in the Territory, with the noble 
Revolutionary names of Washington, Hamilton, Wayne and Adams; the disas- 
trous defeat of Gen. Harmar by the Indians, in June, 1790; the more disastrous 
defeat of Gov. St. Clair, November 4, 1791, in that western Ohio county since 
appropriately called Darke; the inspiring victory of Gen. Anthony Wayne, in 
August, 1794; the enactment and enforcement of much-needed laws by the Gov- 
ernor and Territorial Judges'; the assembling of the first Territorial Legislature 


on September 24, 1799 ; the ceding by Connecticut of her claims to that territory 
called the Western Reserve of Connecticut, on May 30, 1801 ; the formation of 
the first State Constitution at Chillicothe, in November, 1802; the first general 
election under that constitution, in January, 1803 ; the transition from a Terri- 
torial to a State government, in February and March, 1803; the Burr conspiracy, 
with the State's vigorous action in suppressing it, in 1806 ; the gallant defence of 
Fort Stephenson and Perry's splendid victory on Lake Erie during the War of 
1812; the establishment of the permanent seat of government at Columbus, in 
1816 ; the beginning of the construction of the great canals of the State, at New- 
ark, in the fitting presence of Governors Jeremiah Morrow, DeWitt Clinton and 
Hon. Thomas Ewing, July 4, 1825 ; the building of the first and the other great 
lines of that network of railroads which has done more than any single agency 
to advance the material interests of the State ; the creation of those noble insti- 
tutions of charity, benevolence and learning and of that system of public schools 
which have so honored the State in all succeeding years ; Ohio's preparation for 
and part in the War for the Union ; her action with respect to the latest and best 
amendments to the national Constitution ; her courageous course in the prolonged 
contests for a sound currency with coin resumption, and her firm maintenance, 
untarnished, of the State's and the nation's credit and faith. 

Turning from events, some of which can be treated in essays, others only in 
volumes, to the meritorious men identified with Ohio's history — men whom we 
all ought to know more about, much more than the libraries can teach us — we 
cannot omit from the briefest historical list, General Rufus Putnam and Dr. 
Manasseh Cutler, so worthy to be enrolled among the founders of States ; Gen. 
Arthur St. Clair, who passed from the Presidency of the American Congress to 
the Governorship of the Northwest Territory, remaining our Territory's executive 
chief, through alternate successes and defeats, for fourteen years; Gen. Samuel 
H. Parsons, Gen. James M. Varnum and John Cleves Symmes, the able and emi- 
nent Territorial Judges; Dr. Edward Tiffin, president of the convention which 
framed the first constitution of the State, and first governor of Ohio under that 
constitution ; Return Jonathan Meigs, the first cabinet officer that Ohio furnished 
the republic, whose grave is one of the objects of historic interest in old Marietta : 
Judge Jacob Burnet, the Western Lycurgus, who helped to give our confused 
mass of laws consistency and adaptation ; honest old Jeremiah Morrow, the last 
and best of the governors of the pioneer race: faithful Peter Hitchcock, for 
twenty years in the Legislature and in Congress, and for twenty-five Chief- Justice 
of the State; William Henry Harrison, the pure patriot of highest virtue, whose 
political triumph of 1840 was not greater than his earlier triumphs over our 
Indian foes; Justice John McLean, who combined the manners and graces of 
the old school of jurists with the learning of the new ; Samuel F. Vinton, the 
able and dignified Whig leader, who preferred his dignity to his existence in 
office; Charles Hammond, among the strongest of the members of the American 
bar; the brilliant and eloquent Thomas L. Hamer, who sent Grant to West 
Point; Judge Bellamy Storer, alike popular on the bench and on the stump; 
Hocking Hunter, every inch and in everv fibre a lawyer, and Henry Stanbery, 
that perfect type of courtly gentleman. 

Especially should we of this generation learn more about the two most dis- 
tinctively representative historical men of Ohio, Thomas Ewing and Thomas 
Corwin, the one the embodiment of all the robust strength, physical and mental, 
k of the great Northwest, declared to be at the period of his death the ablest law- 
yer in the United States; the other, in the concurrent judgment of all who have 
felt the spell of his matchless eloquence, the greatest natural orator and most 
marvelous wit, mimic and master of the passions of men that the continent has 
yet known. 

Passing from these two extraordinary men, who taught the great men of the 
later period how to become great, but not forgetting, in passing, the high-minded 
and massive-minded Chase, the slavery-hating Joshua R. Giddings, bluff Ben 
Wade, burly, brainy John Brough, and the strong but gentle David Tod, we 
reach that race of native historic men whose lives touch ours, we might almost 
say whose lives preserved ours: Grant, the peer of Marlborough, Von Moltke, 
Wellington and Napoleon, the modern world's first soldiers ; Stanton, the creator 


of armies and mighty forger of the Thunderbolts of war; Sheridan, who turned 
retreats and defeats into advances and victories, and rode with the swiftness of 
the wind to fame; Sherman, the only soldier or statesman in our history who 
refused the honor of the Presidency when it was thrice within his reach ; Hayes, 
who called around him as able a cabinet as the nation has had and whose admin- 
istration of the government was so acceptable to the people that they voted for 
another politically like it; Garfield, the most learned and scholarly president, 
not excepting John Quincy Adams, who has filled the executive chair, the pathos 
of whose death touched ail hearts in all lands ; and the tenderly-loved McPher- 
son, whose untimely death alone cut him off from equality with the greatest. 

And in what more fitting connection can we refer to those two peerless living 
Ohio statesmen, similar in name and fame, Sherman and Thurman, the one 
greatest as a financier, the other as a lawyer, both of highest distinction in the 
making and in the administration of law, and each gratefully honored for his 
noble public services by the discriminating, everywhere? 

Conspicuous for their eminent abilities as are Rufus P. Ranney, William S. 
Groesbeck, Samuel Shellabarger, John A. Bingham, George H. Pendleton, Thomas 
Ewing, H. J. Jewett, Aaron F. Perry, Jacob D. Cox, Joseph B. Foraker, Win. Mc- 
Kinley, Chief-Justice Waite and Associate Justices Woods and Matthews, among 
Ohioahs, we must not forget in our biographical studies other useful or brilliant 
men still living or who have passed away, leaving honored names worthy of long 
remembrance within and beyond the limits of their own State. It will not, I 
trust, seem invidious to call to mind Elisha Whittlesey, Joseph R. Swan, Alfred 
Kelly, George E. Pugh, William Allen, James G. Birney, Samuel Lewis, William 
Dennison, Samuel Galloway, R. P. Spaulding, Valentine B. Horton, Doctors 
Delamater, Kirtland and Mussey and General J. H. Devereux, or such public- 
spirited benefactors as Dr. Daniel Drake, William Woodward, Reuben Springer, 
Leonard Case, Lyne Starling, John Mills, Douglas Putnam, Jay Cooke, Nicholas 
Longworth, J. R. Buchtel, David Sinton and William Probasco. 

Such born jurists and gentlemen as Justice Noah H Swayne and Judges 
Leavitt, Nash and Gholson are everywhere held in honor, as will also long be re- 
vered the names of those eminent scholars and divines, Dr. Lyman Beecher, 
Bishop Philander Chase, Bishops Mcllvaine, Simpson, Ames, Bishop Edward 
Thomson, Dr. Henry Smith and Presidents Finney of Oberlin and Andrews of 

There are other Ohio names that are too prominently connected with the his- 
tory of the nation to be overlooked, among which are those of Generals McClel- 
lan, Rosecrans, McDowell, Buell, Custer, Crook, Hazen, Quincy A. Gillmore, 
Schenck, Steadman, Swayne, Walcutt and the McCooks ; the great inventor, Edi- 
son ; the Arctic explorer, Dr. Hall; the Siberian traveller, George Kennan; the 
astronomer, Prof. O. M. Mitchell ; the geologists, Newberry, Orton and Wright, 
and the Director-General of our National Centennial Exhibition, Sir A. T. 

What are Ohio's most honored names in literature, intelligent readers of course 
know all about; and while her sons may have accomplished less, perhaps, in 
that field than in war, politics or art, one can safely say that Artemus Ward and 
Petroleum V. Nasby compare favorably with the first humorists of the nation ; 
William D. Howells and Albion W. Tourgee with the foremost novelists of their 
day, while Charles Hammond, Samuel Medary, E. D. Mansfield, Washington 
McLean, Henry Read, Fred Hassaurek, Joseph Medill, Richard Smith, Murat 
Halstead, Donn Piatt, Samuel Read, Edwin Cowles, J. A. MacGahan, William 
Henry Smith and the present editors of the New York Tribune, the New York World 
and the Cincinnati Enquirer have yielded or are now yielding as large a measure 
of influence as has fallen to the lot of any American journalists. Buchanan 
Read, Francis W. Gage, William D. Gallagher, Alice and Phcebe Cary, William 
H. Lytle, John James Piatt, Manning F. Force, Henry Howe, S. P. Hildreth and 
John Hay have done nobly all that they have attempted to do at all, and John 
James, and Mrs. S. M. B. Piatt, Edith Thomas and Mrs. Kate Sherwood are 
making poetry and fame just as fast as the muses will permit. 

And while it would take many essays to show what Ohioans have accomplished 
in art, none can afford to be ignorant of the lives and works of the world-famous 


Thomas Cole and Hiram Powers, or of the achievements of America's first ani- 
mal painters, James H. and William H. Beard, or of the noble works which adorn 
so many of our parks and cities of this country's greatest sculptor, Quincy Ward, 
whose u Indian Hunter," " Shakespeare," u Washington " and " Equestrian 
Thomas " will live a thousand years after all that now has life shall have 

I close this appeal for the study of our State's history by reminding all that 
Ohio can lay full or partial claim to four Presidents of the United States, Harri- 
son, Grant, Hayes and Garfield ; to one Vice-President, by birth, Hendricks ; 
and one Speaker of the House, Keifer ; to two Chief-Justices, Chase and Waite, 
and four Associate Justices, McLean, Swayne, Matthews and Woods ; to one Sec- 
retary of State, through fourteen years' residence, Lewis Cass ; to five Secretaries 
of the Treasury, Ewing, Corwin, Chase, Sherman and Windom ; three Secretaries 
of War, McLean, Stanton and Taft ; to three Secretaries of the Interior, Ewing, 
Cox and Delano ; to two Attorneys-General, Stanbery and Taft, and to three 
Postmasters-General, Meigs, McLean and Dennison. 

If all these men have not done enough to command your interest and studious 
attention, set to work, gentlemen of the Ohio Society, and do something to honor 
the Buckeye State yourselves ! 


By M. C. READ, 

Matthew Canfield Read was born in Wil- 
liamsfield, Ashtabula county, Ohio, August 21, 
1823, of New England parents, who were among 
the early pioneers. In those days of few books a 
circulating library of standard works gave him in 
his early boyhood a taste for solid reading, and a 
copy of Goldsmith's "Animated Nature," which 
at the age of ten years he had read and re-read 
till it was substantially memorized, exerted an 
important influence upon his subsequent studies; 
when twelve years of age his parents removed to 
Mecca, Trumbull county, where he remained 
working upon the farm and attending district 
school until eighteen years of age, when he com- 
menced preparations for college at Western Re- 
serve Seminary, in Farmington, Trumbull county, 
which was completed at Grand Kiver Institute, 
in Austinburgh, Ashtabula county. He entered 
the Freshman class of Western Reserve College, 
Hudson, in 1844, and graduated in 1848, subse- 
quently receiving the degree of A. H. from his 
Alma Mater. 

The early bias given by " Goldsmith's Animated 
Nature" led him to devote much time during his 
preparatory and college course to the study of the 
natural sciences, and most of his leisure during 
this time was occupied in acquiring a knowledge 
of the fauna and flora, and the geology of the 
neighborhood. His vacations were given almost 
wholly to these studies, to which very little time 
was given in the prescribed course of study. The 
knowledge thus obtained in hours which ordi- 
narily go to waste with the college student, was fully as valuable to him in after life as the regular 
college course. After graduation he taught school in Columbus and in Gustavus, Ohio, and read law 
with Chappee & Woodbury, of Jefferson, Ashtabula county. 

He was married August, 1851, to Orissa E. Andrews, youngest daughter of William Andrews, Esq., 
of Homer, JJ. Y., and soon after was called to Hudson to edit The Family Visitor, published by Saw- 
yer, Ingersoll & Co., and which was started by Profs. Kirtland and St. John, with the design of fur- 
nishing a family, scientific, and literary paper of a high order, containing nothing of the obnoxious 
matter found in many papers. During one year while editing this paper he had sole charge of the 
preparatory department of the Western Reserve College. After he had edited the paper for a little 
over two years its publication was suspended because of the financial failure of the publishers. 

He then commenced the practice of his profession as attorney in Summit county, and had acquired a 
lucrative practice when the war of the Rebellion commenced. Soon after the organization of the United 
States Sanitary Commission he was appointed a general relief agent in that organization by Prof. 
Newberry, who was in charge of the Western department, and continued in the service of the Com- 
mission till the close of the war. A severe sunstroke after the battle of Pittsburgh Landing and sub- 
sequent exposure so impaired his health that he was never able to return to full practice in his 
profession. He served for a time as deputy-collector of internal revenue, and upon the organization 
of the geological survey of Ohio was appointed assistant geologist, and contributed largely to the final 
report. He has since done a large amount of work in the examination of mining property in the States 
and Territories and the Dominion of Canada, and contributed many articles to the scientific journals 
on ornithology, entomology, archaeology, geology, forestry, etc. He had charge of the archaeological 
exhibits of Ohio at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, and the Centennial Exposition at New 
Orleans. Quite a full report made by him of the latter has recently been published by the Historical 
Society of Cleveland. For several years before the removal of the Western Reserve College to Cleve- 
land he held the position in that institution of Lecturer on Zoology and Practical Geology. 

He still maintains his position at the bar, doing as much work as his health will permit, dividing his 
time between the practice of law and scientific studies and pursuits. 

The history of Ohio's services in the war of the Rebellion would be incomplete, 
without a sketch of its work in the United States Sanitary Commission. 



This was an organization proposed by some of the best medical men of the 
country, and at their request authorized by the general government. Its primary 
object was the systematic inspection of camps and hospitals, for the purpose of 
aiding the medical department of the army in the adoption of such sanitary 
measures as would best preserve the health of the army and promote the recovery 
of the sick and wounded. 

The part that Ohio took in this work assumed more prominence than that of 
any other of the Western States. This is to be attributed largely to the fact that 
the secretary selected to take charge of the Western department was a citizen of 
the State, and to his, exceptional qualifications for the work. 

Prof. John S. Newberry, now of the School of Mines of Columbia College, in 
New York, and then in the government service at Washington, was appointed a 
member of the Sanitary Commission, June 13, 1861. He immediately resigned 
his position at Washington, returned to Ohio, and entered with characteristic 
earnestness and zeal upon his new work of extending the organization of the 
Commission over the valley of the Mississippi. He established branches of the 
Commission at Cleveland, Columbus, and Cincinnati, as well as others at Buffalo, 
Detroit, Pittsburg, Chicago, Louisville, etc., and gave such unity and efficiency to 
the Commission's work that he was appointed secretary of the Western depart- 
ment, an office which he held with honor to himself and the Commission till the 
end of the war. In the meantime, the patriotic revival that was carrying the best 
young and middle-aged men into the army was sweeping into its current almost 
all the women of the North, who were organizing " Soldiers' Aid Societies " in 
all the cities, villages, and hamlets of the loyal States, for the purpose of prepar- 
ing and collecting necessities, comforts, and luxuries for the soldiers in camp and 
hospital. There was an urgent necessity of a general organization, which could 
gather all these rivulets and streams into one channel, and provide for their sys- 
tematic and economical disposition. This work naturally devolved upon the 
Sanitary Commission — authorized by the government, national in its purposes, 
regardless of State lines, and solicitous only for the comfort and health of the 
entire army, and for its success in the struggle. 

With the natural desire in each locality to collect and forward supplies to the 
soldiers enlisted in that locality, and of the officers of each State to make special 
provision for its own soldiers, it was a difficult task to educate the people into 
the idea that the soldiers of each regiment and of each State could be best cared 
for by systematic provision for the whole army. This result was substantially 
accomplished through the skilful management of the secretary, aided by the 
unselfish patriotism of the managers of the local societies, so that the transporta- 
tion and distribution of these stores was mainly, and especially in Ohio, intrusted 
to thig Commission. Very rapidly an organization was perfected, some of the 
best and most experienced physicians selected, who were commissioned and dis- 
patched to their work. Among the first of these were Dr. A. N. Read, Dr. W. M. 
Prentice, and Dr. C. D. Griswold, all of Ohio, who immediately entered upon their 
duties — followed the army into the field, inspecting camps and hospitals, looking 
after the distribution of stores, and when battles occurred assisting in the care of 
the wounded. 

Other inspectors from Ohio were Drs. Henry Parker, of Lorain county, M. M. 
Seymour, of Paiuesville, T. G. Cleveland, at first surgeon of the Forty-first O. V. 
I., and R. C. Hopkins, of Cleveland. These all labored with a zeal and intelligent 
devotion to their duties which commanded the highest encomiums of the medical 
and general officers of the army. Their work was of a delicate nature, requiring 
much tact and skill, and was of the greatest importance. The medical and gen- 
eral officers had a very inadequate estimate of the importance of sanitary precau- 
tions for the preservation of the health of the men, and at the beginning the 
deaths from preventable diseases were many times in excess of those resulting 
from casualties in battle. 

These medical inspectors, representing the best medical skill of the State, with 
their associates from other States, supplied with suggestive circulars prepared by 
the best medical men of the nation, furnished very material aid to the officers of 
the army in securing the adoption of sanitary precautions for the prevention of 
sickness, that resulted in saving the lives of many thousands of soldiers. No 


statistics can be compiled which will measure the value of this w r ork, but those 
who watched its progress can to some extent appreciate it, and long before the 
close of the war it secured the adoption of the best sanitary measures that were 
ever adopted in any army. 

While the Commission was ' primarily organized for this sanitary work other 
important duty was rapidly crowded upon it. The women of the entire North 
were working for the soldiers, and societies were established in every city, with 
local societies auxiliary to them in every village and township. This w r as par- 
ticularly true in Ohio. Cincinnati, Cleveland, and Columbus organized branches 
of the United States Sanitary Commission, and secured the greater part of the 
contributions of the local societies, assorting, re-packing, and marking them, and 
entrusting their distribution to the Commission. 

The Branch at Cincinnati organized with the following members : 

Cincinnati — R. W. Burnett, Charles F. Wilstach, James M. Johnson, Joshua 
H. Bates, C. C. Comegys, M. D., Edward Mead, M. D., Samuel L'Hommedieu, 
M. D., Rev. E. T. Collins, A. Aub, O. M. Mitchell, E. G. Bobbins, J. B. Stallo, Larz 
Anderson, Micajah Bailey, E. S. Brooks, Charles E. Cist, David Judkins, M. D., 
W. H. Mussey, M. D., Rev. W. A. Sniveley, Henry Pearce, Thomas G. Odiorne, 
Mark E. Reeves, B. P. Baker, Robert Hosea, George Hoadly, S. J. Broad well, A. 
G. Burt, Charles R. Fosdick, John Davis, M. D., George Mendenhall, M. D., Rev. 
M. L. P. Thompson, George K. Shoenberger, Bellamy Storer, W. W. Scarborough, 
Thomas C. Shipley, F. C. Briggs. Dayton— B. W. Steel, J. D. Phillips, James 
McDaniel. President, R. W. Burnett ; Vice-President, George Hoadly ; Recording 
Secretary, B. P. Baker ; Corresponding Secretary, Charles R. Fosdick ; Treasurer, 
Henry Pearce. 

This branch sent out inspectors and relief agents into all parts of the Missis- 
sippi valley occupied by the Union army, who kept its officers thoroughly in- 
formed as to the wants of the soldiers, and the manner in which its contributions 
were distributed. In addition to the large amount of stores contributed the 
society raised in money $330,769.53, of which $235,406.62 were the net avails of 
"The Great Western Sanitary Fair" held at Cincinnati in the month of Decem- 
ber, 1863. The most of this large fund was used in the purchase of supplies of 
the best quality, which were sent to all parts of the army as the wants of the sick 
and wounded required. The United States Sanitary Commission contributed to 
this branch $15,000. 

The success of the fair of 1863 was at the time unprecedented. At the head 
of the roll of managers was the name of General Rosecrans, and nearly all the 
prominent ladies, business men and merchant princes of the city combined their 
efforts to make it a success. 

This branch established and maintained at Cincinnati a "Soldiers' Home" at 
an expense of $64,131.86, in which it furnished lodgings to 45,400 and meals to 
the number of 656,704. 

The Cleveland Branch of the Soldiers' Aid Society of Northern Ohio was organized on 
the 20th day of April, 1861, five days after the first call by President Lincoln for 
volunteers to put down the rebellion. It was organized by the appointment of 
the following officers : President, Mrs. B. Rouse ; Vice-Presidents, Mrs. John 
Shelley and Mrs. Win. Melhinch ; Secretary, Miss Mary Clark Brayton ; Treasurer, 
Miss Ellen F. Terry. 

Two hundred and seventy-nine of the Cleveland ladies enrolled themselves as 
members of the society, and without constitution or by-laws, with only the verbal 
pledge of the payment of a monthly fee, and to work while the war should last, 
they furnished an illustrious example of the patriotism, as well as the efficiency 
of Ohio women. The officers of the society gave their whole time to the work 
until the close of the war, asking and receiving no salaries and drawing nothing 
from the treasury for travelling or other expenses, even when absent on the neces- 
sary business of the society. They secured the active and cordial support of 525 
auxiliary societies, the members of most of them meeting weekly to work for the 
soldier. And the influence of that work is not to be measured by the articles 
prepared or the gifts contributed. \ 

Every such local society was a school of patriotism : it made patriotism the 
fashion ; everywhere the wives and daughters of the most bitter opponents of the 


war were drawn into these societies, caught the dominant spirit, and carried its 
influence into their homes. These societies gave a moral support to the soldier 
in the field, and were worth more than thousands of bayonets in preserving peace 
at home. The names of the women engaged in the work of this central society 
and its 500 auxiliaries who deserve prominent mention would fill many pages 
of this volume, and it would be unjust to the others to record the names of a part 
of them; but all will concur in giving the first place to good Mrs. Rouse, the 
president of the society, who in feeble health and with a devotion that only a 
mother can exhibit gave her whole time to the work; a model exam pie" of 
womanly Christian patriotism. Her recent death at a ripe old age has emphasized 
her worth. 

In June a number of the most patriotic and influential citizens of Cleveland 
were appointed associate members of the United States Sanitary Commission, and 
in October of the same year they united to organize a branch commission for the 
accomplishment of the same objects that engaged the attention of the branches 
elsewhere, and to lend to the already flourishing Soldiers' Aid Society whatever 
aid might be necessary in the execution of its work. The gentlemen who joined 
in this movement are as follows : 

T. P. Handy, Joseph Perkins, William Bingham, M. C. Younglove, Still- 
man Witt, Benjamin Rouse, Dr. E. Cushing, A. Stone, Jr., E. S. Flint, Dr. A. 

The first duty which suggested itself to them was to provide a military hospital 
for Northern Ohio, which should receive the sick of the regiments quartered at 
Cleveland for whom no other asylum had been opened. By application to the 
Secretary of the Treasury a part of the marine hospital at Cleveland was placed 
at their command. This was fitted up by the co-operation of the ladies of the 
Aid Society, and continued to meet the wants of the class it was intended to accom- 
modate until the building of the Cleveland Soldiers' Home removed the necessity 
for its continuance (see Dr. Newberry's report on the Sanitary Commission in the 
valley of the Mississippi). These gentlemen co-operated heartily with the ladies 
in their work and contributed largely to its success. In addition to those whose 
names are given above Dr. Newberry makes special mention of Mr. L. M. Hubby, 
president of the C. C. & C. R. R. Co., and Mr. H. M. Chapin, who were especially 
active and efficient. 

The general work of this society is admirably and concisely stated in the fol- 
lowing extract from the final report of its officers : 

The foregoing pages are a brief sketch of the work that loyalty prompted one 
small district to do for the soldiers. They are submitted in the hope it may not 
be uninteresting to trace the history of a society which was the first permanently 
organized, one of the first to enter the field, and the last to leave it ; which began 
with a capital of two gold dollars and closed with a cash statement of more than 
$170,000 ; which grew from a neighborhood sewing circle to become the repre- 
sentative of 525 branch organizations in disbursing hospital stores valued at 
nearly $1,000,000; which built and supported a Soldiers' Home and conducted a 
special relief system and an employment agency from which 60,000 Union soldiers 
and their families received aid and comfort, and a claim agency which gratuitously 
collected war claims aggregating $300,000 at a saving to the claimants of over 

The ladies close their report with the following words : 

All who had a part in the beneficent work in which it was woman's peculiar 
privilege to serve her country must feel abundantly rewarded in having been 
able to do something for those who gave health, manly strength, worldly 
prospects, ties of home, and even life itself in the more perilous service in the 

As already sweet flowers and tender plants creep over and half conceal the 
battle foot-prints, but lately left on many a field and hillside of our land, so sweet 
charities and tender memories come to envelop the gaunt figures, and veil the 
grim visages of war, that must forever stand a central object upon the canvas 
that protrays the history of these memorable years. 

A single instance may be added illustrating the efficiency and devotion of 
these noble workers in the Soldiers' Home established at the railroad station in 


Cleveland. On the 29th of July, 1864, telegrams announced that a full brigade 
of hungry soldiers would reach the Home that night ; special preparations were 
immediately made for their comfort, and when after long hours of weary waiting 
the train steamed into the depot bringing the Thirty-seventh and Thirty-eighth 
Wisconsin and the Twenty-seventh Michigan, 1,350 men, a sumptuous repast 
was awaiting them, which would have been a credit to any of the hotels of the 
city. In the memory of these men and of the many thousands of others who 
were thus provided for, the good works of these Cleveland women are permanently 

The Columbus Branch was organized in October, 1861, with the following 

Governor Wm. Dennison, F. C. Sessions, J. B. Thompson, M. D., S. M. Smith, 
M. D., P. Ambos, Robert Neil, Rev. Dr. Fitzgerald, W. M. Awl, M. D., T. J. 
Wormley, M. D., S. Lovering, M. D., J. H. Riley, Rev. Joseph M. Trimble, D. D., 
Hon. John W. Andrews, Joseph Sullivant, Francis Carter, M. D., Francis Collins. 
Officers : President, W. M. Awl, M. D. ; Vice-President, J. B. Thompson, M. D. ; 
Secretary, F. C. Sessions ; Treasurer, T. J. Wormley, M. D. 

Five thousand dollars was appropriated to this branch by the United States 
Sanitary Commission, and several thousand dollars was subsequently contributed 
to aid in the equipment and maintenance of the Soldiers' Home. In co-operation 
with this branch a Ladies' Aid Society was organized embracing most of the 
patriotic women of the city, with Mrs. W. E. Ide as the first president and Mrs. 
George W. Heyl the first secretary. The records of the amount of contributions 
of this branch are not accessible, but they found their way to nearly every battle- 
field and hospital in the Mississippi valley. Mr. Sessions was early in the field 
as a volunteer in the care of the sick and wounded, and continued his labors to 
the close of the war. 

Dr. Smith was subsequently surgeon-general of the State, and from the begin- 
ning to the close of the war was an indefatigable and judicious worker. The 
location of this branch gave it an unusual amount of local work, which was 
always efficiently and faithfully done. Here as well as elsewhere in the State 
the names of those deserving special mention cannot be given without the appro- 
priation of more space than can be given to this sketch. 

By the work of local societies, the aid of sanitary fairs, and the labor of solicit- 
ing agents, a corps of whom were organized and put in the field by Dr. Newberry, 
the supplies came in in continuous streams and the Commission received in the 
aggregate $807,335.03 in money and stores for distribution of the estimated value 
of $5,123,376. At first there was a natural tendency in each locality to provide 
for regiments organized in the locality, and then to attempt in each State to pro- 
vide for the soldiers of that State; some continuing this attempt to this close of 
the war. But it was soon seen by those in the field that the readiest way to pro- 
vide for any particular regiment was by a united attempt to provide for all. Ohio 
was quick to learn this fact, and the broad patriotism of its people was shown by 
an almost universal disregard of localities and State lines, and by devoting all 
their energies to the relief of the Union soldier wherever found. Its contributions 
to this end largely exceeded those of any other State in the Mississippi valley, a 
fact in which every citizen may take laudable pride. 

After the field work was w 7 ell organized Dr. Newberry established his head- 
quarters at Louisville, as the most favorable point for superintending the opera- 
tions of the Sanitary Commission in the Mississippi valley. He selected Charles 
S. Sill of Cuyahoga Falls as treasurer and H. S. Holbrook of the same place to 
organize and manage a hospital directory, which grew into a bureau of information 
for all having friends in the army. The local agents of the Commission after every 
battle obtained promptly lists of the killed and wounded, and daily reports from 
all the hospitals, showing admissions, discharges, deaths and transfers to other 
hospitals, which were all copied into the local registers of the Commission. Then 
the originals were forwarded to Mr. Holbrook, who embodied the facts into his 
records in such a manner that he could promptly give the location and hospital 
history of every patient and the date and place of every death in the western 
army so far as was known. Frequently and especially after every battle parties 
who failed to hear from their friends in the army, becoming anxious about their 


safety, would send to this bureau for information, and sometimes, these inquiries 
by letter and telegram would number hundreds in a day. If in the hospital or 
on the list of killed a reference to the records would furnish full information ; if 
not the inquiry was forwarded to the agent of the post where the regiment was 
stationed. The records there were searched and if they afforded no information 
the regiment was immediately visited, the companions of the missing man found 
and questioned, and in a large majority of cases the desired information obtained. 
Under Mr. Holbrook's excellent management this work was so perfected that 
these records were largely used by the officers of the army in locating or deter- 
mining the fate of missing men. The number of names on Mr. Holbrookes 
records was 799,317; the number of deaths recorded 81,621, and the number of 
inquiries received and answered 24,005. Mr. Holbrook with the persevering 
industry of a man and the overflowing sympathy of a woman^ was admirably 
adapted to this work, but it wore him out faster than service in the field, and 
though able to keep his post till the close of the war, its close found him so pros- 
trated and exhausted that his health was never perfectly restored. 
The personnel of the central office at Louisville was as follows : 
Secretary Western Department Sanitary Commission, Dr. J. S. Newberry; 
assistant secretary, Robert T. Thome; chief clerk, Dr. N. E. Soule; cashier, C. S. 
Sill; superintendent hospital directory, H. S. Holbrook; superintendent ware- 
houses, W. S. Hanford; editor Sanitary Reporter, Dr. G. L. Andrew; hospital 
visitor, Rev. F. H. Bushnell ; superintendent hospital trains, Dr. J. P. Barnum ; 
superintendent hospital and supply steamer, H. W. Fogle ; claim agent, H. H. 
Burkholder. Of these officers Drs. Newberry and Soule and Messrs. Sill, Hol- 
brook, Hanford, Fogle and Burkholder were from Ohio. 

Free transportation over freight and express lines was generously given for the 
stores of the Commission, and the free use of private and military telegraph lines 
to all its agents who had depots of stores at every important post, and whose 
agents with supplies were present on nearly every battle-field. It established 
feeding stations and Soldiers' Homes so as to supply all the wants of the soldiers 
discharged at the most southern point reached by the army until he reached his 
home, in which also the friends of the soldier found ample accommodations. As 
an illustration of fhe extent and the benefits of these Homes one instance may 
be given : A woman from Central New York made her way to Chattanooga, 
Tenn., to visit her sick husband, but reached the place too late to see him alive. 
Her money was exhausted, for she expected to obtain from her husband means 
for her return. A childless widow who had given her all to the country she 
could not bear to leave the remains of her husband on her return home. An 
appeal was made by the agent of the Commission to the military undertaker who 
had a lucrative business at that post, who readily consented to embalm the body 
and furnish a burial case without charge, and the express company forwarded it 
to its destination without charge. The agent furnished her with free transporta- 
tion over the military roads to Louisville, and open letters to the superintendents 
of the Homes and to the railroad conductors stating the facts of her case and 
soliciting their interest in her behalf. At the Homes in Nashville, Louisville, 
Cincinnati, Cleveland and Buffalo she obtained meals, and lunches to take into 
the cars; the conductors passed her free over their roads, and she reached Syra- 
cuse, N. Y., with the body of her husband and without any expense. 

An important work new in military history was inaugurated, and made a 
marked success by the Ohio men in the Commission. When the Army of the 
Cumberland had raised the siege of Chattanooga, and in the winter of 1864 was 
preparing for a vigorous, aggressive campaign, it was evident the army was likely 
to suffer severely during the coming summer for the want of vegetable food. It 
could not be brought to so distant a point from the Northern States, and no 
dependence could be placed upon the adjacent country for a supply. Scurvy 
had prevailed to an alarming degree in this army during the previous summer 
when stationed at Murfreesboro, much nearer the base of supplies. An experi- 
ment had there been made in gardening, under the management of Mr. Harriman, 
a gardener detailed from the One-hundred-and-first O. V. I. in 1863, which was 
so far successful as to warrant, in the opinion of the agent at Chattanooga, a more 
extensive effort in 1864, and commensurate with the increased necessities of the 


army. He immediately conferred with the medical director of the army, Dr. 
Perrin, and proposed with his co-operation and the approval of the commanding 
general, to establish a sanitary garden of sufficient extent to provide for all the 
probable wants of the sick and wounded. 

The proposition was heartily welcomed as a probable solution of what had 
been regarded as an insolvable problem. He immediately approved a proposi- 
tion prepared by the agent for submission to Gen. Thomas, proposing that if the 
general would authorize the Commission to take possession of abandoned lands 
suitable for cultivation, would provide for the protection of the garden, and 
furnish horses and necessary details of men, the Commission would provide a 
good market-garden, tools, seeds, and appliances for the work, and would under- 
take to supply all the hospitals at Chattanooga and the neighboring posts with 
all the vegetables needed, distributing the surplus to convalescent camps and 

The general at once issued the necessary orders for carrying on the work; a 
body of land between Citico creek and the Tennessee river was selected, a detail 
put to work building a fence, so as to include within it and the two streams 
something over 150 acres, and a requisition forwarded to Dr. Newberry for seeds 
and tools. When these arrived application was made for horses, and it was ' 
learned that there were none at the post that could be spared for the work. An 
advertisement was inserted in the Chattanooga papers for the purchase of horses 
and mules, but none were offered. Then authority was obtained to impress from 
the country. The agent scoured the neighboring territory for some twenty miles 
on all sides of Chattanooga without finding anything to impress. 

Returning somewhat discouraged from his last trip, he stumbled upon a corral 
of sick and disabled horses, and the difficulty was at once overcome. An order 
was secured directing the quartermaster to turn over fifty of these horses selected 
by the Commission and as many harnesses. There was no difficulty in finding 
horses unfit for military duty which would do fairly good work before the plow 
or harrow. They were put promptly at work. But during these delays the 
season had so far advanced that more tools were needed than were sent from 
Louisville. To meet this want some were impressed from the country and others 
made to order by the. quartermaster; and soon the fifty horses and nearly a hun- 
dred men were actively employed under the supervision of Mr. Thomas Wills, 
of Summit county, who was sent by Dr. Newberry as head gardener. The work 
was pushed with energy during the whole season, much of the ground being 
made to yield two and three crops, all the articles raised in an ordinary market- 
garden being cultivated. It happened that wagons were employed distributing 
the products to the hospitals on the day that the first of the wounded from the 
Atlanta campaign arrived, and from that time till the close of the season the 
supply was much in excess of all the wants of the hospitals, the large surplus 
being distributed to convalescent camps and regiments. As the season advanced 
the details of men fit for duty in the field were revoked, and details made from 
the convalescent camps. These men, placed in good quarters, abundantly sup- 
plied with vegetables, and moderately worked, were restored to health much 
faster than those left in the camps. The men were so well pleased with their 
position and their work that the prospect of a revoking of their detail for any 
insubordination secured strict discipline. At the close of the season voluntary 
testimonials were furnished by all the surgeons in charge of the hospitals of the 
great value of the work, and that it had been the means of saving the lives of 
thousands. The details for a guard and for work constituted as efficient part 
of the garrison of the post as if left within the camps, and there was with them 
an almost entire exemption from sickness. The horses from the sick corrals, well 
fed and cared for, rapidly recovered, and the whole practical cost was the price 
of seeds and tools, and the salary of the gardener. The fact was demonstrated 
that, at a military post, when a garrison is to be maintained through the summer, 
an abundance of vegetable food can be raised by the garrison without any impair- 
ment of its efficiency and at a very trifling cost. 

At the urgent request of all the surgeons of the post the general ordered a con- 
tinuance of the work during the following year. 

The whole work of the Commission was a novelty in military operations. Its 


agents were everywhere — in hospitals, in camps, and on the battle-fields — co- 
operating with the medical officers in the care of the sick and wounded, and in 
precautions for preserving the health of the men ; and the voluntary testimonials 
of the officers, surgeons, and privates to the value of their work would fill a 
volume. What is reproachfully called " red tape " in the army is system, method, 
a careful scrutiny of expenditures, without which the richest nation would be 
bankrupted by a short war ; its hardships in individual cases are mitigated and 
almost entirely removed by such a voluntary association as the Sanitary Com- 
mission, with its agents in all parts of the army, harmoniously working with the 
medical officers, and provided with supplies of all kinds for the relief of the 
soldiers, which can be promptly distributed without formal requisitions, simply 
on the request of the surgeon and attendants, or wherever a needy soldier is found 
by the agents. They supplement the government supplies, and are a provision 
fo~ every emergency when the government stores are not available or cannot be 
obtained in time. 

This is a brief and imperfect sketch of the work of the United States Sanitary 
Commission in the Mississippi valley, in which the citizens of Ohio took so hon- 
orable and important a part. 

First in the list of workers stands the name of Prof. John S. Newberry, who had 
general charge of the Western department. The entire work of organization and 
general superintendence was his, the selection of all agents, and the determination 
of all their duties and salaries. 

Before the war he had a national, reputation as a geologist and palaeontologist, 
and at its close returned to his favorite* studies.. He was appointed chief geolo- 
gist for Ohio, and, with the aid of his assistants, prepared a report upon the 
geology of the State, alike creditable to him and to his assistants and to the 

He was, while engaged in this work, elected as Professor of Geology and Palae- 
ontology in the School of Mines of Columbia College, New York, a position which 
he now occupies. His scientific labors have given him not only an American but 
also an European reputation as one of the most prominent scientists of the age. 
The following extract from a recent number of an influential English periodical 
shows the estimation in which he is held in that country : • 

"A large circle of admirers, both English and American, will see with pleasure 
that the Murchirson medal of the Geological Society is to be conferred this year 
on Dr. J. S. Newberry, of New York, the well-known professor of Columbia Col- 
lege. Dr. Newberry, however, has been in his time active, and indeed distin- 
guished in other matters besides geology. ' I remember,' writes a correspondent, 
4 meeting him by chance in Nashville in November, 1863, when he was at the head 
of the Western department of the Sanitary Commission, an immense organization, 
whose business it was to dispense for the benefit of the soldiers of the Republic 
great quantities of stores, consisting mainly of medicines, clothing, and comforts 
of all sorts subscribed by enthusiastic citizens of the Northern States. Dr. New- 
berry took me down with him from Nashville to the then seat of war on the 
boundary of Georgia, and I can bear witness to the workmanlike manner in which 
he administered his department, and the devotion with which he was regarded 
by all of his assistants.' " 

Dr. Newberry's office assistants were Charles Sill, of Cuyahoga Palls, treasurer ; 
H. S. Holbrook, of Cuyahoga Falls, in charge of the hospital directory ; H. M. 
Fogle, clerk, and W. S. Hansford, in charge of transportation, both also of Cuya- 
hoga Falls ; others were employed from time to time as clerks, but these remained 
in his office till the close of the war. Mr. Sill and Mr. Fogle are now deceased. 
Mr. Holbrook retired from his work greatly debilitated, and never recovered his 

Of the medical inspectors, Dr. A. N. Read, of Norwalk, leaving a lucrative 
practice, entered the service in Kentucky when our army first crossed into "that 
State, was almost the sole representative of the Commission at the battle of 
Perrysville, followed the army to Nashville and Pittsburg Landing, and after- 
wards returned to Nashville, and made that his headquarters as chief inspector 
and general manager of the work of the Commission in the Army of the Cumber- 
land. He followed the army to Chattanooga, worked assiduously in care of the 



wounded in the battle of Chickamauga until, prostrated with sickness, he was 
compelled to return home with his son, who was severely wounded in that battle, 
to recruit his health by rest. He soon returned to his headquarters at Nashville, 
and gave his general superintendence to the work, proceeding to the front at the 
commencement of the Atlanta campaign, and accompanying the army to Atlanta, 
His work during all that campaign was severe and exhausting, and returning to 
Nashville, he continued his labors to the close of the war, when he returned home 
so prostrated by exposure and fatigue that his health has never since been fully 
restored. He received many voluntary testimonials from the officers of the army 
for the fidelity, skill, and tact with which he discharged the duties of his 

■ Dr. M. M. Prentice, an eminent physician of Cleveland, commenced his work 
as medical inspector early in the war, and followed it with such a self-sacrificing 
fidelity that his health and strength failed him, and he died at his post while the 
issue of the war was uncertain. 

Henry Parker^ of Lorain county, and M. M. Seymour, of Painesville, eminent 
physicians, abandoned their practice and assumed the duties of medical in- 
spectors, which they discharged with eminent success till the close of the war. 

Dr. T. G. Cleveland, previously surgeon of the Forty-first Ohio regiment, 
•entered the service of the Commission as medical inspector in 1861, and continued 
his work with marked ability till the close of the war. 

Dr. R. C. Hopkins, of Cleveland, entered the service as medical officer of the 
relief steamer "Lancaster," chartered by Dr. Newberry for the transport of stores 
and the sick and wounded, and afterwards took charge of the work of the Com- 
mission at Memphis. His wife accompanied him until he was prostrated by 
overwork and on his way home died at Evansville, Ind., January 26, 1863. Mrs, 
Hopkins sought relief from her affliction by a return to the work and continued 
it at Nashville until her services were no longer needed. 

Prof. H. N. Hosford of Hudson, Rev. N. P. Bailey of Painesville, Rev. J. E. 
Wilson of Ravenna and Mr. George G. Carter of Cleveland, who was then a stu- 
dent of theology, labored efficiently and faithfully as hospital visitors. Their 
duties were to visit daily the hospitals of the posts at which they were stationed, 
promote the general comfort of the patients, write their letters, furnish them 
reading, administer religious consolation to the dying and transmit their last 
messages to their friends. Many in their dying hours blessed them for their 
•timely Christian labors and many who recovered will remember with gratitude 
their faithful and unselfish work. 

, F. R. Crary, of Northern Ohio, early entered the service as storekeeper and gen- 
eral relief agent; followed the Army of the Cumberland to Chattanooga and was 
,one of the field relief corps during the Atlanta campaign. Energy, faithfulness 
and enthusiastic devotion characterized his work. 

William Cowdery, then of Hudson, now of Mecca, Trumbull county, rendered 
faithful and valuable work at Chattanooga for about a year. 

Alfred H. Sill was sent to Chattanooga by Dr. Newberry after the battle of 
Chickamauga. The rebels occupied the left bank of the Tennessee river and 
their sharpshooters made it impracticable to use the short road from Bridgeport 
to Chattanooga for the transportation of supplies, and a mountain road, difficult 
and some sixty miles long, was the best practicable route. Sanitary stores in 
wagons attached to the army trains were sometimes pillaged by teamsters and 
train hands. Mr. Sill came at the request of the general agent at Chattanooga 
for an energetic man, courageous and faithful, who would act as special guard of 
.the Sanitary train, could sleep in the woods with a blanket for his bed, keep the 
;train under his direct observation till it reached Chattanooga, and shoot down if 
necessary any man who attempted to plunder it. This work he continued with- 
out complaint, riding backward and forward over this long, dreary and dangerous 
route, until the opening of transportation by rail and river after the battle of 

M. C. Read, an attorney of Hudson, Ohio, left a lucrative practice in February, 
1862, and joined his brother, Dr. A. N. Read, in the work at Nashville; worked 
there for a short time and accompanied his brother to Pittsburg Landing, when 
he waa assigned to, duty. at Hamburgh Landing, a few miles further up the river. 


Here, while superintending the removal of stores, from the landing to the rooms 
of the Commission, he was prostrated by a sunstroke and compelled to return 
• home. A few weeks in the Lake Superior region so far restored his health that 
he was able to return to Nashville, and was put in charge of the work at Mur- 
freesboro; thence he followed General Rosecrans' army to Bridgeport and 
finally reached Chattanooga in company with General Rosecrans and his staff. 
Here he remained in charge of the work at this post until after Lee's surrender. 
He then returned home and rode over Ohio and West Virginia, selecting in all 
the principal cities Sanitary Commission Claim Agents, who were commissioned 
to collect claims and secure pensions for all soldiers applying to them, without 
charge to the soldier. This closed his work, except a short return to Chattanooga, 
to close out some unfinished business there. The effects of the sunstroke and 
subsequent labor and exposure have ever since seriously interfered with his pro- 
fessional work. 

Jeremiah R. Brown, of Hudson, a brother of the famous John Brown, entered 
the service early in the war, and very appropriately was put in charge of the 
work in Kansas, where he labored with distinguished zeal and ability, assisted 
by his daughter Fanny Brown, until the work of the Commission was closed. 

Thomas Wills, then of Cuyahoga Falls, was sent to Chattanooga in the spring 
of 1864 as superintendent of the Sanitary garden. This position he held until 
the end of the summer of 1865, and the remarkable success of the garden was 
largely *due to his skill and fidelity. 

Dr. George L. Starr, of Hudson, after completion of his medical studies, entered 
the service of the Commission at Knoxville, Tenn., and did good work for about 
four months investigating the wants of posts accessible from that point and sup- 
plying them from the storehouse in that city. He afterwards practised his pro- 
fession in Youngstown and is now in successful practice in Hudson. 

Rev. T. Y. Gardiner, of Cleveland, was also engaged for some time in the work 
at Knoxville as general agent, doing excellent service and accompanying General 
Stoneman on his raid to care for the sick and wounded. He has since been a 
successful preacher in the Congregational Church. 

Charles Seymour, son of Prof. N. P. Seymour of Western Reserve College, was 
engaged in the work at Knoxville; was in all things efficient and faithful. He 
became so much attached to the place that he remained in Knoxville after the 
close of the war as a real estate agent, has secured a wide influence in the neighbor- 
ing country, and has made his business profitable to himself and his employers. 

Captain Isaac Brayton, of Ravenna, early entered the service of the Commis- 
sion, followed the Army of the Cumberland to Murfreesboro, was for a time in 
charge of that post, until transferred to Nashville as superintendent of the Soldiers' 
Home established there. This position he filled with great ability until the Home 
was no longer needed. 

Colonel Charles Whittlesey, of Cleveland, well known in scientific circles, did 
efficient service as special relief agent in all parts of the West, employed espe- 
cially in the emergencies following important oattles. 

Dr. R. Brundret, of Dayton, remained in the service during most of the war 
and mainly in the Army of the Cumberland. He was one of the most valuable 
workers, doing everything well and at the right time. 

Rev. O. Kennedy, Chaplain of the One-hundred-and-first O. V. I., came by acci- 
dent into the employ of the Commission. After the battle of Chickamauga, while 
the fate of the army in Chattanooga was uncertain and all trains moving toward 
that place were ordered back, he fell in with a train of sanitary stores destined for 
Chattanooga, but turned back with the Government trains. He took charge of it, 
conducted it to a place of safety, distributed a part of the stores to the needy and 
carried the rest safely to Chattanooga. Tins experience gave him a love for the 
work and commended him to the agents of the Commission. He obtained leave 
of absence from his regiment and entered with energy upon the Commission 
work. The military authorities were transferring the sick and wounded as fast 
as possible to the rear, where supplies for their comfort could be more easily 
obtained; but it was over sixty miles of difficult mountain road, on which no 
supplies could be obtained. The Commission immediately sent tents, cooking 
utensils and supplies for a feeding-station in the mountains and arranged with 


the medical director for notice to be sent by the Courier line of the time of start- 
ing of each train and the number of sick and wounded in it, so that a warm 
meal could be in readiness for them on their arrival. Mr. Kennedy, with a few 
assistants, took charge of this solitary station in the mountains, liable constantly 
to be raided by bushwhackers, and from that time until after the siege of Chat- 
tanooga was raised, provided all the sick and wound " who crossed the moun- 
tains with an ample meal, no matter at what hoar of the day or night they 
reached the station. Also, many a belated or hungry officer and soldier returning 
to the army has had reason to bless this lodge in the wilderness. After the open- 
ing of the river and railroad he established feeding-stations at Kelley's Ferry and 
Bridgeport, and for the most of the time was in charge of one of them. If a 
benediction is bestowed for the giving of a cup of cold water to the thirsty, cer- 
tainly he shall not lose his reward. 

John H. Millikan, of Kirtland, and a brother-in-law of Mr. Howe, so long the 
efficient superintendent of the Reform Farm, and for some time one of the elder 
brothers in that institution, served the Commission long and faithfully, until he 
died at his post in Knoxville in 1864. Nor should Mr. Place, whose first name 
is not now recalled, a private of the One-hundred-and-fifth O. V. L, be forgotten. 
When his regiment reached Murfreesboro he was detailed for work with the 
Commission at that point, and was so faithful and efficient that his detail was 
continued and only revoked at Chattanooga that he might join his regiment to 
muster out of the service. 

Dr. H. A. Warriner was a professor in Antioch College, Yellow Springs, Ohio, 
when he entered the service of the Commission, discharging varied duties with 
the highest degree of ability and industry. After the capture of Vicksburg he 
was for a time General Superintendent of the work at that post and until he be- 
came the editor of the Sanitary Reporter, published at Louisville, Ky., which was 
the official paper of the Western Department of the Commission, and executed 
a potent influence in promoting its efficiency. After the close of the war he 
undertook the task of collating the records of all the posts of the Western Depart- 
ment and the preparation of an official history of its work. With characteristic 
devotion he applied himself to this task until" physical and mental prostration 
compelled him to abandon it, and, exhausted and worn out by the work for the 
Commission, he died in the prime of manhood. 

Dr. N. E. Soule was a teacher in Cincinnati when the war commenced, and 
soon after its commencement entered the service of the Commission. He was 
made chief clerk in the central office of the Commission at Louisville, where 
during the entire war he rendered most efficient assistance to the secretary and 
the heads of the different departments of the Commission's work, and by his 
ripe scholarship and genial manners won the respect and affection of all his 

Rev. G. C. Carter of Cleveland, in addition to his duties as hospital visitor, 
already mentioned, rendered important service as general relief agent. 

In the spring of 1863 a Free Claim Agency was opened by the Sanitary Com- 
mission at Louisville and soon began to demonstrate its usefulness by becoming 
the medium of communication with the government for white and colored 
soldiers who were both poor and ignorant and who, with the widows and orphans 
of deceased soldiers, constituted as worthy objects of charity as the Sanitary 
Commission at any time took under its care. This agency was placed in charge 
of Mr. H. H. Burkholder, previously a resident of Yellow Springs, Ohio, and it 
continued with increased usefulness till the autumn of 1865, when the organiza- 
tion of the Western Department of the Sanitary Commission was broken up and 
the care of the office was assumed by the Kentucky branch. Mr. Burkholder's 
good work was prolonged beyond the close of the war, and in his report made 
July 1, 1867, he had received 1575 claims, of which 660 had been allowed and 
$99,765.89 paid over to the claimants. Soon after a terrible tragedy ended at once 
the life and good work of Mr. Burkholder. Returning from Cincinnati with his 
young wife their steamer was burned and both were lost. 

The various aid societies and branches of the Commission sent many delegates 
to work with the agents of the Commission, whose services were of great value, 
but a list of their nan^s cannot be here given, as it has been found impossible in 


all cases to distinguish between the workers from Ohio and other Western States. 
The papers and records of the Western department are practically inaccessible, 
being stored in New York. If they were collected and published the evidence 
of the magnitude and importance of the work would surprise even those who 
took the most prominent part in it, who, like the soldiers of a single regiment in 
a great battle, could see but little except that in which they were engaged. 

It will be seen by this sketch that Ohio furnished much more than her share 
of workers in the Commission. Of these many gave up their lives in the work, 
and of the residue quite as large a number returned to their homes with health 
permanently broken, or greatly impaired, as from the rank and file of the army. 
Many of them if in the regular service would secure pensions from the govern- 
ment, but no provision has been made for this and not one has asked any 
pecuniary compensation for the loss of health resulting from his exposure and 

If, as is probable, the names of regular employees of the Commission who were 
citizens of Ohio are omitted from this sketch, prepared by one of their co-workers, 
it is hoped that the omission will be pardoned, as reliance has to be placed 
mainly upon memory, and the dominant spirit of all the workers was to ignore 
State iines, so that in many cases the memory recalls the work that each did and 
not the State from which he came. 

Those who may be interested in investigating further the part taken by Ohio 
in the great work of the Sanitary Commission will find much more than we have 
space for in this brief sketch in the final report of Dr. Newberry, which forms a 
handsome volume of 543 pages, 8vo., entitled "The United States Sanitary Com- 
mission in the Valley of the Mississippi," published by Fairbanks & Benedict, 
Cleveland, in 1871, and which has been of invaluable use in the preparation of 
this sketch. 

Prof. J. S. Newbery requests the publishers to give at the end of this article 
the following testimonial of his sense of the eminent services of its author in the 
work of the Sanitary Commission. This we are pleased to do, from the convic- 
tion that it is fully deserved. 

"Among the thousands of devoted men and women who gave their time, their 
strength and their hearts to the work of the Sanitary Commission, and who by 
their contributions and ministrations to the army in the field, and by inspiring 
and maintaining the patriotism of the people at home, hastened and perhaps se- 
cured the final triumph, none rendered to the cause of humanity and liberty 
more faithful and efficient service than my friend and co-laborer, Mr. M. C. 

" On the roll of honor left by them to the gratitude of posterity in the list of 
those who by achievement and sacrifice ' deserved well of their country/ his name 
should have a prominent place. "J. S. NeWbery." 



William M. Faerar was born September 3, 
1824, in Washington county, Pennsylvania, of 
Welsh-English and Scotch-Irish ancestry. After 
completing the usual course of education he read 
law and was admitted to practice at Washington in 
1848, and soon after removed to Ohio, settling at 
Cambridge, in Guernsey county, where he has 
since resided, and was elected the first clerk of the 
courts under the constitution of 1850, and re-elected 
in 1854. Upon the breaking out of the war in 
1861 he, in connection with Major Samuel C. 
Brown (who was killed at Chickamauga), recruited 
what afterwards became Company H of the Sixty- 
fifth Regiment, O. V. I., and also a part of the well- 
known Sherman Brigade, a military organization 
that rendered distinguished services during the 
war, of which General C. G. Harker, who fell in the 
assault on Kennesaw, was the first commander. 

Captain Farrar also served as aide-de-camp to 
General Garfield, and was present with that officer 
at the conference held at General Rosecrans' head- 
quarters at the widow Glenn house on the night of 
September 19, 1863, when the plan of battle for 
next day was determined, and was employed until 
long past midnight in preparing written orders for 
the several corps and division commanders, and on 
the next day (Sunday forenoon) was an eyewitness 
of the fatal mishap that broke the Union line and 
swept the right wing of the army from the field. 
He has since resided at Cambridge, where he has 
filled various public offices, and from 1884 to 
3887 represented Guernsey county in the General 


The name Buckeye as applied to the State of Ohio is an accepted sobriquet, 
so well recognized and so generally understood throughout the United States, 
that its use requires no explanation, although the origin of the term and its 
significance are not without question, and therefore become proper subjects of 
consideration during this centennial year. 

The usual and most commonly accepted solution is, that it originates from the 
buckeye tree which is indigenous to the State of Ohio and is not found elsewhere. 
This, however, is not altogether correct, as it is also found both in Kentucky and 
Indiana, and in some few localities in Western Virginia, and perhaps elsewhere. 
But while such is the fact, its natural locality appears to be in the State of Ohio, 
and its native soil in the rich valleys of the Muskingum, Hocking, Scioto, Miamis 
and Ohio, where in the early settlement of the State it was found growing in great 
abundance, and because of the luxuriance of its foliage, the richly colored dyes 
of its fruit, and its ready adaptation to the wants and convenience of the pioneers 
it was highly prized by them for many useful purposes. 

It was also well known to and much prized by the Indians from whose rude 
language comes its name " Hetuck," meaning the eye of the buck, because of the 
striking resemblance in color and shape between the brown nut and the eye of 
that animal, the peculiar spot upon the one corresponding to the iris in the other. 
In its application, however, we have reversed the term and call the person or 
thing to which it is applied a buckeye. 

In a very interesting after dinner speech made by Dr. Daniel Drake, the eminent 
botanist and historian of the Ohio valley, at a banquet given at the city of Cin- 
cinnati on the occasion of the forty-fourth anniversary of the State, the buckeye 
was very ably discussed, its botanical classification given, its peculiar charac- 
teristics and distinctive properties referred to, and the opinion expressed that the 

The Ohio Buckeye. 



name was at first applied as a nickname or term of derision, but has since been 
raised into a title of honor. 

This conclusion does not seem to be altogether warranted, for the name is not 
only of Indian origin as stated, but the first application of it ever made to a white 
man was made by the Indians themselves, and intended by them as an expres- 
sion of their highest sense of admiration. 

S. P. Hildreth, the pioneer historian of Marietta, to whom we are indebted for 
so many interesting events relating to the settlement at the mouth of the Musk- 
ingum, tells us that upon the opening of the first court in the Northwest Terri- 
tory, to wit on the 2d day of September, 1788, a procession was formed at the 
point where most of the settlers resided, and marched up a path that had been 
cut and cleared through the forest to Campus Martius Hall, in the following 
order : 

1st. The high sheriff with drawn sword. 

2d. The citizens. 

3d. Officers of the garrison at Fort Harmar. 

4th. Members of the bar. 

5th. Supreme judges. 

6th. The governor and clergymen. 

7th. The newly appointed judges of the Court of Common Pleas, General Rufus 
Putnam and Benjamin Tupper. 

There the whole countermarched, and the judges, Putnam and Tupper, took 
their seats; the clergyman, Rev. Dr. Cutler, invoked the divine blessing, and the 
sheriff, Col. Ebenezer Sproat, proclaimed with his solemn O yes ! that a court is 
opened for the administration of even-handed justice, to the poor as well as to the 
rich, to the guilty and the innocent, without respect of persons, none to be pun- 
ished without a trial by their peers, and then in pursuance of law ; and that 
although this scene was exhibited thus early in the settlement of the State few 
ever equalled it in the dignity and exalted character of the actors; and that 
among the spectators who witnessed the ceremony and were deeply impressed by 
its solemnity and seeming significance was a large body of Indians collected from 
some of the most powerful tribes of the northwest, for the purpose of making a 
treaty with the whites. Always fond of ceremony among themselves they wit- 
nessed the parade of which they little suspected the import with the greatest in- 
terest, and were especially impressed with the high sheriff who led the procession 
with drawn sword ; we are told that he was over six feet in height, well propor- 
tioned and of commanding presence, and that his fine physical proportions and 
dignified bearing excited their highest admiration, which they expressed by the 
word "Hetuck," or in their language "big buckeye." It was not spoken in 
derision, but was the expression of their greatest admiration, and was afterwards 
often jocularly applied to Colonel Sproat, and became a sort of nickname by 
which he was familiarly known among his associates. That was certainly its first 
known application to an individual in the sense now used, but there is no evi- 
dence that the name continued to be so used and applied from that time forward, 
or that it became a fixed and accepted sobriquet of the State and people until 
more than half a century afterwards ; during all of which time thcbuckeye con- 
tinued to be an object of more or less interest, and as immigration made its way 
across the State, and the settlements extended into the rich valleys where it was 
found by travellers and explorers, and was by them carried back to the east and 
shown as a rare curiosity from what was then known as the u far west," possess- 
ing certain medicinal properties for which it was highly prized. But the name 
never became fully crystallized until 1840, when in the crucible of what is known 
as the " bitterest, longest and most extraordinary political contest ever waged in 
the United States," the name Buckeye became a fixed sobriquet of the State of 
Ohio and its people, known and understood wherever either is spoken of, and 
likely to continue as long as either shall be remembered or the English language 

The manner in which this was brought about is one of the singular events of 
that political epoch. 

General William Henry Harrison having become the candidate of his party for 
President, an opposition newspaper said 4< that he was better fitted to sit in a log- 


cabin and drink hard cider, than rule in the White House." The remark was at 
once taken up by his friends and became a party slogan of that ever memorable 
canvass. Harrison became the log-cabin candidate, and was pictured as sitting 
by the door of a rude log- cabin through which could be seen a barrel of hard 
cider, while the walls were hung with coon-skins and decorated with strings of 

Political excitement spread with wonderful rapidity ; there was music in the 
air, and on the 22d of February, 1840, a State convention was held at the city of 
Columbus to nominate a candidate for governor. That was before the day of 
railroads, yet from most of the counties of the State large delegations in wagons 
and on horseback made their way to the capital to participate in the convention. 
Among the many curious devices resorted to to give expression to the ideas 
embodied in the canvass there appeared in the procession a veritable log-cabin, 
from Clarke county, built of buckeye logs, upon a wagon and drawn in the pro- 
cession by horses, while from the roof and inside of the cabin was sung this song : 

14 Oh where, tell me where 

Was your buckeye cabin made ? 

'Twas built among the merry boys 

Who wield the plough and spade, 
Where the log-cabins stand, 

In the bonnie buckeye shade.' \ 

44 Oh what, tell me what, is to be your cabin's fate ? 

We'll wheel it to the capital and place it there elate, 
For a token and a sign of the bonnie Buckeye State. ' ' 

From that time forward the buckeye became an important factor in the can- 
vass ; cabins were multiplied and drawn in processions at all the leading meetings. 
The name was applied to General Harrison as 

44 Hurrah for the father of the Great West, 
For the Buckeye who follows the plough. " 

The name was also applied to Mr. Corwin, the candidate for governor, as — 

44 Tom Corwin is a Buckeye boy, 
Who stands not for the pay." 

And generally as 

44 Come all ye jolly Buckeye boys, 
And listen to my song. 

See what a host of lumber, 

And buckeye poles are here — 
And Buckeye boys without number, 

Aloft the logs to rear. ' ' 

But the buckeye was not only thus woven into song and sung and shouted 
from every log-cabin, but it became a popular emblem of the party and an article 
of commerce more especially along the Old National Road over which the public 
travel of the country was carried at that day in stage coaches, and men are } r et 
living who, in 1840, resided at Zanesville and can remember seeing crowds of 
men and boys going to the woods in the morning and returning later in the day 
carrying great bundles of buckeye sticks to be converted into canes and sold to 
travellers, or sent to adjoining States to be used for campaign purposes. 

At a mass meeting held in Western Pennsylvania in 1840 delegations were 
organized by townships, and at a preliminary meeting held to appoint officers to 
marshal the procession and make other necessary arrangements, it was resolved 
that each officer so appointed should provide himself with a buckeye cane as a 


badge of authority, and thereupon committees were sent to Ohio to procure a 
supply of canes for the occasion, with what success can be judged from the fact 
that while a procession extending over two miles in length and numbering more 
than 1,500 people, halted on one of the Chartiers creek hills until the one in front 
moved out of its way, an inventory taken showed the number of buckeye canes 
carried in the delegation to be 1,432, and in addition over 100 strings of buckeye 
beads were worn by a crew of young ladies dressed in white, who rode in an 
immense canoe, and carried banners representing the several States of the 

These may seem to be rather trivial affairs to be referred to on such an occasion 
as the present, but they serve to show the extent of the sentiment that prevailed 
at the time, and the molding process going on, so that when the long and heated 
canvass finally closed with a sweeping victory the crystallization was complete, 
and the name " Buckeye " was irrevocably fixed upon the State and people of 
Ohio, and continues to the present day one of the most popular and familiar 
sobriquets in use. 

So early as 1841, the president of an Eastern college established for the educa- 
tion of young women, snowing a friend over the establishment said : " There is a 
young lady from New York, that one is from Virginia, and this," pointing to 
another, " is one of our new Buckeye girls." A few years later, the Hon. S. S. 
Cox, a native Buckeye, and then a resident of Ohio, made a tour of Europe, and 
wrote home a series of bright and interesting letters over the nom deplume of " A 
Buckeye Abroad," which were extensively read, and helped still further to fix 
the name and give it character. The Buckeye State has now a population of 
more than 3,000,000 live Buckeyes, Buckeye coal and mining companies, Buckeye 
manufactories of every kind and description, Buckeye reapers and mowers, 
Buckeye stock, farms, houses, hotels, furnaces, rolling-mills, gas- and oil-wells, 
fairs, conventions, etc., and on to-morrow we propose to celebrate a Buckeye 

To the foregoing valuable article of Mr. Farrar we here append entire tne 
speech of Dr. Drake to which he alludes : 

" But why are the natives of. our valley called Buckeyes, and to whom are they 
indebted for the epithet? Mr. President, the memory that can travel a few years 
into the last century, and it only, can supply the answer. As the buckeye has a 
soft wood, and is peculiar to the valley of the Ohio, later emigrants to both banks 
of the river thought it a fib emblem for the native children, whom they found 
untaught and awkward, amusing themselves in the shade of its luxuriant foliage, 
or admiring the beautiful dyes of its ripening nuts, and Buckeye was, therefore, 
at first, a nickname — a term of derision. Those very children ha've, however, 
raised it into a title of honor ! They can have no higher eulogy. 

The tree which you have toasted, Mr. President, has the distinction of being 
one of a family of plants, but a few species of which exist on the earth. They 
constitute the genus iEsculus of the botanist, which belongs to the class Heptan- 
dria. Now the latter, a Greek phrase, signifies seven men; and there happens to 
be exactly seven species of the genus — thus they constitute the seven wise men 
of the woods; in proof of which, I may mention that there is not another family 
on the whole earth that possesses these talismanic attributes of wisdom. But 
this is not all. Of the seven species our emblem-tree was discovered last — it is 
the youngest of the family, the seventh son! and who does not know the manifold 
virtues of a seventh son ! 

Neither Europe nor Africa has a single native species of iEsculus and Asia but 
one. This is the JEsculus Hippocastimum, or horse-chestnut. Nearly 300 years 
since, a minister from one of the courts of Western Europe to that of Russia 
found this tree growing in Moscow, whither it had been brought from Siberia. 
He was struck with its beauty, and naturalized it in his own country. It spread 
with astonishing rapidity over that part of the continent, and crossing the 
channel, became one of the favorite shade-trees of our English ancestors. 

Such is the power of the buckeye wand ; and its influence has not been limited 
to the West. We may fearlessly assert that it has been felt over the whole of our 
common country. Till the time when the buckeye tree was discovered, slow, 


indeed, had been the progress of society in the new world. With the exception 
of the Revolution, but little had been achieved and but little was in prospect. 
Since that era society has been progressive, higher destinies have been unfolded, 
and a reactive Buckeye influence, perceptible to all acute observers, must assist 
in elevating our beloved country among the nations of the earth. 

From the very beginning of emigration it has been a friend to the ' new-comers.' 
Delighting in the richest soils, they soon learned to take counsel from it in the 
selection of their lands ; and it never yet proved faithless to any one who confided 
in it. 

When the first i log-cabin ' was to be hastily put up, the softness and lightness 
of its wood made it precious : for in those times laborers were few and axes once 
broken in hard timber could not be repaired. It was, moreover, of all the trees 
of the forest, that which best arrested the rifle-bullets of the Indian. 

When the infant Buckeyes came forth, to render these solitary cabins vocal, 
and make them instinct with life, cradles were necessary, and they could not be 
so easily dug out of any other tree. Thousands of men and women, who are 
now active and respectable performers on the great theatre of Western society, 
were once rocked in Buckeye troughs. 

Every native of the valley .of the Ohio should feel proud of the appellation, 
which, from the infancy of our settlements, has been conferred upon him; for 
the Buckeye has many qualities which may be regarded as typical of a noble 

It is not merely a native of the West, but peculiar to it; has received from 
the botanists the specific name of Ohioensis, from its abundance in our beau- 
tiful valley; and is the only tree of our whole forest that does not grow else- 
where. What other tree could be so fit an emblem of our native population? 

In those early days, when a boundless and lofty wilderness overshadowed 
every habitation, to destroy the trees and make way for the growth of corn 
was the great object— hie labor^ hie opus erat. Now, the lands where the buckeye 
abounded were, from the special softness of its wood, the easiest of all others to 
1 clear,' and in this way it afforded valuable though negative assistance to the 
* first settlers.' 

Foreign sugar was then unknown in these regions, and our reliance for this, as for many others,, was on the abounding woods. In reference to this 
sweet and indispensable acquisition, the buckeye lent us positive aid; for it 
was not only the best wood of the forest for troughs, but everywhere grew 
side by side with the graceful and delicious sugar maple. 

In the period of trying deprivation, to what quarter did the l first settlers ' turn 
their inquiring and anxious eyes ? The buckeye— yes, gentlemen, to the buckeye 
tree, and it rtroved a friend indeed, because, in the simple and expressive language 
of those early times, it was 'a friend in need.' Hats were manufactured of its 
fibres— the tray for the delicious ' pone ' and ' Johnny-cake,' the venison trencher, 
the noggin, the spoon, and the huge white family bowl for mush and milk, were 
carved from its willing trunk ; and the finest * bough ten ' vessels could not have 
imparted a more delicious flavor or left an impression so enduring. He who has 
ever been concerned in the petty brawls, the frolic and fun of a family of young 
Buckeyes around the great wooden bowl, overflowing with the ' milk of human 
kindness,' will carry the sweet remembrance to the grave. 

In all our woods there is not a tree so hard to kill as the buckeye. The deepest 
' girdling ' does not * deaden it,' and even after it is cut down and worked up into 
the side of a cabin it will send out young branches, denoting to all the world 
that Buckeyes are not easily conquered, and could with difficulty be destroyed. 

The buckeye has generally been condemned as unfit for fuel, but its very 
incombustibility has been found an advantage, for no tree of the forest is equally 
valuable for ' backlogs,' which are the sine qua non of every good cabin fire. Thus 
treated, it may be finally, though slowly, burnt; when another of its virtues 
immediately appears, as no other tree of our woods affords so great a quantity of 
alkali ; thus there is piquancy in its very ashes ! 

The bark of our emblem-plant has some striking properties. Under a proper 
method of preparation and use, it is said to be very efficacious in the cure of 
ague and fever, but unskillfully employed, it proves a violent emetic; which 


may indicate that he who tampers witk a Buckeye will not do it with impunity. 
The fruit of the buckeye offers much to interest us. The capsule or covering 
of the nut is beset with sharp prickles, which, incautiously grasped, will soon 
compel the aggressor to let go his hold. The nut is undeniably the most beautiful 
of all which our^ teeming woods bring forth ; and in many parts of the country 
is made subservient to the military education of our sons who, assembling in 
the 'muster-field' (where their fathers and elder brothers are learning to be 
militiamen), divide themselves into armies, and pelt each other with buckeye 
balls ; a military exercise at least as instructive as that which their seniors perform 
with buckeye sticks. The inner covering of the nut is highly astringent. Its 
substance, when grated down, is soapy, and has been used to cleanse fine fabrics 
in the absence of good soap. When' the powder is washed a large quantity of 
starch is obtained, which might, if times of scarcity could arise in a land so fertile 
as the native soil of this tree, be used for food. The water employed for this 
purpose holds in solution an active medicinal agent, which, unwarily swallowed, 
proves a poison; thus again admonishing those who would attempt to 'use up' 
a Buckeye, that they may repent of their rashness. 

Who has not looked with admiration on the foliage of the buckeye in early 
spring, while the more sluggish tenants of the forest remain torpid in their winter 
quarters? and what tree in all our wild woods bears a flower which can be 
compared with that of our favorite? We may fearlessly challenge for it the 
closest comparison. Its early putting forth, and the beauty of its leaves and 
blossoms, are appropriate types of our native population, whose rapid and beautiful 
development will not be denied by those whom I now address, nor disproved by 
a reference to their character ; while the remarkable fact that almost every attempt 
to transplant it into our streets has been a failure, shows that it will die in 
captivity, a guaranty that those who bear its name can never be enslaved. 

Finally, the buckeye derives its name from the resemblance of its nut to the 
eye of the buck, the finest organ of our noblest wild animal; while the name 
itself is compounded of a Welsh and a Saxon word, belonging therefore to the 
oldest portions of our vernacular tongue, and connecting us with the piimitive 
stocks, of which our fathers were but scions planted in the new world." 

Ohio Buckeye, or American Horsb Chestnut. 

[From " The North American Sylva ; " by F. Andrew Michaux. Paris : printed by C. D'Hautel, 1819,] 

Pavia Ohioensis. P. Foliis quinatis, insequaliter dentatis ; floribus subflavis ; fruct- 

ibus muricatis. 

" This species of horse chestnut, which is mentioned by no author that has 
hitherto treated of the trees and plants of North America, is unknown in the 
Atlantic parts of the United States. I have found it only beyond the mountains, 
and particularly on the banks of the Ohio for an interval of about 100 miles, 
between Pittsburg and Marietta, where it is extremely common. It is called 
' buckeye ' by the inhabitants, but as this name has been given to the pavia lutea, 
I have denominated it * Ohio buckeye ' because it is most abundant on the banks 
of this river, and have prefixed the synonym of 'American horse chestnut' 
because it proved to be a proper horse chestnut by its fruit, which is prickly like 
that of the Asiatic species instead of that of the pavise. 

The ordinary stature of the American horse chestnut is ten or twelve feet, but 
it sometimes equals thirty or thirty-five feet in height and twelve or fifteen inches 
in diameter. The leaves are palmated and consist of five leaflets parting from a 
common centre, unequal in size, oval-acuminate and irregularly toothed. The 
entire length of the leaf is nine or ten inches and its breadth six or eight inches. 

The bloom of this tree is brilliant. Its flowers appear early in the spring and 
are collected in numerous white bunches. The fruit is of the same color with 
that of the common horse chestnut and of the large buckeye, and of about half 
the size. It is contained in fleshy, prickly capsules, and is ripe in the beginning 
of autumn. 

On the trunk of the largest trees the bark is blackish and the cellular integ- 
ument is impregnated with a venomous and disagreeable odor. The wood is 
white, soft and wholly useless. 


The value of the Ohio buckeye, or American horse chestnut, consists chiefly 
in the beauty of its flowers, which, with its rapid vegetation and hardy endurance 
of cold, will bring it into request both in Europe and America as an ornamental 

Michaux says he found the large buckeye, or pavia lutea, in its greatest pro- 
fusion and expansion in the mountains of the Carolinas and Georgia. He first 
met with it on the Allegheny mountains in Virginia, near latitude 39°. It there 
towers tc the height of sixty or seventy feet, with a diameter of three or four 
feet, and is considered as a certain proof of the richness of the. land. " The 
wood," he says, " from its softness and want of durability, can subserve no useful 
purpose. Even in beauty this species is inferior to the common horse chestnut, 
and can never supplant that magnificent tree." The engraving in this article is 
copied from that in the superb work of Michaux. 



Prepared by Frank Henry Hoive from the Reports of 


Henry Dorn was born in Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany, Feb. 16, 1843, where he attended the 
public school from the age of six to fourteen years. 
He learned the trade of machinist, serving as an ap- 
prentice from 1857 to 1862. During his apprenticeship 
he attended the night college in his native city and 
soon became, from natural aptitude and close applica- 
tion to his studies, an accomplished draughtsman. 

After the completion of his apprenticeship Mr. Dorn 
went to Paris, France, where he obtained employment 
in the shops of the Northern Railroad Company. He 
also worked in other shops on stationary engines, tools, 
telegraphic instruments, and in other branches of 
mechanism, as well as in the drawing-rooms of differ- 
ent firms and companies by whom he was employed, 
lie attended college in that city, thereby more readily 
acquiring a knowledge of the French language. Mr. 
Dorn now speaks with fluency and accuracy German, 
French and English. 

In 1869 Mr. Dorn left Paris and came to America, 
landing in Philadelphia, where he soon procured em- 
ployment as a mechanical engineer. Here, on the 12th 
of September, 1871, he was married to Miss Emily 
Dorn (though of the same name, no relation), by whom 
he has had four children. Shortly after his marriage 
he removed to Cleveland, where he continued to reside 
until 1884. While in that city he was employed by 
the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Railroad Com- 
pany for over six years. He left the employ of this 
company to accept the position of superintendent of the 
iron work of the Cleveland viaduct, one of the finest 
structures of the kind in the world. He was subse- 
quently employed by the civil engineer of Cleveland 

to superintend the laying of the block pavement on • 

some of the streets of that city. 

In 1880 Mr. Dorn was employed in the erection of the building and in putting up the machinery 
of the H. P. Wire Kail Company, the largest factory of the kind hi the United States. Just as the 
structure was about completed, in 1881, through the carelessness or ignorance of the general manager 
of the company, Mr. Dorn met with an accident resulting in an injury to his spine, from which he has 
never fully recovered, his right side remaining in a partially paralyzed condition for nearly three 

On the ltth of April, 1884, Gov. Hoadly tendered Mr. Dorn the position of inspector of workshops 
and factories, under the law which had just passed the Legislature creating that office. He accepted 
the position and immediately entered upon the discharge of its duties. In this position he has shown 
exceptional qualifications and been of incalculable benefit to those for whose protection in health and 
limb the office was created. His first annual report to the governor showed the importance of the 
office, and the legislature very wisely provided him with three assistants. His ability as a mechanical 
engineer and his careful and systematic management of the office have placed it in the front rank of 
offices of that character in the United States. 

Taking a deep interest in the subject of factory inspection generally, Mr. Dorn made an appeal to 
all officers of that kind in the United States, and by untiring efforts succeeded in getting together the 
first national convention of factory inspectors everheld in this country. It was held in Philadelphia, 
Pa., on June 8 and 9, 1887, and Mr. Dorn had the honor of being the first presiding officer of the con- 
vention, and before the close of the session was unanimously elected permanent secretary and 

The second convention was held in the city of Boston, Mass., on August 8, 9 and 10, 1888, and Mr. 
Dorn was unauimously re-elected for a second time. 




On April 4, 1884, an act was passed by the Legislature of Ohio for the inspec- 
tion of workshops and factories. This was the third legislative act on the part 
of any State in the Union for such a purpose. Section 2,873a of that act reads 
as follows: 

" The governor of the State shall appoint a suitable person, to be known as the 
inspector of the sanitary condition, comfort and safety of shops and factories, 
who shall be a competent and practical mechanic in practice, whose duty it shall 
be to visit all factories or shops where ten or more persons are employed, and to 
carefully inspect the sanitary condition of the same, to examine the system of 
sewerage in connection with said shops and factories, the situation and condition 
of water-closets or urinals in and about such shops and factories, and also the 
system of heating, lighting and ventilating all rooms in such factories and shops 
where persons are employed at daily labor, and also as to the means of exit from 
such places in case of fire and other disaster, and also all belting, shafting, gear- 
ing, elevators, drums and machinery of every kind and description in and about 
such factories and shops, and see that the same are not located so as to be dan- 
gerous to employees when engaged in their ordinary duties, and that the same, ^o 
far as practicable, are securely guarded, and that every vat, pan, or structure 
filled with molten metal or hot liquid shall be surrounded with proper safeguards 
for preventing accident or injury to those employed at or near them." 

In pursuance of the provisions of this act, on April 11, 1884, Mr. Henry Dora, 
of Cleveland, Ohio, was appointed inspector, at a salary of $1,500 per year and 
$600 allowance for travelling expenses. Three days later he took the oath of 
office and entered upon the discharge of its .duties at his office in Cleveland. 
Owing to the inadequate appropriation of funds, but a comparatively small part 
of the 20,000 or more workshops and factories throughout the State could be 
visited. The zeal of Mr. Dora caused him to be as energetic and economical as 
possible in order to accomplish the most good with the means at his command. 

The success of the entire system of the department is no doubt largely due to 
his energy and perseverance. His being a practical engineer, draughtsman and 
machinist and possessing the knowledge necessary for imparting information in 
relation to improvements on machinery, its preservation, protection, etc., espe- 
cially adapts him to the highly responsible duties of his office. In his first re- 
port, covering only the last six months of the year 1884, he says : 

" I began my inspection in the city of Cleveland, Cuyahoga county, but finding 
it impossible to make a proper inspection of all the shops and factories in the 
city of Cleveland first, without entirely neglecting other parts of the State, I 
confined my inspection to the leading establishments, and to such less prominent 
places as my attention was called to by persons employed therein. 

Out of nearly 300 establishments in the city of Cleveland I inspected 173 from 
April 16th to June 16th, out of which I found only twenty -seven complying 
with the requirements of the law creating the office of State Inspector of Shops 
and Factories. I ordered important changes in forty-one establishments and 
minor changes were ordered in most of the others. 

On the 17th of June I started on an inspection tour and stopped first in Crest- 
line, Crawford county, where I inspected two establishments, ordering minor 
changes in one. 

From Crestline I went to Galion, Crawford county, where I inspected five 
establishments, ordering minor changes in one and very important changes in 
another. • 

From Galion I went to Delaware, Delaware county, where I inspected six 
establishments, two of which were complying with the requirements of the law 
creating this office, and minor changes were ordered in three establishments. 

From Delaware I went direct to Columbus, Franklin county, where my first 
duty was to notify all establishments in that city of my coming. I found that 
there were nearly 200 establishments to be visited, and out of this number I 
visited seventy -five from June 23d to July 15th, out of which I found only ten 
that were being operated in accordance with the law creating this office. I 
ordered important changes in thirteen establishments and minor changes in 
most of the others. 

During the same time I visited also Logan, Hocking county, where I inspected 


seven establishments, out of which I found only one not amenable to the law. 
Minor changes were ordered in four and very important changes in two establish- 

On July 16th I left Columbus and went to Cincinnati, Hamilton county, where 
I found a great field of labor. An investigation disclosed the fact that Cincin- 
nati had over 1,000 manufacturing establishments to be visited, which would, 
if properly inspected, take the inspector over a year, as most of the buildings 
are from five to seven and even more stories high. The most careful work was 
required here, as sanitary conditions, safety and comfort and every provision 
of the law, were found to present a strong claim to attention. 

I visited, in the city of Cincinnati, one hundred and seventy -five (175) of the 
leading establishments, and such others as my attention was called to, from time 
to time, by persons employed in such shops and factories. 

I started out in the same manner, as I did in other cities, by notifying all 
manufacturers and owners of shops and factories, nearly 1,300 in number, of my 
coming. Out of the 175 establishments visited, from July 17 to October 11, I 
found only eleven being operated in accordance with the law creating this office. 
I ordered important changes in sixty establishments, and minor changes were 
ordered in most of the others. 

During the time I stayed in Cincinnati I made occasional trips to the other 
cities and revisited shops and factories where I ordered changes with satisfactory 
results. I found many shops in Cleveland which complied with my requests in 
regard to important changes, also a number in Columbus and Logan. 

Receiving a letter from Akron, Summit county, calling my attention to the 
shops and factories of that city, I started on October 21 from Cleveland to Akron, 
where I found nearly fifty (50) establishments to be visited, and, after notifying 
all owners of shops and factories, I inspected forty-five of them from October 
21 to 31. 

It is a pleasure to state that, generally speaking, I found the establishments in 
Akron in better condition and nearer the requirements of the law than any that 
I have visited. 

Out of the forty-five establishments I inspected I found twenty-five working in 
accordance to law creating the office of Inspector of Shops and Factories. 

Minor changes were ordered in nine establishments and very important 
changes in eleven. Nearly all of the latter changes were in sewer pipe factories 
and potteries. 

In these establishments the greatest danger I found was in the mills where the 
clay is ground. These mills are started or stopped by means of a cone or fric- 
tion pulley, and I found the most of these pulleys were not given lift enough or 
clearance enough to make them safe, as it will sometimes happen that these mills 
will start up of themselves, either through dirt falling between the two fric- 
tion pulleys, or through the starting lever slipping from the bolt, which I found 
in many instances very poorly secured. Most of the levers were only provided 
with a common iron rod, with an eye in the end, which eye was carelessly 
hooked on to a common bolt or spike, which was driven in the wall, whereas 
those eyes should, by all means, be properly provided with hooks securely fast- 
ened in the wall, so that the jarring of the mill cannot unhook the iron rods and 
thereby start the mill up suddenly, endangering the lives of persons engaged in 
•shoveling clay out of the mills. Several accidents of that kind happened in 
Akron, one man being killed and others had their legs broken and were badly 

Emery Polishing Wheels. 

I found in polishing establishments, stove foundries and other shops and fac- 
tories where emery wheels are used continually that those wheels, in a good 
many instances, were too high-speeded, which" is very dangerous and often re- 
sults in their bursting and consequently in the killing or serious injury of some- 
body. I herewith present a table for speeding solid emery wheels of different 
diameters : 


Diameter of Wheels in Inches. 


"■: 4 o 



8 9 










Number of Revolutions per Minute, 



3,200 J 







1,350 ( 1,200 







Wheels which are speeded higher than is shown in the above table are dan- 
gerous to the operator. uau 
Another danger which arises from emery wheels of all descriptions is thai 
most ot them are not provided with exhaustions, and the persoiTwoSg a them 
are compelled to inhale the po.sonous dust, which will settle on the lunV and 
■ in most cases consumption will be the result. Providing emerv wheels with ex 
gvhaust fans is not only beneficial to the person operating such wheels but a so to 
: the owners of establishments where such wheels are used 

An exhaust fan will absorb every bit of emery dust which escapes from the 

wheel and therefore all other machinery in such establishments, espeda Hialt 

mg, will be freed from emery dust, and consequently Inst three t mc^l on" 

The saving o shafting and boxes alone will pay the cost of the use of an ^ 

•• fee facts many pr ° pnetors of s « ch establishments are totally Jlmd to 


Another important matter is the use of buzz-saws in planing-mills and other 
establishments. They are, in fact, the most dangerous tool in 4e ami al hou4 
Jfirrt tlie,n fc'ow.their danger, in the course of tine ley become 
careless. Therefore a protection is absolutely necessary, and this also can be 
done at a small expense, and to the advantage of both operator and ow, W 
putting a guard or hood over the buzz-saw, which will nof i u t\ e I l s ° i, ^g 
with the work of the sawyer, but, on the contrary, will enable him to ton 
more work m less time, while protecting his life and limbs ° Ut 

Another prolific source of danger is the non-protection of flv vrl^l-. ™ <,+„ 

J be eccentric of an engine is generally located between the bed-nlitn of thr 

U i ifnf '■? n<3eaV -° n "? t0 !lSCertain the timc of dft y f ™>» * clock ha L in* on 

win lt'on ] : SUCl f a T d r tSCanlH : P re , vented by a small outlay of money which 
I V all , e ™>te, be less expensive than contesting suits for 'damages in co ir 
JW and sliall m the future enforce the kw . n regard tQ ^»^" «,u, t. 

Another danger I have discovered- 
Very unsafe condition of elevators. 

-and it is one that I meet everywhere— the 


In many places elevator wells, or shafts, are not properly and in many cases 
not at all protected. On all floors doors open either directly into the shafts or 
have no protection or safeguards, and the lives of persons working at their 
ordinary avocations are endangered. 

All these places should be protected by automatic doors or safeguards, so set 
that they will raise and lower when the elevator is at the floor. I have not yet 
gone further than to suggest that all elevators be provided with automatic doors, 
but wherever the necessity for protection exists have insisted upon an adequate 
safeguard being provided. 


Nothing in the course of my inspection has more strongly impressed me than 
the necessity of requiring all shops and lactones of a greater elevation than two 
stories to be provided with a safe and efficient system of fire-escapes. The duty 
of supplying safeguards against casualties always likely to occur in the event of 
conflagrations in crowded shops and factories is so obvious and imperative that 
there can be no difference of opinion respecting it. It is of that class of self-as- 
sertive obligations which admit of no controversy, the only question being as to 
the best method of adequately meeting it Nevertheless it is a fact, amply 
demonstrated in the observation I have had, that very many owners and pro- 
prietors of shops and factories are wholly indifferent to this important duty, and 
I have found some so utterly destitute of all concern for the safety of employees 
as to refuse to provide proper escapes when their attention was called to the ne- 
cessity for such provision. It is somewhat difficult to speak with calmness of 
men whose overweening selfishness has excluded from their natures every spark 
of consideration for their fellow-beings, who, while liberally insuring their prop- 
erty against fire, so that in case of such a visitation — a danger always imminent 
—their pockets shall not suffer, will not expend a dollar for the security of the 
lives of 'those by whose labor they profit, and it is but simple justice that this 
class be compelled, by the mandate of inflexible law, to perform a duty which 
men of ordinary humane instincts accede to without a question. The frequent 
occurrence of fires which have their most serious result in the loss of human 
lives furnishes fearful warnings that should not be heedlessly dismissed from at- 
tention, and I submit that the business of legislation can have few worthier ob- 
jects than that of diminishing, so far as may be, the possibility of such 

In Cincinnati many of the buildings used for shops and factories are from five 
to nine stones high, and generally the first three or four floors of the building 
are used as storerooms, the employes occupying the upper floors, escape from 
which would in most cases be extremely difficult in the event of a rapidly spread- 
ing fire, and loss of life or serious bodily injury almost inevitable. Most of the 
buildings are improperly constructed with reference to means of egress, the 
ingenuity of the architects having apparently been exerted to secure the greatest 
possible economy of space in the matter of stairways. Some of these buildings 
are provided with but a single stairway, and where there are two or more they 
are generally located so near together that a fire which would render any of them 
useless as an avenue of escape would be very likely to do so with all. In many 
cases, also, these stairways are located near elevators, which are most potent aids 
to the rapid progress of fire. While it is not the province of the State to require 
that these faults and detects in the construction of buildings shall be remedied, 
it is unquestionably within the rightful powers of the State to demand that the 
security which the builders have felled to provide shall be supplied in some other 
way, and a thorough system of fire-escapes is the only other practicable method. 
The use of straight ladders, as a substitute for some improved fire-escape, on 
buildings over two stories high, should not be allowed, since they are worse than 
useless as a means of escape. Not one in twenty who should attempt to reach 
the ground in this way would get there in safety. They might escape the fire 
only to find death or permanent injuries from being precipitated to the earth 

The great pertinency of these remarks was brought forcibly to the notice of the 
people of the State by two horrible casualties which occurred in Cincinnati during 


the spring of 1885 : one the burning of Dreman & Co.'s rag-factory, by which 
nine lives were lost, the other the burning of the building on West Sixth street, 
occupied by the Parisian Dyeing and Scouring Company and the Sullivan steam- 
printing establishment, by which sixteen lives were sacrificed, and several persons 
seriously wounded, if not maimed for life. In both these holocausts most if not 
all of the lives lost could have been saved had the buildings been provided with 
properly constructed fire-escapes. 

In my judgment the most secure and effective plan is that of a balcony on each 
story, with incline ladders extending from one another between the windows. 
Persons descending on ladders thus placed avoid the flames that issue from the 
windows, are in no danger of falling, and by the exercise of the simplest care in 
their movements may make their escape unscathed. I found Cincinnati to be a 
great field of labor, and during the necessarily short time that I was there I 
ordered the erection of about fifty fire-escapes on shops and factories. In most 
cases these orders were complied with, but in several instances the agents for 
buildings refused to pay any attention to the demand of the Inspector that fire- 
escapes should be supplied. 

The law relating to this matter would seem to be sufficiently explicit in its 
requirements, and the penalties for violation ample to insure a universal compli- 
ance with it, but such is very far from being the fact. 

In 1887 Chief-Inspector Dorn invented a fire-escape which has been pronounced 
by all experts to be the simplest and most practicable invention of the kind 
extant. It consists of a rectangular enclosure of brick, built from the foundations 
to the roof, and within the exterior walls of the building. This enclosure or well 
contains the stairways, access to which is had from balconies constructed on the 
outside of the building at the level of each floor. The balconies communicate by 
a door with each floor of the main building and by another door with the 
enclosure containing the stairwa}^s. By means of this arrangement the occupants 
of each floor can immediately pass out of the building on the same floor, and 
along the balcony to the stairway which, being entirely cut off from the interior 
of the entire building, would be perfectly free from flame or smoke, even if the 
whole building should be on fire. 

This escape evidently obviates a serious objection to all others, viz., the fear 
people have of descending them, especially from very high buildings. This 
invention, the result of Mr. Dorn's ingenuity, has not been patented, owing to the 
humane desire of its inventor to make its adoption as universal and free from 
expense as possible." 

On the subject of " child labor " Mr. Dorn says : 

" The subject of child labor has engaged the earnest attention of publicists and 
philanthropists for generations, and in the general progress of ameliorating influ- 
ences and agencies this matter has received a share of consideration. That it has 
not obtained that full measure of regard which its great importance merits will 
not be seriously questioned by any one whose experience or observation give him 
authority to speak. 

Legislation has bravely sought to baffle the cupidity and selfishness of those 
who would profit by the labor of children, but its success has been only partial 
and irregular, and throughout this enlightened nation thousands of children of 
tender years are now laboring ten and twelve hours a day in shops and factories, 
the great majority of whom should be acquainted with no severer tasks than those 
of the school and the home. 

Ohio, I regret to say, has her full share of guilt in this matter, the statute 
relating to the employment of children under sixteen years of age being freely and 
persistently violated, for the obvious reason that no adequate means are provided 
for its enforcement. 

In visiting the different shops and factories in the regular course of my duties 
I made it a part of my inquiries to ascertain the extent to which children were 
employed, and in many places I found children of nine or ten years of age per- 
forming labor that should give employment to adults, or at least to minors who 
have passed the period of childhood, and might properly be expected to earn 
their own livelihood. In the cigar -factories of Cincinnati I found a great num- 
ber of children employed, the demand for this class of workers being at that time 


probably exceptionally large, owing to the strike of the cigar-makers. I also 
found many young children in chair-factories in different parts of the State, where 
they worked at polishing and painting , chair-frames and making cane-seats. 
They were also found in printing-offices, nickel-plating works, paper-box-fac- 
tories, match -factories, etc. 

While it is true that much of the work required of children thus employed is 
not of a severely exacting nature, yet it must be maintained that the practice of 
subjecting young children to a daily round of labor for which they receive a 
mere pittance in the form of wages is a wrong alike to the children and to the 
State, and wholly antagonistic to the enlightened and liberal sentiment of this 

The tens of thousands of children throughout the country who are in this way 
deprived of the opportunity to obtain as much of an education as would enable 
them, when grown to adult age, to understand the obligations of citizenship, is a 
dark blot upon our character as a people, for which our advanced civilization and 
wonderful material progress do not atone. It is true that ample provision is 
made for securing to every child in the State at least an elementary education, 
but the State is still derelict if it fails to compel those in whose behalf such pro- 
vision is made to take full advantage of it. Now it is sufficient to declare, in the 
form of a statute, that this must be done. Laws do not enforce themselves. 
There must be an active, energetic, and vigilant executive force behind them, 
fully armed with the power to put them into effect. 

There is hardly any limit to what may be said upon this subject, but the 
object in referring to it here is simply to bring it to the thought and attention of 
the legislative power, and not to give to it elaborate discussion. Such discussion, 
indeed, it cannot need with intelligent men, who intuitively understand that the 
intellectual and moral training of the youth of the commonwealth is of far greater 
importance to its future welfare than can be any consideration relating to its 
merely material affairs. But the policy of controlling and restricting child labor 
finds approval as well upon economic as upon moral grounds. There is no gain 
to the general welfare from this class of ill-remunerated toil. Its products are 
not materially, if at all, cheapened to the consumer. The profit is reaped by 
the employers, and it is the heartless cupidity of this class, incidentally aided 
by the improvidence of parents, that is responsible for the extensive prevalence 
of child labor. To successfully combat this sordid instinct there is required 
something more aggressive than a simple statutory declaration of hostility. As 
previously observed, there must be a zealous and vigilant executive force, amply 
supported behind the declaration." 

During the first six months after the enactment of the law for the inspection 
of workshops and factories Mr. Dorn visited 487 establishments, with a working 
capacity of 45,511 males and 4,808 females. Letters from many of the leading 
manufacturers and business men of the State were received, congratulating him 
on the success of his efforts, and expressing their approbation of his recommenda- 
tions, and asking for a vigorous prosecution of the good work and the rigid 
enforcement of the law. 

The work performed by Mr. Dorn was remarkable in its extent and efficiency, 
and it was only by his perfect system of conducting the affairs of his office that so 
much was accomplished. The appropriation was so small in consideration of the 
work necessary for the enforcement of the law as to almost defeat its own object, 
and in closing his first report Mr. Dorn called the attention of the Legislature to 
the necessity of an increased appropriation, as follows : 

"To carry on the office so as to do justice to all interests there should be at 
least three deputy-inspectors appointed. One inspector cannot do the work as 
thoroughly and satisfactorily as it should be done. 

An appropriation should also be made by the General Assembly to create a 
contingent fund outside of the travelling expenses. 

So far the Inspector has had to use a portion of his own salary for defraying 
necessary expenses, such as postage, telegrams, express charges, and many other 
items too numerous to mention. 

The Inspector would also recommend the striking out of the word " ten " in 
section 2873a, where it says, "whose duty it shall be to visit all factories and 


shops where ten or more persons are employed," and insert the word "five." I 
have found many shops where fewer than ten persons were employed which 
needed many changes, but the Inspector had no power to require them to be 

The allowance of $600 a year for travelling expenses is insufficient. The In- 
spector has, while exercising the greatest economy in expenditures, used from 
April 16 to November 15 $469.23, leaving but $130.77 of the allowance in hand, 
a sum hardly sufficient to pay travelling expenses to the close of the year ending 
December 31, 1884. 

The Inspector also. deems this the proper place in which to state that, owing to 
no appropriation having been made for office purposes, he has been compelled to 
establish an office in his own home, where the business has been necessarily carried 
on atsome disadvantage. The Inspector should have an office located with refer- 
ence to the class of persons with whom he has official relations, so that he can be 
at all times easily accessible." 

In pursuance of the recommendations in Inspector Dorn's first report an 
amendment to the act creating the office was passed April 25, 1885. The amend- 
ment made provision for the inspection of all workshops and factories, the act of 
1884 providing only for the inspection of those employing ten or more persons. 
It also gave the chief-inspector power to appoint three assistant inspectors, each 
at a salary of $1,000 per year and $500 for travelling expenses; continuing the 
salary of the chief-inspector at $1,500 annually, with $600 additional as a con- 
tingent fund for office and other incidental expenses. Provision was also made 
for a room in the State-house for the transaction of the business of the office. 
With these increased facilities the work of inspection was very much extended 
and the efficiency of the office greatly increased. 

In 1886 the efficiency of the office was still farther increased by a small 
appropriation for clerical hire ; previous to this all the clerical work of the office 
had been performed by the chief-inspector. 

During the year 1877 the number of shops and factories visited was 3,581, 
being an increase of 474 over the previous year. 

Again, from a later report, we quote Mr. Dorn's language: 

" When the great number of establishments in the State engaged in the various 
branches of industry — over 20,000 in 1880, according to the federal census of that 
year — using every conceivable kind of machinery, employing hundreds of 
thousands of people, of all ages and conditions, from the delicate child of eight 
or nine years to the gray -haired man and woman, some little idea may be formed 
of the interests involved and the importance to the State of a complete and satis- 
factory inspection of these numerous generators of disease and death as well as 
of wealth. The magnitude of the duties devolving upon the chief-inspector and 
his assistants can readily be seen, and to enable them to accomplish the purposes 
for which they were appointed they require, and should receive, the hearty sup- 
port of every intelligent citizen of the State. 

Tha importance, if not the necessity, of a thorough inspection of all places 
where people are employed at labor, no matter what the character of the work, 
must be apparent to every person who has given the subject the least considera- 
tion. On the thoroughness of such inspection depends, in a great measure, the 
safety of tens of thousands of our population, men, women, and children. And 
w r ho will claim that there is anything more deserving the careful attention of the 
General Assembly than the lives and health of the people on whom the State 
depends for its wealth and prosperity ? This subject transcends in importance 
all other matters coming before the Legislature, with the possible exception of 
that of education. 

Not only Ohio, but most of the other States, as well as the general government 
have provided, by the creation of commissions and the expenditure of large sums 
of money for the protection of domestic animals from contagious and other dis- 
eases, and from brutal treatment by their owners and others having them in 
charge. No one objects to this; but, on the contrary, it is continually urged 
that the State does not do as much in this behalf as it should. Figures of por- 
tentous magnitude are given, showing the immense value of our live-stock, and, 
therefore, the obligation of the State to make every effort to protect this interest. 


This protection is asked mainly in the interest of owners, a purely dollar-and- 
cent view of the question. The urgency for legislative action in any particular 
case seems to be proportioned to the monetary value of the interest involved. 
And no one questions the propriety of such legislation. The fruits of their toil 
should be secured to the toilers as far as they can be by the State without inter- 
fering with individual freedom of action, or attempting to lessen individual re- 
sponsibility. In some cases, as in the one under consideration, individual, 
isolated action is of no. avail to stay the ravages of disease, especially if of a 
contagious character, and the State is called upon to interpose its power, not for 
the especial benefit of a single individual or of a class, but in the interest of all. 
It was for such purposes the State government was established, that society itself 
was organized. 

If legislation for such a purpose is entitled to the indorsement of our people, 
who will question the propriety of all legislation necessary to protect human 
beings — to protect the lives, the limbs, the health of those who wield the indus- 
trial power of the State, and from whose ranks, in a few years, will come those 
who will administer the political affairs of the State, and, to a great extent, give 
tone to our moral and social fabric? Intelligence and moral worth are not 
developed and propagated in poorly ventilated workshops, nor are the better 
instincts of man assisted by maimed and mutilated limbs. 

Owing to circumstances which it would be out of place to discuss here, many 
children of tender years, instead of attending school and acquiring the knowledge 
necessary to fit them for future usefulness, are forced into workshops and fac- 
tories to assist their parents in supporting the family. They are incapable of 
forming correct opinions as to the sanitary conditions of the places in which they 
are employed, of the safety of the buildings, or of the dangerous character of the 
machinery by which they are surrounded. If a bullock or a horse is considered 
worthy of the protecting care of the law-making power of the State, certainly the 
tender child, endowed with reason, immature and undeveloped as yet, can lay 
claim to a part of the attention of those whom the people have entrusted with the 
management of the government. These children will, in a few years, constitute 
a large portion of the political power of the State, and their future characters and 
worth to society depend largely upon their happiness or unhappiness, upon their 
sound bodies and sound minds, their healthy or diseased constitutions, in their 
youth. The more they are'poisoned by the impure atmosphere that too often 
fills workshops from cellar to garret, or are mangled by insecure machinery, the 
less likely they will be to possess either the ability or the inclination to perform 
the more important duties devolving upon them as men and women in such 
manner as will secure their own welfare as well as that of their fellow-beings. 
These undeniable truths should be well pondered by every one who has the 
welfare of his fellow-creatures at heart. To make the superstructure durable the 
foundation must be sound and free from defects of any kind." 


[The Confederate Congress, July 13, 1787.] 

An Ordinance for the government of the territory of the United States northwest of the 

river Ohio. 

Section 1. Be it ordained by the United States in Congress assembled, That the 
said territory, for the purpose of temporary government, be one district, subject, 
however, to be divided into two districts, as future circumstances may, in the 
opinion of Congress, make it expedient. 

Sec. 2. Be it ordained by the authority aforesaid, That the estates both of 
resident and non-resident proprietors in the said territory, dying intestate, shall 
descend to, and be distributed among, their children and the descendants of it 
deceased child in equal parts, the descendants of a deceased child or grandchild 
to take the share of their deceased parent in equal parts among them ; and 
where there shall be no children or descendants, then in equal parts to the next 
cf km in equal degree; and among collaterals, the children of a deceased brother 
or sister of the intestate shall have, in equal parts among them, their deceased 
parent's share; and there shall, in no case, be a distinction between kindred of 
the whole and half blood; saving in all cases to the widow of the intestate, her 
third part of the real estate for life, and one-third part of the personal estate; 
and this law relative to descents and dower, shall remain in full force until 
altered by the legislature of the district. And until the governor and judges 
shall adopt laws as hereinafter mentioned, estates in the said territory may be 
devised or bequeathed by wills in writing, signed and sealed by him or her in 
whom the estate may be, (being of full age), and attested by three witnesses • and 
real estates may be conveyed by lease and release, or bargain and sale, signed 
sealed and delivered by the person, being of full age, in whom the estate may 
be, and attested by two witnesses, provided such wills be duly proved, and such 
conveyances be acknowledged, or the execution thereof duly proved, and be re- 
corded within one year after proper magistrates, courts, and registers, shall be 
appointed for that purpose; and personal property may be transferred by de- 
livery, saving, however to the French and Canadian inhabitants, and other 
settlers of the Kaskaskies, Saint Vincents, and the neighboring villages, who have 
heretofore professed themselves citizens of Virginia, their laws and customs now 
m force among them, relative to the descent and conveyance of property. 

Sec.3. Be it ordained by the authority aforesaid, That there shall be appointed-, 
from time to time, by Congress, a governor, whose commission shall continue in 
force for the term of three years, unless sooner revoked by Congress ; he shall 
reside m the district, and have a freehold estate therein, in one thousand acres of 
land, while in the exercise of his office.- 

Sec. 4. There shall be appointed from time to time, by Congress, a secre- 
tary whose commission shall continue in force for four years, unless sooner 
revoked ; rmshall reside in the district, and have a freehold estate therein, in five 
hundred acres of land, while in the exercise of his office. It shall be his duty 
to keep and preserve the acts and laws passed by the legislature, and the public 
records of the district, and the proceedings of the governor in his executive de- 
partment, and transmit authentic copies of such acts and proceedings every six 
.months to the Secretary of Congress. There shall also be appointed a court, to 
consist of three judges, any two of whom to form a court, who shall have a 

218 ORDINANCE OF 1787. 

common-law jurisdiction, and reside in the district, and have each therein a free- 
hold estate, in five hundred acres of land, while in the exercise of their offices ; 
and their commissions shall continue in force during good behavior. 

Sec. 5. The governor and judges, or a majority of them, shall adopt and 
publish in the district such laws of the original States, criminal and civil, as may 
be necessary, and best suited to the circumstances of the district, and report 
them to Congress from time to time, which laws shall be in force in the district 
until the organization of the general assembly therein, unless disapproved of by 
Congress ; but afterwards the legislature shall have authority to alter them as 
they shall think fit. 

Sec. 6. The governor, for the time being, shall be commander-in-chief of the 
militia, appoint and commission all officers in the same below the rank of general 
officers ; all general officers shall be appointed and commissioned by. Congress. 

Sec. 7. Previous to the organization of the general assembly the governor 
^shall appoint such magistrates, and other civil officers, in each county or town- 
ship, as he shall find necessary for the preservation of the peace and good order 
in the same. After the general assembly shall be organized the powers and 
•duties of magistrates and other civil officers shall be regulated and defined by 
the said assembly ; but all magistrates and other civil officers, not herein other- 
wise directed, shall, during the continuance of this temporary government, be 
appointed by the governor. 

Sec 8. For the prevention of crimes and injuries, the laws to be adopted 
or made shall have force in all parts of the district, and, for the execution of pro- 
cess, criminal and civil, the governor shall make proper divisions thereof; and 
he shall proceed, from time to time, as circumstances may require, to lay out the 
parts of the district in which the Indian titles shall have been extinguished, into 
counties and townships, subject, however, to such alterations as may thereafter 
be made by the legislature. 

Sec 9. So soon as there shall be five thousand free male inhabitants, of 
full age, in the district, upon giving proof thereof to the governor, they shall re- 
ceive authority, with time and place, to elect representatives from their counties 
or townships, to represent them in the general assembly: Provided, That for 
every five hundred free male inhabitants there shall be one representative, and 
so on, progressively, with the number of free male inhabitants, shall the right of 
representation increase, until the number of representatives shall amount to 
twenty-five ; after which the number and proportion of representatives shall be 
regulated by the. legislature : Provided, That no person be eligible or qualified 
to act as a representative, unless he shall have been a citizen of one of the United 
States three years, and be a resident in the district, or unless he shall have re- 
sided in the district three years; and, in either case, shall likewise hold in his 
own right, in fee-simple, two hundred acres of land within the same: Provided 
also, That a freehold in fifty acres of land in the district, having been a citizen 
of one of the States, and being resident in the district, or the like freehold and 
two years' residence in the district, shall be necessary to qualify a man as an 
elector of a representative. 

Sec 10. The representatives thus elected shall serve for the term of two 
years ; and in case of the death of a representative, or removal from office, the 
governor shall issue a writ ta the county or township, for which he was a 
member, to elect another in his stead, to serve for the residue of the term. 

Sec. 11. The general assembly, or legislature, shall consist of the governor, 
legislative council, and a house of representatives. The legislative council shall 
consist of five members, to continue in office five years, unless sooner removed 
by Congress; any three of whom to be a quorum; and the members of the 
council shall be nominated and appointed in the following manner, to wit: As 
soorj as representatives shall be elected the governor shall appoint a time and 
place for them to meet together, and when met they shall nominate ten persons, 
resident in the district, and each possessed of a freehold in five hundred acres of 
land, and return their names to Congress, five of whom Congress shall appoint 
and commission to serve as aforesaid ; and whenever a vacancy shall happen in 
the council, by dettth or removal from office, the boj|se of representatives shall 
nominate two persons, qualified as aforesaid, for eacH' vacancy, and return their 


names to Congress, one of whom Congress shall appoint and commission for the 
residue of the term ; and every five years, four months at least before the expira- 
tion of the tune of service of the members of the council, the said house shall 
nominate ten persons, qualified as aforesaid, and return their names to Congress, 
live of whom Congress shall appoint and commission to serve as members of the 
council five years, unless sooner removed. And the governor, legislative council 
and house ot representatives shall have authority to make laws in all cases for 
the good government of the district, not repugnant to the principles and articles 
in this ordinance established and declared. And all bills, having passed by a 
majority in the house, and by a majority in the council, shall be referred to the 
governor for his absent; but no bill, or legislative act whatever, shall be of any 
force without his assent. The governor shall have power to convene, prorogue 
and dissolve the general assembly when, in his opinion, it shall be expedient 

bKc. 12. the governor, judges, legislative council, secretary, and such other 
officers as Congress shall appoint in the district, shall take an oath or affirmation 
ot fidelity, and of office; the governor before the President of Congress, and all 
other officers before the governor. As soon as a legislature shall be formed in 
the^district the council and house assembled, in one room, shall have authoritv, 
by joint ballot to elect a delegate to Congress, who shall have a seat in Confess 
with a right of debating, but not of voting, during this temporary government. 
Sec. 13. And for extending the fundamental principles of civil and religious 
liberty, which form the basis whereon these republics, their laws and constitu- 
tions are erected; to fix and establish those principles as the basis of all laws 
constitutions, and governments, which forever hereafter shall be formed in the 
said- territory- to provide, also, for the establishment of States, and permanent 
government therein, and for their admission to a share in the Federal councils on 
an equal footing with the original States, at as early periods as may be consistent 
with the general interest : 

Sec. 14. It is hereby ordained and declared, by the authority aforesaid, that 
the following articles shall be considered as articles of compact, between the 
or.ginal States and the people and States in the said territory, and forever remain 
unalterable, unless by common consent, to wit- 

No person, demeaning himself in a peaceable and orderly manner, shall ever 
be molested on account of his mode of worship, or religious sentiments, in the 


demeaning himself 
>n account of his n 
said territory. 

The inhabitants of the said territory shall always be entitled to the benefits of 
S ta T of fooeos corpus and of the trial by jury; of a proportionate repre- 
sentation of the people in the legislature, and of judicial proceedings according 
to the course of the common law. All persons shall be bailable! unless fb? 
capita offences, where the proof shall be evident, or the presumption great. All 
fines shall be moderate ; and no cruel or unusual punishments shall be inflicted. 
No man shal be deprived of his liberty or property, but by the judgment of his 
peers or the law of the land, and should the public exigencies makelt necessary 
Z.H™i Conim ? n P«»erYatjon, to take any person's property, or to demand his 
particular services full compensation shall be made for the same. And in the 
Ew P"*,fr vatlo ° u f n « h ? and : Property, it is understood and declared/that no 
law ought ever to be made or have force in the said territory, that shall in any 

friZ wl ?f, tev f> lnt f fer « yi* or affect private contracts, or engagements, boZ 
fide, and without fraud previously formed. ' 


b^n!iSl n '^° rali i 3: ' 5" d k . no " led ge being neces sary to good governments the 

Jn£C^ m , ank,nd > schools and the means of education shall forever be 

S n ra S e J .The utmost good faith shall always be observed towards the 

Sn w *n e i r - la J , K 8 - imd Pr ° Pert ? S J la11 " eVer be taken from the™ without the r 
consent; and in th ei r property, rights, and liberty they never shall be invaded 
or disturbed, unless in just and lawful wars authorized by Congress bUws 

220 ORDINANCE OF 1787. 

founded in justice and humanity shall, from time to time, be mad e. for prevent- 
ing wrongs being done to them, and for preserving peace and friendship with 

th ° em - ARTICLE IV. 

The said territory, and the States which may be formed therein, shall forever 
remain a part of this confederacy of the United States of. America s ubjec t to the 
Articles of Confederation, and to such alterations therein as shall be constitu- 
tionally made ; and to all the acts and ordinances of the United States in Congress 
assembled conformable thereto. The inhabitants and settlers in the said territory 
Elbe subject to pay a part of the Federal debts, contracted, or to be contracted 
and a proportional part of the expenses of government to be apportion^ I on 
them by Congress, according to the same common rule and measure by which 
apZtionments thereof shall be made on the other States ; and the taxes for 
jEthrir proportion shall be laid and levied by the authority. and direction 
Khe legislatures of the districts, or districts, or new States as in the original 
States, within the time agreed upon by the United States in Congress assembled 
The legislatures of those districts, or new States, shall never interfere with the 
Prim^disposal of the soil by the United States in Congress assembled, nor with 
anv regulations Congress may find necessary for securing the title in such soil to 
thUona-fide purchasers. No tax shall be imposed on lands the property ot the 
United States : and in no case shall non-resident proprietors be taxed higher than 
res dents The navigable waters leading into the Mississippi and Saint Lawrence, 
and the carrvin- places between the same, shall be common highways, and for- 
ever fee! as wefl to the inhabitants of the said territory as to .^e citizens of the 
United States, and those of any other States that may be admitted into the con- 
federacy, without any tax, impost, or duty therefor. 


There shall be formed in the said territory not less than three nor more than 
five States ; and the boundaries of the States, as soonas Virginia shall alter her 
act of cession and consent to the same, shall become fixed and established as 
follows to wit : The western State, in the said territory, sha be bounded by he 
Miss ss'ipni the Ohio, and the Wabash Rivers ; a direct line drawn from the 
WabaKnd Post Vincents, dne north, to the.territorial me between he United 
States and Canada ; and by the said territorial line to the Lake of the Woods 
and Mfssissip" . The middle State shall be bounded by the said direct line, t e 
Wabash fronfpost Vincents to the Ohio, by the Ohio by a direct line drawn due 
^oX from the mouth of the Great Miami to the said territorial line and by the 
saTd territorial hne The eastern State shall be bounded by the ast-mentioned 
dhttTne the Ohio, the Pennsylvania, and the said territorial line: Provided, 
howter And it fe further understood and declared, that the boundaries of these 
three States shall be subject so far to be altered, that, if ^f^^^S 
find it exDedient they shall have authority to form one or .two States in that, 
part of the said 1 territory which lies north of an east and west line drawn through 
the southerly bend or extreme of Lake Michigan. And whenever any of the 

!dd Ss sLall have sixty thousand free ^f^^^^^^ 
be admitted, by its delegates, into the Congress of the United States, on an equal 
footing with' the original States, in all respects whatever; f^ l J™*^g. 
to form a permanent constitution and State government: Proved, The 'conrtitu 
tion and government, so to be formed, shall be republican, and in conformity to 
ft?prin^K,ntaiied in these articles, and, so far as it can be cons, sten t w ,th 
the general interest of the confederacy, such admission shall be a l^edjt^n 
earlier period, and when there may be a less number of free inhabitants in tiie 
State than sixty thousand. 


There shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in the said territory, 
otherwTsJ than in Se punishment of crimes, whereof the party shall have been 
dulv convicted i Pro7ded always, That any person escaping into the same, from 

ORDINANCE OF 1787. 221 

whom labor or service is lawfully claimed in any one of the original States, such 
fugitive may be lawfully reclaimed, and conveyed to the person claiming his or 
her labor or service as aforesaid. 

Be it ordained by the authority aforesaid, That the resolutions of the 23d of 
April, 1784, relative to the subject of this ordinance, be, and the same are hereby 
repealed, and declared null and void. ' 

Done by the United States, in Congress assembled, the 13th day of July, in 
the year of our Lord 1787, and of their sovereignty and independence the twelfth. 



Adams COUNTY lies on the Ohio River fifty miles east of Cincinnati and 
one hundred south of Columbus. It derives its name from John Adams, 
second President of the United States. It was formed July 10, 1797* by 
proclamation of Governor St. Clair being then one of the four counties into 
which the North-west Territory was divided. The three others previously 
formed were Washington, July 27, 1788 ; Hamilton, Jan. 2, 1790; and 
Wayne, 1796. The land is generally hilly and broken. Many of its first 
settlers were from Virginia, Kentucky, and North Ireland. It has 415 
square miles. In 1885 the acres cultivated were 85,873 ; woodland, 84,598; 
lying waste, 11,123. Productions: corn, bushels 94,223 ; oats, 105,645; 
wheat, 88,533, and tobacco 1,600,976, being the eighth county in amount in 
the State. School census 1886, 8750; teachers, 176. It has 28 miles of 

Townships and Census, 












1 541 




108 1 




1 192 



• 3444 
















107 1 





The population in 1820 was 10,406 ; in 1840, 13,271 ; in i860, 20,309 and 
in 1880, 24,005 of whom 212 were employed in manufactures, and 20,516 
were Ohio born. 

The first settlement within the Virginia military tract, and the only one 
between the Scioto and Little Miami until after the treaty of Greenville, 
in 1795, was made in this county, at Manchester, by the then Col., later, 
Gen. Nathaniel Massie. McDonald, in his unpretending, but excellent 
little volume, says : 

Manchester Settled. — Massie, in the win- 
ter of the year 1790, determined to make a 
settlement in it, that he might be in the 
midst of his surveying operations and secure 
his party from danger and exposure. In or- 
der to effect this he gave general notice in 
Kentucky of his intention, and offered each 
of the first twenty-five families, as a dona- 
tion, one in-lot, one out-lot, and one hundred 

acres of land, provided they would settle in a 
town he intended to lay off at his settlement. 
His proffered terms were soon closed in with, 
and upwards of thirty families joined him. 
After various consultations with his friends, ' 
the bottom on the Ohio River, opposite the 
lower of the Three Islands, was selected as 
the most eligible spot. Here he fixed his 
station, and laid off into lots a town, now 




called Manchester; at this time a small 
place, about twelve miles above Maysville 
(formerly Limestone), Kentucky. This lit- 
tle confederacy, with Massie at the helm 
(who was the soul of it), went to work with 
spirit. Cabins were raised and by the mid- 
dle of March, 1791, the whole town was en- 
closed with strong pickets firmly fixed in 
the ground with block houses at each angle 
for defence. 

Thus was the first settlement in the Vir- 
ginia military district and the fourth settle- 
ment in the bounds of the State of Ohio ef- 
fected. Although this settlement was com- 
menced in the hottest Indian war it suf- 
fered less from depredation, and even inter- 
ruptions from the Indians, than any settle- 
ment previously made on the Ohio River. 
This was no doubt owing to the "watch- 
ful band of brave spirits who guarded 
the place — men who were reared in the 
midst of danger and inured to perils, and as 
watchful as hawks. Here were the Beasleys, 
the Stouts, the Washburns, the Ledoms, the 

Edgingtons, the Denings, the Ellisons, the 
Utts, the McKenzies, the Wades, and others, 
who were equal to the Indians in all the arts 
and stratagems of border war. 

As soon as Massie had completely pre- 
pared his station for defence, the whole pop- 
ulation went to work and cleared the lower 
of the Three Islands, and planted it in corn. 
The island was very rich, and produced 
heavy crops. The woods with a little indus- 
try, supplied a choice variety of game. Deer, 
elk, buffalo, bears, and turkeys, were abun- 
dant, while the river furnished a variety of 
excellent fish. The wants of the inhabitants, 
under these circumstances, were few and 
easily gratified. 

When this station was made, the nearest 
neighbors north-west of the Ohio were the 
inhabitants at Columbia, a settlement below 
the mouth of the Little Miami, five miles 
above Cincinnati ; and at Gallipoiis, a French 
settlement near the mouth of the Great Ken- 

The station being established, Massie continued to make locations and 
surveys. Great precautions were necessary to avoid the Indians, and even 
these did not always avail, as is shown by the following incidents, the first 
of which we copy from the American Pioneer. 


I am not sure whether it was the last 
of March or first of April I came to the ter- 
ritory to reside; but on the night of the 21st 
of April, 1 79 1, Mr Massie and myself were 
sleeping together on our blankets (for beds 
we had none), on the loft of our cabin, to get 
out of the way of the fleas and gnats. Soon 
after lying down I began dreaming of Indi- 
ans, and continued to do so through the 
night. Some time in the night, however, 
whether Mr. Massie waked of himself, or 
whether I wakened him, I cannot now say, 
but I observed to him I did not know what 
was to be the consequence, for I had 
dreamed more about Indians that night than 
in all the time I had been in the western 
country before. As is common, he made 
light of it, and we dropped again to sleep. 
He asked me next morning if I would go 
with him up the river, about four or five 
miles to make a survey, and that William 
Lytle, who was then at the fort, was going 
along. We were both young surveyors, and 
were glad of the opportunity to practice. 

Taken Captive. — Accordingly we three, 
and a James Tittle, from Kentucky, who was 
about buying the land, got on board of a 
canoe, and were a long time going up, the 
river being very high at the time. We com- 
menced at the mouth of a creek, which from 
' that day has been called Donalson creek. 
We .meandered up the river ; Mr. Massie 
had the compass, Mr. Lytle and myself car- 
ried the chain. We had progressed perhaps 
one hundred and forty, or one hundred and 
fifty poles, when^our chain broke or parted, 

but with the aid of the tomahawk we soon 
repaired it. We were then close to a large 
mound, and were standing in a triangle, and 
Lytle and myself were amusing ourselves 
pointing out to Tittle the great convenience 
he would have by building his house on that 
mound, when the one standing with his face 
up the river, spoke and said, " Boys, there are 
Indians. " " No," repiled the other, " they 
are Frenchmen." By this time I had caught 
a glimpse of them ; I said they were Indians, 
I begged them to fire. I had no gun, and 
from the advantage we had, did not think of 
running until they started. The Indians 
were in two small bark canoes, and were 
close into shore and discovered us just at 
the instant we saw them ; and before I 
started to run I saw one jump on shore. 
We took out through the bottom, and before 
getting to the hill, came to a spring branch. 
I was in the rear, and as I went to jump, 
something caught my foot, and I fell on the 
opposite side. They were then so close, I 
saw there was no chance of escape, and did 
not offer to rise. Three warriors first came 
up, presented their guns all ready to fire, but 
as I made no resistance they took them 
down, and one of them gave me his hand to 
help me up. At this time Mr. Lytle was 
about a chain's length before me, and threw r 
away his hat ; one of the Indians went for- 
ward and picked it up. They then took me 
back to the bank of the river, and set me 
down while they put up their stuff, and pre- 
pared for a march. While sitting on the 
bank of the river, I could see the men walk- 



ing about the block-house on the Kentucky- 
shore, but they heard nothing of it. 

Evening Camp.— 'They went on rapidly that 
evening and camped I think on the waters of 
Eagle creek ; started next morning early, it 
raining hard, and one of them seeing my 
hat was somewhat convenient to keep off the 
rain came up and took it of| my head and 
put it on his own. By this time I had dis- 
covered some friendship in a very lusty In- 
dian, I think the one that first came up to 
me ; I made signs to him that one had taken 
my hat ; he went and took it off the other In- 
dian's head and placed it again on mine, but 
had not gone far before they took it again. 
I complained as before, but my friend shook 
his head, took down and opened his budget, 
and took out a sort of blanket cap, and put it 
on my head. We went on; it still rained 
hard and the waters were very much swollen, 
and when my friend discovered that I was 
timorous, he would lock his arm in mine 
and lead me through, and frequently in open 
woods when 1 would get tired I would do 
the same thing with him and walk for miles. 
They did not make me carry anything until 
Sunday or Monday. They got into a thicket 
of game and killed, I think, two bears and 
some deer ; they then halted and jerked their 
meat, eat a large portion, peeled some bark, 
made a kind of box, filled it, and put it on 
me to carry. I soon got tired of it and threw 
it down : they raised a great laugh, examined 
my back, applied some bear's oil to it and 
then put on the box again. I went on some 
distance and threw it down again ; my friend 
then took it up, threw it over his head and 
carried it. It weighed, I thought, at least 
fifty pounds. 

While resting one day, one of the Indians 
broke up little sticks and laid them up in the 
form of a fence, then took out a grain of 
corn, as carefully wrapped up as people 
used to wrap up guineas in -olden times ; 
this they planted and called out squaw, sig- 
nifying to me that that would be my em- 
ployment with the squaws. But, notwith- 
standing my situation at the time, I thought 
they would not eat much corn of my raising. 
On Tuesday, as we were traveling along, 
there came to us a white man and an Indian 
on horseback ; they had a long talk, and 
when they rode off, the Indians I was with 
seemed considerably alarmed ; they immedi- 
ately formed in Indian file, placed me in the 
center and shook a war club over my head, 
^and showed me by these gestures that if- 1 
attempted to run away they would kill me. 

The Shawanee Camp. — We soon after ar- 
rived at the Shawanee camp, where we con- 
tinued until late in the afternoon of the next 
day. During our stay there they trained my 
hair to their own fashion, put a jewel of tin 
in my nose, etc., etc. The Indians met with 
great formality when we came to the camp 
which was very spacious. One side was 
entirely cleared out for our use, and the 
party I was with passed the camp to my great 
mortification, I thinking they were going 

on ; but on getting to the further end they 
wheeled short round, came into the camp, 
sat down— not a whisper. In a few minutes 
two of the oldest got up, went round, shook 
hands, came and sat down again ; then the 
Shawanees rising simultaneously came and 
shook hands with them. A few of the first 
took me by the hand, but one refused, and 
I did notofferthem my hand again not con- 
sidering it any great honor. Soon after a 
kettle of bears' oil, and some craclins were 
set before us, and we began eating, they first 
chewing the meat, then dipping it into the 
bears' oil, which I tried to be excused from, 
but they compelled me to it, which tried my 
stomach, although by this time hunger had 
compelled me to eat many a dirty morsel. 
Early in the afternoon an Indian came to 
the camp and was met by his party just 
outside, when they formed a circle and he 
spoke, I thought, near an hour, and so pro- 
found w T as the silence that had they been on 
a board floor I thought the fall of a pin 
might have been heard. I rightly judged of 
the disaster, for the day before I was taken 
I was at Limestone, and was solicited to 
join a party that was going down to the 
mouth of Snag creek where some Indian 
canoes where discovered hid in the willows. 
The party went and divided, some came over 
to the Indian shore and some remained in 
Kentucky, and they succeeded in killing 
nearly the whole party. 

Two White Men. — There was at this 
camp two white men ; one of them could 
swear in English, but very imperfectly, hav- 
ing I suppose been taken young ; the other, 
who could speak good English, told me he 
was from South Carolina. He then told me 
different names which I have forgotten, ex- 
cept that of Ward; asked if I knew the 
Wards that lived near Washington, Kentucky. 
I told him I did, and wanted him to leave 
the Indians and go to his brother's, and take 
me with him. He told me he preferred stay- 
ing with the Indians, that he might nab the 
whites. He and I had a great deal of chat, 
and disagreed in almost everything. He 
told me they had taken a prisoner by the 
name of Towns, that had lived near Wash- 
ington, Kentucky, and that he had attempted 
to run away, and they killed him. But the 
truth was, they had taken Timothy Downing 
the day before I was taken, in the neighbor- 
hood of Blue Licks, and had got within four 
or five miles of that camp, and night coming 
on, and it being very rainy, they concluded to 

There were but two Indians, an old chief 
and his son ; Downing watched his op- 
portunity, got hold of a squaw-axe and 
gave the fatal blow. His object was to 
bring the young Indian in a prisoner; he 
said he had been so kind to him he could 
not think of killing him. But the instant he 
struck his father, the young man sprung up- 
on his back and confined him so that it was 
with difficulty he extricated himself from his 
grasp. Downing made then for his horse, 



and the Indian for the camp. The horse he 
caught and mounted ; but not being a woods- 
man, struck the Ohio a little below Scioto, 
just as a boat was passing. They would 
not land for him until he rode several miles 
and convinced them that he was no decoy, 
and so close was the pursuit, that the boat 
had only gained the stream when the enemy 
appeared on the shore. He had severely 
wounded the young Indian in the scuffle, but 
did not know it until I told him. But to re- 
turn to my own narrative : two of the party, 
viz., my friend and another Indian, turned 
back from this camp to do other mischief, 
and never before had I parted with a friend 
with the same regret. We left the Shawanee 
camp about the middle of the afternoon, they 
under great excitement. What detained 
them I know not, for they had a number of 
their horses up and their packs on from 
early in the morning. I think they had at 
least one hundred of the best horses that at 
that time Kentucky could afford. They cal- 
culated on being pursued and they were 
right, for the next day, viz., the 28th of 
April, Major Kenton with about ninety men 
was at the camp before the fires were ex- 
tinguished ; and I have always viewed it as 
a providential circumstance that the enemy 
had departed, as a defeat on the part of the 
Kentuckians would have been inevitable. I 
never could get the Indians in a position to 
ascertain their precise number, but concluded 
there were sixty or upward, as sprightly 
looking men as I ever saw together, and 
well equipped as they could wish for. The 
Major himself agreed with me that it was a 
happy circumstance that they were gone. 

Escapes. — We traveled that evening I 
thought seven miles and encamped in the 
edge of a prairie, the water a short distance 
off. Our supper that night consisted of a 
raccoon roasted undressed. After this meal 
I became thirsty, and an old warrior to 
whom my friend had given me in charge, 
directed another to go with me to the water, 
which made him angry ; he struck me, and 
my nose bled. 1 had a great mind to return 
the stroke, but did not. I then determined, 
be the result what it might, that I would go 
no farther with them. They tied me and 
laid me down as usual, one of them lying 
on the rope on each side of me ; they went 
to sleep, and I to work gnawing and picking 
the rope (made of bark) to pieces, but did 
not get loose until day was breaking. I 
crawled off on my hands and feet until I got 
into the edge of the prairie, and sat down 
on a tussock to put on my moccasins, and 
had put on one and was preparing to put on 
the other, when they raised the yell and 
topk the back track, and I believe they made 
as much noise as twenty white men could 
do. Had they been still they might have 
heard me, as I was not more than two 
chains' length from them at the time. But 
I started and ran, carrying one moccasin in 
my hand ; and in order to evade them, chose 
the poorest ridges I could find ; and when 

coming to tree-logs lying crosswise, would 
run along one and then along the other. I 
continued on that way until about ten 
o'clock, then ascending a very poor ridge, 
crept in between two logs, and being very 
weary soon dropped to sleep and did not 
waken until the sun was almost down ; I 
traveled on a, short distance further and 
took lodging for the night in a hollow tree. 
I think it was on Saturday that I got to the 
Miami. I collected some logs, made a raft 
by peeling bark and tying them together; 
but I soon found that too tedious and aban- 
doned it. I found a turkey's nest with two 
eggs in it, each one having a double yolk ; 
they made two delicious meals for different 

Arrives at Fort Washington. — I followed 
down the Miami, until I struck Harmar's 
trace, made the previous fall, and continued 
on it until I came to Fort Washington, now 
Cincinnati. I think it was on the Sabbath, the 
first day of May; • I caught a horse, tied a 
piece of bark around his under jaw on 
w T hich there w r as a large tumor like a wart. 
The bark rubbed that, and he became rest- 
less and threw me, not hurting me much 
however ; I caught him again, and he again 
threw me, hurting me badly. How long I 
lay insensible I don't know; but when I 
revived he w r as a considerable distance from 
me. I then traveled on very slow, my feet 
entirely bare and full of thorns and briers. 
On Wednesday, the day that I got in, I was 
so far gone that I thought it entirely useless 
to make any further exertion, not knowing 
what distance I was from the river ; and I 
took my station at the root of a tree, but 
soon got into a state of sleeping, and either 
dreamt, or thought, that I should not be loi- 
tering away my time, that I should get in that 
day ; of which, on reflection, I had not the 
most distant idea. However, the impression 
was so strong that I got up and walked on 
some distance. I then took my station again 
as before, and the same thoughts occupied 
my mind. I got up and walked on. I had 
not traveled far before I thought I could see 
an opening for the river ; and getting a little 
further on, I heard the sound of a bell. I 
then started and ran, (at a slow speed un- 
doubtedly) ; a little further on I began to 
perceive that I was coming to the river hill ; 
and having got about half way down, I 
heard the sound of an axe, which was the 
sweetest music I had heard for many a day. 
It was in the extreme out-lot ; when I got 
to the lot I crawled over the fence with diffi- 
culty, it being very high. 

William Woodward. — I approached the 
person very cautiously till within about a 
chain's length undiscovered ; I then stopped 
and spoke ; the person I spoke to was Mr. 
William Woodward, the founder of the 
Woodward High School. Mr. Woodward 
looked up, hastily cast his eyes round, and 
saw that I had no deadly weapon ; he then 
spoke. " In the name of God," said he, 
" who are vou ? " I told him I had been a 

John Cone Kimball, Photo., Peabody Museum, 

Serpent Mound Park. 

[The skeleton was found three feet below the surface of the mound. The bones below the femora 
were removed before the rest of the skeleton was uncovered.] 

John Cone Kimball, Photo., Peabody Museum 

Serpent Mound Park. 
bowing three full folds of the Serpent from the neck to the central portion of the body.] 



prisoner and had made my escape from the 
Indians. After a few more questions he 
told me to come to him. I did so. Seeing 
my situation, his fears soon subsided ; he 
told me to sit down on a log and he would 
go and catch a horse he had in the lot and 
take me in. He caught his horse, set me 
oipon him, but kept the bridle in his own hand. 
When we got into the road, people began to 
inquire of Mr. Woodward, " Who is he — an 
Indian ? " I was not surprised nor offended 
at the inquiries, for I was still in Indian uni- 
form, bare headed, my hair cut off close, ex- 

cept the scalp and foretop, which they had 
put up in a piece of tin, with a bunch of 
turkey feathers, which I could not undo. 
They had also stripped off the feathers of 
about two turkeys and hung them to the 
hair of the scalp ; these I had taken off the 
day I left them. Mr. Woodward took me 
to his house, where every kindness was 
shown me. They soon gave me other cloth- 
ing ; coming from different persons, they 
did not fit me very neatly ; but there could 
not be a pair of shoes got in the place that I 
could get on, my feet were so much swollen. 

McDonald gives in his Sketches the following incidents of Indian history 
at Manchester: 

Ellison's Captivity. — In the spring of the 
year 1793, the settlers at Manchester com- 
menced clearing the out-lots of the town ; 
and while so engaged, an incident of much 
interest and excitement occurred. Mr. An- 
drew Ellison, one of the settlers, cleared a 
lot immediately adjoining the fort. He had 
completed the cutting of the timber, rolled 
the logs together and set them on fire. The 
mext morning, a short time before daybreak, 
Mr. Ellison opened one of the gates of the 
fort and went out to throw his logs to- 
gether. By the time he had finished this 
job, a number of the heaps blazed up 
brightly, and as he was passing from one to 
the other, he observed, by the light of the 
fires, three men walking briskly towards 
him. This did not alarm him in the least, 
although, he said, they were dark skinned 
fellows ; yet he concluded they were the 
Wades, whose complexions were very dark, 
going early to hunt. He continued to right 
his log-heaps, until one of the fellows seized 
him by the arms, and called out in broken 
English, " How do ? how do ?" He instantly 
looked in their faces, and to his surprise and 
ihorror, found himself in the clutches of three 
Indians. To resist was useless. He there 
fore submitted to his fate, without any resist- 
ance or an attempt to escape. 

The Indians quickly moved off with him in 
the direction of Paint creek. When break- 
fast was ready, Mrs. Ellison sent one of her 
children to ask their father home ; but he 
could not be found at the log-heaps. His 
absence created no immediate alarm, as it 
was thought he might have started to hunt 
after the completion of his work. Dinner- 
time arrived, and Ellison not returning, the 
family became uneasy, and began to sus- 
pect some accident had happened to him. 
His gun-rack was examined, and there hung 
his rifle and his pouch in their usual place. 
Massie raised a party and made a circuit 
around the place and found, after some 
search, the trails of four men one of whom 
had on shoes ; and as Ellison had shoes on, 
the truth that the Indians had made him a 
prisoner was unfolded. As it was almost 
night at the time the trail was discovered, 
the party returned to their station. Next 
morning early, preparations were made by 

Massie and his party to pursue the Indians. 
In doing this they found great difficulty, as 
it was so early in the spring that the vegeta- 
tion was not of sufficient growth to show 
plainly the trail of the Indians, who took the 
precaution to keep on hard and high land, 
where their feet could make little or no im- 
pression. Massie and his party, however, 
were as unerring as a pack of well-trained 
hounds, and followed the trail to Paint 
creek, when they found the Indians gained 
so fast on them that pursuit was vain. 
They therefore abandoned it and returned 
to the station. 

The Indians took their prisoner to Upper 
Sandusky and compelled him to run the 
gauntlet. As Ellison was a large man and 
not very active, he received a severe flogging 
as he passed along the line. From this 
place he was taken to Lower Sandusky and 
was again compelled to run the gauntlet, 
and was then taken to Detroit, where he was 
generously ransomed by a British officer for 
one hundred dollars. He was shortly after- 
wards sent by his friend the officer to Mon- 
treal, from whence he returned home before 
the close of the summer of the same year. 

Attack upon the Edgingtons. — Another 
incident connected with jhe station at Man- 
chester occurred shortly after this time. 
John Edgington, Asahel Edgington, and 
another man, started out on a hunting 
expedition towards Brush creek. They 
camped out six miles in a north-east -direc- 
tion from where West Union now stands, 
and near where Treber's tavern is now situ- 
ated, on the road from Chillicothe to Mays- 
ville. The Edgingtons had good success in 
hunting having killed a number of deer and 
bears. Of the deer killed, they saved the 
skins and hams alone. The bears, they 
fleeced ; that is, they cut off all the meat 
which adhered to the hide without skinning, 
and left the bones as a skeleton. They hung 
up the proceeds of their hunt on a scaffold, 
out of the reach of the wolves and other wild 
animals, and returned home for pack horses. 
No one returned to the camp with the two 
Edgingtons. As it was late in December, 
no one apprehended danger, as the winter 
season was usually a time of repose from 
Indian incursions. When the Edgingtons 


arrived at their old hunting camp, they could rise. The uplifted tomahawk was 
alighted from their horses and "were prepar- frequently so near his head that he thought 
ing to strike a fire, when a platoon of In- he felt its edge. Every effort was made to 
dians fired upon them at the distance of not save his life, and every exertion of the In- 
more than twenty paces. Asahel Edgington dians was made to arrest him in his flight, 
fell to rise no more. John was more fortu- Edgington, who had the greatest stake in 
nate. The sharp crack of the rifles, and the the race, at length began to gain on his pur- 
horrid yells of the Indians, as they leaped suers, and after a long race he distanced 
from their place of ambush, frightened the them, made his escape, and safely reached 
horses, who took the track towards home at home. This truly was a most fearful and 
full speed. John Edgington was very ac- well contested race. The big Shawanee 
tive on foot, and now an occasion offered chief, Captain John, who headed the Indians 
which required his utmost speed. The mo- on this occasion, after peace was made and 
ment the Indians leaped from their hiding- Chillicothe settled, frequently told the writer 
place they threw down their guns and took of this sketch of the race. Captain John 
after him. They pursued him screaming said that "the white man who ran away 
and yelling in the most horrid manner. was a smart fellow ; " that the " white man 
Edgington did not run a booty race. For run and I run ; he run and run, at last the 
about "a mile the Indians stepped in his white man run clear off from me." 
tracks almost before the bending grass 

The first court in this county was held in Manchester. Winthrop Sar- 
gent, the secretary of the territory, acting in the absence of the governor, 
appointed commissioners, who located the county seat at an out-of-the- 
way place, a few miles above the mouth of Brush creek, which they called 
Adamsville. The locality was soon named, in derision, Scant. At the 
next session of the court its members became divided, and part sat in 
Manchester and part at Adamsville. The governor, on his return to the 
territory, finding the people in great confusion, and much bickering 
between them, removed the seat of justice to the mouth of Brush creek, 
where the first court was held in 1798. Here a town was laid out by 
Noble Grimes, under the name of Washington. A large log court-house 
was built, with a jail in the lower story, and the governor appointed two 
more of the Scant party judges, which gave them a majority. In 1800, 
Charles Willing Byrd, secretary of the territory, in the absence of the gov- 
ernor, appointed two more of the Manchester party judges, which balanced 
the parties, and the contest was maintained until West Union became the 
county seat. Joseph Darlinton and Israel Donalson, were among the 
first judges of the Common Pleas. In 1847 on the publication of the first 
edition of this work both of these gentlemen were living in the county, 
Gen. Darlinton being at the time clerk of the court, an office he had 
held since 1803. They were also members of the convention for forming 
the first Constitution of Ohio, only three others of that body being then 

WEST UNION IN 1846. — The annexed view shows on the left the jail 
and market and in the center the Court House and county offices. These 
last stand in a pleasant area shaded by locusts. The Court House is a 
substantial stone building and bears good testimony to the skill of the 
builder, ex-Gov. Metcalfe of Kentucky, who commencing life a mason, 
acquired the sobriquet of " Stone Hammer.'* The first court house was 
of logs. West Union contains four churches, one Associated Reformed, 
one Presbyterian, one Methodist, one Baptist ; two newspapers, a clas- 
sical school, and nine mercantile stores. It had in 1820 a population of 
406; in 1840, 462. (Old edition.) 

West Union is on a high ridge on the old Maysville and Zanesville 
turnpike, about ten miles from the Ohio at Manchester and one hundred 
and six from Columbus. It is nine hundred and ten feet above sea level, 
four hundred and ten above Lake Erie and four hundred and seventy-eight 
above the Ohio at Cincinnati. It is the only county seat in Ohio not on 
the line of a railroad. County officers in 1887: Probate Judge, Isaac N. 



Toile ; Clerk of Court, William R. Mahaffey ; Sheriff, W. P. Newman ; 
Prosecuting Attorney, Philip Handrehan ; Auditor, J. W. Jones ; Treas- 
urer, W. B. Brown; Recorder, Leonard Young; Surveyor, A. V. Hutson ; 
Coroner, George W. Osborn ; Commissioners, J. R. Zile, Thomas J. Shelton r 
James H. Crissman. 

The name of West Union was given to it by Hon. Thos. Kirker, one of 
the commissioners who laid it out in 1804, and one of its earliest settlers. 
In 1880 its population was 626; in 1886 school census, 317. It has one 
bank, that of Grimes & Co. ; and three newspapers, viz., New Era, Repub- 
lican, Mrs. Hannah L. Irwin, editor; People s Defender, Democratic, Joseph 
W. Eylar, editor, and Scion, Republican, Samuel Burwell, editor. It has 
also a Children's Home with forty-one children. The buildings are large 
and the appointments excellent. 

Drawn by Henry Howe in 1846. 

In reply to an inquiry, Hon. J. L. Coryell of West Union has sent us a 
communication giving brief mention of valued characters identified with the 
history of Adams County. Such an one upon every county in the State 
would be a benefit serving to bind the people of the commonwealth in 
closer fraternal bonds through the greater mutual knowledge thus obtained, 
and minister to a laudable pride in the possession of the laws and institu- 
tion that could give the highest wealth of character. He was prompted 
to thus aid us through his memory of the old edition, a copy of which he 
earned when a youth by chopping wood at twenty-five cents a day. Thus 
writes the Judge. 

" Adams is an old and pretty good county and has an excellent history. 
She has had many good men, denizens, citizens and residents, native and to 
the manor born. Among the former were Gov. Thomas Kirker, John 
Patterson/ marshal of Ohio about 1840, John W. Campbell, congressman,, 
and U. S. Judge. Col. J. R. Cockerill who died in 1875 succeeded Gen. 
J. Darlinton as clerk of court. Darlinton was a good and useful man. 
Cockerill was one time member of Congress, Colonel of 70th O. V. I., a 
highly valued citizen. He was the father of Col. John A. Cockerill who* 
was born near the Serpent Mound: at about fifteen years of age was a 
drummer boy at Shiloh, He afterwards edited papers in Adams and Butler 
counties and was managing editor of the Cincinnati Enquirer ; later traveler 
and correspondent in the far East, Turkey, etc.; then edited the Post Dis- 
patch of St. Louis; now is the managing editor of the New York World, 
a brilliant young man. Joseph McCormick, a native of this county, 'was 



Attorney-General of Ohio about 1 850. General A. T. Wikoff of Columbus, Presi- 
dent Cleveland & Marietta R. R., is a native of this county; John P. Leedam, 
formerly clerk of our courts, then member of Congress and now Sergeant- 
at-arms of House of Representatives, is a citizen of this town. J. H. Roth- 
neck, a native of this county, is now a Supreme Judge in Iowa. David 
Siaton of Cincinnati, so noted for his benefactions, was reared in this town 
where his parents died. Dr. Thomas Williamson, forty years a missionary 
to the Dakota Indians, was reared and educated in this county." 

MANCHESTER, one of'the oldest settlements in the State, is on the Ohio, 
sixty miles east south-east of Cincinnati, twelve miles above Maysville, Ky. 
and at the foot of the Three Islands. It was widely known early in this 
century to the traveling public, being a point of transshipment on the great 
stage route east from Lexington to Maysville and from here through 
Chiliicothe, Zanesville, Wheeling, etc. Up to 1846 it was an insignificant 
place having at that time not exceeding fifty dwellings. It is now the 
largest town in the county. It has churches, two Methodist and one 
Presbyterian. Newspaper, Signal^ Independent, J. A. Perry, editor. 
Banks, Farmer's, W. L. Vance, president, L. Pierce, cashier ; Manchester, 
R. H. Ellison, president, C. C. W. Nayior, cashier. 

Edivard R. Gregory \ Phoio.^ Manchester, 1887. 

Industries and Employees. — Manchester Planing Mill Co., twenty-eight 
hands; L. W\ Trenary, Lumber, twelve hands; S. P. Lucker & Co., 
Carriages, eight hands ; Manchester Rolling Mills, six hands ; Weaver & 
Bradford, fruit jugs, etc., five hands. State Report 1887. Population in 
1880, 1455 ; school census in 1886, 643. 

Manchester was the fourth point permanently settled in the State which 
has developed into a town, the other three being Marietta, Gallipolis and 
Cincinnati, the last named originally called Losantiville. 

Those who have seen only the rivers of the East, as the Hudson, Dela- 
ware, Connecticut, etc, can have no adequate idea of the topograph- 
ical features of the Ohio. Those streams come up within a few feet of the 
meadow lands or hills wherever .they bound them. Not so the Ohio. 
This stream occupies an excavated trough, where in places the bounding 
hills rise above the water 500 and 600 feet. 



The river is highly picturesque from its graceful windings, softly wooded 
hills and forest clad islands. In but few places is it more pleasant than at 

The islands in the river are ail very low. They were originally formed on 
sand-bars where floating trees lodged in seasons of freshets and made a. nucleus 
for the gathering of the soil which is of the richest. In the June freshet they 
are overflown, when with their wealth of foliage they seem as huge masses of 
greenery reposing on the bosom of the water. 

Those born upon the Ohio never lose their interest in the beautiful stream ; 
and few things are more pleasant for the people who dwell along its shores 
than in the quiet of a summer's evening when their day's work is done, to sit 
before their doors and look down upon the ever-flowing waters. .Everything is 
calm and restful : varied often by the slow measured puff of an approaching 
steamer, heard, maybe, for miles away, long before she is seen, or if after dark, 
before her light suddenly bursts in view as she rounds a bend. 

Up to within a few years the barren hills in this and some other river coun- 
ties remained in places the property of the general Government. They afforded, 
however, a fine range for the cattle and hogs of the scattered inhabitants and 
no small quantity of lumber, such as staves, hoop poles and tan bark, which 
were taken from the public lands. Dr. John Locke, one of Ohio's earliest 
geologists, from whose report made about the year 1840 these facts are derived, 
thus describes the peculiar people who dwelt in the wilderness. 

The Bark Cutters.— There is a vagrant 
class who are supported jby this kind of busi- 
ness. They erect a cabin towards the head 
of some ravine^ collect the chestnut-oak 
bark from the neighboring hill-tops, drag it 
on sleds to points accessible by wagons, 

where they sell it for perhaps $2^ per cord 
to the wagoner. The^ last sells it at the 
river to the flat boat shipper, at $6 per cord, 
and he again to the consumer at Cincinnati, 
for $11. Besides this common trespass, 
the squatter helps himself out by hunting 

Managing Editor "New York World." 



deer and coons, and, it is said, occasionally 
by taking a sheep or a hog, the loss of which 
may very reasonably be charged to the 
wolves. The poor families of the bark cut- 
ters often exhibit the very picture of improvi- 
dence. There begins to be a fear among 
the inhabitants that speculators may be 
tempted to purchase up these waste lands 

and deprive them of their present "range" 
and lumber. The speculator must still be 
a non-resident, and could hardly protect 
his purchase. The inhabitants have a hard, 
rough region to deal with and need all of 
the advantages which their mountain tract 
can afford. 

Mr. Coryell, from whom we have elsewhere quoted, has given us these 
facts illustrating the changed condition of this once wilderness. 

"In 1871 Congress gave all vacant land in Virginia military district to 
Ohio, and her legislature at once gave them to the Ohio State University. 
Her trustees had them hunted up, surveyed and sold out, and they are all 

E. G. Squier and E. H. Davis, Surveyors. 

now on the tax duplicate, and one half our tobacco, for which this county 
has become somewhat noted, is produced east of Brush creek. Tan bark, 
hoop poles and boat gunnels are no longer a business. Portable saw mills 
have peregrinated every valley and ravine, and very much of the timber 
(and there was none finer) has been converted into lumber for home con- 
sumption and shipment to Cincinnati via river and railroad. Ten years 
ago Jefferson township, east of Brush creek, polled 500 votes, to-day 1000, 
brought about by sale of cheap lands and immigration from the tobacco 
counties of Brown and Clermont and also Kentucky." 



Probably the most important earthwork in the West is The Serpent Mound. 
It is on Brush creek in Franklin township, about six miles north of Peebles 
Station on the C. & E. Railroad, twenty-one miles from West Union, the county 
seat, thirty-one miles from the Ohio at Manchester, and five miles south of 
Sinking Springs, in Highland County. The engraving annexed is from the 
work of Squier and Davis on the "Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Val- 
ley," who thus made this work known to the world by their survey in 1849. 
Their plan annexed is in general correct, but the oval is drawn too large in 
proportion to the head ; and the edge of the cliff is some distance from the oval. 
The appendages on each side of the head do not exist. They have been shown 
by Prof. Putnam to be accidentally connected with the serpent. The mound 
was erected doubtless for worship, and appended to their description of it they 
make this statement : 

" The serpent, separate, or in combination with the circle, egg, or globe, has 
been a predominant symbol among many primitive nations. It prevailed in 
Egypt, Greece and Assyria, and entered widely into the superstitions of the 
Celts, the Hindoos and the Chinese. It even penetrated into America, and was 
conspicuous in the mythology of the ancient Mexicans, among whom its sig- 
nificance does not seem to have differed materially from that which it possessed 
in the Old World. The fact that the ancient Celts, and perhaps other nations 
of the old continent, erected sacred structures in the form of the serpent, is one 
of high interest. Of this description was the great temple of Abury, in Eng- 
land — in many respects the most imposing ancient monument of the British 
islands. It is impossible in this connection to trace the analogies which the 
Ohio structure exhibits to the serpent temples of England, or to point out the 
extent to which the symbol was applied in America — an investigation fraught 
with the greatest interest both in respect to the light which it reflects upon the 
primitive superstitions of remotely-separated people, and especially upon the 
origin of the American race." 

Public attention has recently been attracted to this work through the exer- 
tions of Professor F. W. Putnam, of the Peabody Museum of Cambridge, Mass., 
who by the aid of some Boston ladies in the spring of 1887 secured by sub- 
scription about $6,000 for its purchase and protection, as it was fast going to 
destruction. The purchase includes about seventy acres of land with the 
mound, the title vesting in the museum attached to Harvard University. This 
he has laid out in a beautiful park to be free to the public, and with the name 
" The Serpent Mound Park." It is in a wild and picturesque country and must 
eventually be a favorite place of public resort. The Professor, who is an accom- 
plished archaeologist, regards this as one of the most remarkable structures of 
its kind in the world. His description of the work is as follows : 

" The head of the serpent rests on a rocky platform which presents a pre- 
cipitous face to the west, towards the creek, of about 100 feet in height. The 
jaws of the serpent's mouth are widely extended in the act of trying to swallow 
an egg, represented by an oval enclosure about 121 feet long and 60 feet wide. 
This enclosure consists of a ridge of earth about five feet high, and from 
•eighteen to twenty feet broad. The body of the serpent winds gracefully back 
toward higher land, making four large folds before reaching the tail. The tail 
tapers gracefully and is twisted up in three complete and close coils. The 
height of the body of the serpent is four to five feet, and its greatest width is 
thirty feet across the neck. The whole length of the mound from the end of 
the egg on the precipice to the last coil of the tail is upwards of 1,300 feet. 

The Serpent Mound is not in a conspicuous place, but in a situation 
which seems rather to have been chosen for the privacies of sacred rites. 
The rising land towards the tail and back for a hundred rods afforded 
ample space for large gatherings. The view across the creek from the preci- 



pice near the head, and indeed from the whole area, is beautiful and impres- 
sive, but not very extensive. To the south, however, peaks may be seen? 
ten or fifteen miles away which overlook the Ohio River and. Kentucky hills, 
while at a slightly less distance to the north, in Pike and Highland counties, 
are visible several of the highest points in the State. Among these is Fort 
Hill, eight miles north in Brush creek township on the extreme eastern 
edge of Highland County. Fort Hill is one of the best preserved and most 
interesting ancient enclosures in the State. It is estimated that in the 
limits of Ohio alone are 10,000 ancient mounds and from 1500 to 2000 
enclosures. The importance of the study of the subject, the present 
method of procedure and the general progress are thus dwelt upon in a 
lecture delivered by Prof. Putnam, Oct. 25, 1887, before the Western 
Reserve Historical Society. 

The proper study of history begins with the earliest monuments of 
man's occupancy of the earth. From study of ancient implements, burial- 
places, village sites, roads, enclosures and monuments we are able to get 
as vivid and correct a conception — all but the names — of pre-historic times 
as of what is called the historic period. 

The study of archaeology is now assuming new importance from the 
improved methods of procedure. Formerly it was considered sufficient to 
arrange archaeological ornaments and implements according to size and 
perfection of workmanship and call it a collection. But now extended 

and minute comparison 
Formerly mounds were 
plored when trenches 
in two directions and 
countered, removed and 
considered essential to 
mound that it be sliced 
and every shovelful of 
every section photo- 
are now also examined 
first gently uncovered 
as to harden them, when 
moved without fracture, 
cavation of the earth- 
ments, ornaments and 
more important than 

/. C, Foulk, Photo. Hfflsboro. 

is the principal thing, 
said to have been ex- 
were dug through them 
the contents thus en- 
inspected. Now it is 
the exploration of a 
off with the greatest care 
earth examined and 
graphed. The skeletons 
with great care, being 
and then moistened so 
usually the bones can be 
The record of the ex- 
works where imple- 
skeletons are found is 
the possession of the 

objects themselves. 

Although an immense field still remains to be explored, we have gone 
far enough to show in a general way, that southern Ohio was the meeting- 
place of two diverse races of people. Colonel Whittlesey's sagacious gen- 
eralizations concerning the advance of a more civilized race from the 
south as far as southern Ohio, and their final expulsion by more warlike 
tribes from the lake region, are fully confirmed by recent investigations. 
The Indians of Mexico and South America belong to what is called a 
"short-headed" race, ue., the width of their skulls being more than three- 
fourths of their length, whereas the northern Indians are all " long 

Now out of about 1400 skulls found in the vicinity of Madisonville near 
Cincinnati, more than 1200 clearly belonged to a short-headed race, thus 
connecting them with southern tribes. Going further back it seems proba- 
ble that the southern tribes* reached America across the Pacific from 
southern Asia, while the northern tribes came via Alaska from northern 

A description of Fort Hill alluded to above will be found under the head 
of Highland County, and that of the Alligator Mound under that of Licking- 
County. This last named has been classed with the Serpent Mound, it 
having evidently been erected like that for purposes of worship. 




As Adam was the first to lead in the line 
of humanity, so it seems proper for Adams 
to lead, at least alphabetically, in the line of 
Ohio counties ; yet it was about the last 
visited by me on this tour. 

A few days before Christmas I was in 
Kenton. Two or three points on the Ohio 
were to be visited and then my travels would 
be over. Would I live to finish? Ah! 
that was a pressing question. As the end 
drew near I confess I was a little anxious. 
Some had predicted I would never get 
through. " Too old" It is pleasant to be 

is being petted by the hotel clerk ; it is good 
to see everywhere young life asserting its 
power, pulling on the heart strings ; in its 
weakness lies its strength. Within it is 
warm, without, intensely cold : the landscape 
snow clad. Day is breaking beautifully and 
the moon and stars in silence look down 
upon our world in its white shroud. I go 
out upon the porch and enjoy the calm loveli- 
ness of the morning coming on in silence 
and purity. 

All of life does not consist in the getting 
of money ; with my eyes I possess the stars, 
while the cold, pure air seems as a perfect 
elixir. Still there must always be some- 


encouraged ; a higher pleasure often comes 
from opposition ; it enhances victory. 

Old age ! that is a folly. Live young, and 
you will die young. Learn to laugh Time 
out of his arithmetic ; amuse him with some 
new game of marbles. Then on some fine 
summer's day you will be taking a quiet 
nap, and when you awake maybe find your- 
self clothed in the pure white garments of 
eternal youth. 

Tuesday Morn, Dec. 21. — It is now six 
o'clock. Am in the office of the St. Nicho- 
las Hotel at Kenton. A dozen commercial 
travelers sit around, mutually strangers. 
They sit sleepy in chairs, having just come 
off a train : its locomotive hard by is hissing 
steam in the cold morning air. A hunting 
dog lies by the stove and the landlord's five- 
year-old daughter, wearing a checked apron, 

thing to mar the acme of enjoyment and 
this is mine, the wish that cannot be grati- 
fied, that I for the time being was trans- 
formed into some huge giant, so as to offer 
a greater lung capacity for the penetration 
of the exhilarating air and a greater body 
surface for it to envelop and hold me in its 
invigorating embrace ; a desire also for 
greater penetration of vision, to take in the 
stars beyond the stars I see. Thus must it 
ever be — on, on and on, life beyond life, eter- 
nity, God ! " Canst thou by searching find 
out God ? " To find him, to learn him fully, 
requires all knowledge ; with all knowledge 
must come all power. This can never be,. 
so the mystery of the ages must continue 
the mystery of the eternities ; still on, on, 
stars beyond stars ! 

It is at night when in solitude, far from 



home and friends, that as one looks' up to 
the starry dome the soul responds most 
fully to the sublimity of creation. Then the 
stars seem as brothers speaking, and say, 
" We too, O human soul, are filled with the 
all filling sublimity and the eternal vastness. 
We each see stars beyond stars ; there is no 
limit. We know not whence we came, but 
we do know that we are created by the Eter- 
nal Incomprehensible Spirit and cast into 
illimitable space so that each of us rolls on 
in an appointed orbit. We alike with thee 
feel His presence and worship Him who 
seems to say, 'Do your work, shine on, 
shine on, let your light illumine the hearts of 
men that they may be lifted in one eternal 
song of gladness.' " 

It was years ago when, far from home and 
friends and alone with night and solitude I 
endeavored in verse to describe the scene 
around me, and to express the thoughts that 
filled me with the all pervading sense of the 



Musing under the leaf-clad porch 
He sat in the soft evening air, 

Where zephyrs fragrant fanned his brow, 
And tossed the snow locks of his hair. 

He thus discoursed unto himself within, 
As though spirit and soul were two : 

Of Nature, the great open book ; 

Of Mystery, the old and yet ever new. 

" Alone with night and the stars ! 
My soul is enraptured and free ; 
Looks up to the deep above, 
Where the hosts are beaming on me. 

■" Alone with night and the stars ! — 
Like specters stand trees on the hill, 
While insects flash their evening lamps 
And piteous cries the whip-poor-will. 

■" Alone with night and the stars ! — 
The lake its bosom lays bare 
And softly it quivers and heaves 
Little stars as if cradled there. 

** Ye stars ! Oh beauteous thine eyes ! 
Ye stud the black dome of night, 
Thine eloquence greater than words 
The silvery speech of thy light. 

■" Ye smiled o'er the cot of my youth, 
My slumbers watched sweetly above ; 
And now I am stricken, waxed old, 
I am thrilled in the light of thy love. 

•" Old I am, and yet I hope young, 

Light and love have followed my days : 
Eternal youth remains to the soul 
Responsive to the good always. 

" Alone with night and the stars ! 
It seems as if every hill, every tree 
Was thinking, silently thinking, 
We are thine, O God, belong to Thee. 

"And striking the chords of my soul, 
From the farm-house over the lea 
I hear them singing, sweetly singing, 
4 Nearer, my God, nearer to Thee.' " 

When morn broke over the hills 
Celestial where no storm ever mars 

The mortal to youth had arisen, 
Immortal with God and the stars. 

Wednesday Morn, Dec. 22. — Am in the 
Sheridan Hotel, Ironton, where that long 
water ribbon called the Ohio finds for the 
people of the State its southernmost bend, 
and seems to say " Here shalt thou come 
and no farther: beyond thy statutes are 
of no avail." 

Belief ontaine. — Ironton is 220 miles from 
Kenton by my route: I left Kenton after 
breakfast ; stopped two hours at Bellefon- 
taine and one at Columbus. I entered Belle- 
f ontaine by the train from the north as I did 
forty years ago; but how different my en- 
trance. # Then it was late in the fall or early 
winter ; I had sketched the grave of Simon 
Kenton a few miles north, when night over- 
took me : it became intensely dark, I was on 
the back of old Pomp, and in some anxiety as 
I could see nothing except a faint glimmer 
from the road moistened by the rain; a 
sense of relief came when the straggling 
lights of Be lief ontaine burst in view. In the 
morning I awoke to find this place with a 
beautiful name, little more than a collection 
of log cabins grouped around the Court 
House square. I was surprised yesterday to 
find it such a handsome little city. 

Old Soldiers. — There in his office in one 
of the fine buildings that had supplanted the 
crude structures of the old time, I called up- 
on a young man of whose history I had heard 
in my New Haven home ; for he was a 
youth in Yale when Sumter fell. Then he 
gave his books a toss into a corner and fol- 
lowing the flag made a record. He is now 
the Lieut.-Governor of the State, Robert Ken- 
nedy. He is strongly made ; a picture of 
physical health. He is of medium stature, 
yet every man who from love of country has 
breasted' the bullets of her foes will stand in 
my eyes half a foot taller than other men. 
In this tour I have met many such and no 
matter how humble their position, I feel 
everywhere like taking them by the hand ; 
for they seem as men glorified. My memory 
carries me back to the meeting in my youth 
with soldiers of the American Revolution, 
venerable men who had come down from 
a former generation, and the people every- 
where honored them ; they too were as men 

Women of the Scioto Valley. — It was near 
evening when I arrived at Columbus ; where 
I walked the streets for an hour finding them 



thronged with people engaged in their Christ- 
mas shopping. On resuming my seat in the 
cars to continue south, I found them filled 
with women living down the Scioto Valley, 
some ten, some fifty miles away, returning 
to their homes with packages of happiness. 
Two or three of them were blondes, young 
ladies of tasteful attire and refined beauty. 
This famed valley is of wonderful tertility, 
•equal in places probably to the delta of the 
Ganges where a square mile feeds a thou- 
sand. Almost armies perished here in this 
valley by malaria before it was fairly sub- 
dued, and could produce such exquisite 
fancifully attired creatures as these. Their 
grandmothers were obliged to dress in 
homespun, dose with quinine, and listen to 
the nightly howls of wolves around their 
cabins ; but these graceful femininities 
can pore over Harper's Bazaar, indulge 
in ice-cream and go entranced over airs 
from the operas. 

By ten o'clock the Christmas shoppers had 
been distributed through the valley and I 
was almost alone when my attention 
was attracted by a young man near me, of 
twenty-two, so he told me. He said he had 
been a farm laborer in Michigan, and was go- 
ing into Virginia to begin life among stran- 
gers ; going forth into the world to seek 
his fortune. He evidently knew nothing of 
that country and it seemed to me as though 
he was under some Utopian hallucination. 
His face was of singular beauty. A tall, 
conical Canadian black cap set it off to ad- 
vantage ; his complexion was dark, his teeth 
like pearls, features delicate and eyes radi- 
ant. Then his smile was so sweet and his 
expression so innocent and guileless that he 
quite won my heart in sympathy for his fu- 
ture. There was some mystery there. I 
could not reconcile his story of being a farm 
laborer with such refinement. 

Wed. Dec. 22. 5 P. M. — As I sat this 
morning in a photograph gallery in Ironton, 
the photographer exclaimed " There's the 
Bostonia — that's her whistle." "Where is 
she bound ? " " Down the river." In a 
twinkling I decided to go in her and now 
just at candle light I'm on the Ohio, sixty 
miles below Ironton. In this sudden decis- 
ion to leave I fear I greatly disappointed 
Editor E. S. Wilson of the Register, who, 
having read my books in boyhood, had 
greeted my advent with warmth and ex- 
pected to have a day with me. 

The Scotch Irish. — At Ironton I had a 
brief interview with a patriarch now verging 
on his 80th year. Mr. John Campbell, long 
identified with the development of the iron 
industry of this locality. In my entire tour 
I had scarcely met with another of such grand 
patriarchial presence : of great stature and 
singular benignancy of expression, he made 
me think of George Washington ; this was 
increased when he told me he was from Vir- 
ginia. He is from that strong Scotch Irish 
Presbyterian stock that gave to our country 
such men as Andrew Jackson, John C. Cal- 

houn, the Alexanders of Princeton, Felix 
Houston of Texas, Horace Greeley, the 
McDowells, etc. Stonewall Jackson was 
one of them, and his famous brigade was 
largely composed of Scotch Irish, whose 
ancestors drifted down from Pennsylvania 
about 1 50 years ago and settled in the beau- 
tiful Shenandoah Valley about Augusta and 
Staunton. They were never to any extent, 
more than they could well help, a slave- 
holding people ; indeed they have been noted 
for their love of civil and religious liberty. 
While in the American Revolution the 
Episcopalians of eastern Virginia largely de- 
serted their homes, as numerous ruins of 
Episcopal churches there to-day attest, and 
followed King George, these '* hard-headed 
blue Presbyterians," as one of their own writ- 
ers called them, from the loins of the old 
Scotch Covenanters, were a strong reliance 
of Washington ; 

On the Ohio. — How cheap traveling is by 
river. I go, say 100 miles by water, and pay 
$2. 00 and they feed me as well as move me ; 
a general custom on the Ohio and Missis- 
sippi river boats. This is a large comfort- 
able boat, and I'm given ice-cream for both 
dinner and supper, and for drink any amount 
of Ohio river water, now filled with broken 
ice, a remarkably soft, palatable beverage. 

Persons inexperienced in traveling on the 
western rivers often see the expression, 
" wharf boat " and it puzzles them. Owing 
to the continual changes in the level of west- 
ern rivers, in seasons of extreme flood ris- 
ing fifty and more feet, permanent wharves 
for the receipt of freight and passengers are 
impossible. So flat bottomed scows floored 
and roofed, called wharf boats are used. 
The steamboats are moored alongside and 
the passengers go on the wharf boat on a 
plank, cross it and then on other planks reach 
land. The river passes between the steam- 
boat and wharf-boat with frightful velocity. 
The instance is hardly known of a passen- 
ger falling between the two, no matter how 
good a swimmer he was, escaping death ; he 
is drawn under the wharf Jx>at ; many have 
thus been drowned. At night light is shed 
over the scene by a huge lump of burning 
coal taken from the furnace and suspended 
from a wire basket : if this does not give 
sufficient light a handful of powdered resin 
is thrown on it. 

The scene at a landing on a dark night 
is picturesque. The passengers crowding 
ashore, the confusing yells of the porters on 
the wharf-boats, the hustling to and fro of the 
deck hands, while the dancing flames from 
the burning coal blowing in the wind throws a 
lurid, changing light over the spot, rendering 
the enveloping darkness beyond still more awe 
inspiring. This with the thought that a fall 
overboard is death makes an unpleasant im- 
pression. Hence as it is excessively dark 
and I cannot see well after night I dread the 
landing ; for a single foot slip may be fatal. 

When the Ohio some forty years ago was 
the main artery for traffic and passengers. 



these river towns were greatly prosperous ; 
the river was the continuous subject of con- 
versation. When neighbor met neighbor the 
question would be " How's the river ? " 
" Good stage of water, eh ? " Even their 
very slang came from it. In expressing con- 
tempt for another they would say, " Oh he's a 
nobody — nothing but a little stern wheel 
affair ; don't draw over six inches." 

The Old Time Traveling upon the great 
rivers of the West, the Ohio and Mississippi, 
was unlike anything of our day. All classes 
were brought in close social contact often 
for days and sometimes for weeks together, 
and it was an excellent school in which to 
observe character. It was as a pilot on the 
Mississippi that Mark Twain took some 
early lessons in the gospel of humor which 
he has since been preaching with such tell- 
ing effect. And I think the people like it 
for I have ever observed that when a good 
text is selected from that gospel, and a good 
preacher talks from it, saints and sinners 
arm in arm, alike rush in great waves, fill the 
pews, overflow the aisles, bubble up and 
foam through the galleries, and none drop 
asleep no matter how lengthy the discourse. 
So Love and Humor with their companions, 
Good Will and Cheerfulness, serene and 
white robed, take us gently by the hand and 
lead us over the rough places to the ever 
smiling valleys and to the eternal fountains. 

On the steamboats up the river, on their 
way to Washington and Congress, went the 
great political lights of the South and West — 
Henry Clay, Andrew Jackson, Tom Benton, 
Gen. Harrison, Tom Corwin, Yell of Arkan- 
sas, Poindexter of Mississippi, and Col. 
Crockett of Tennessee, the hero of the 
Alamo, whose great legacy was a single 
sentence — " Be sure you are right and then 
go ahead." Arrived at Wheeling the pas- 
sengers were packed in stage coaches for 
a ride of two or three days more on the 
National road over the mountains : — 
packed a dozen inside, eight facing each 
other and knees more or less interlocking. 
At that period fhe country east was cob- 
webbed with stage roads. The traveling 
public, men, women and children, were 
crammed into stages and sent tentering in 
all directions up and down the hillsides and 
through the valleys, the stages stopping every 
ten miles at wayside taverns to change 
horses, when the passengers often largely 
patronized the bar. Now and then an upset 
from a hilarious driver made a sad business 
of it. The fares in the northern States were 
usually six cents, and in the southern States 
ten cents a mile. 

Steamboat Racing. — In that day on the 
steamers scenes of dissipation were common. 
Every boat had its bar, liquors were cheap 
and gambling was largely carried on, knots 
gathering around little tables and money 
sometimes openly and unblushingly dis- 
played, as I saw when I first knew the river, 
now nearly half a century ago. Steamboat 
racing was at one time largely indulged in 

and strange as it may appear, when a race 
was closely contested, the passengers would 
often become so excited as to overcome 
their beginning timidity and urge the cap- 
tain to put on more steam ; then even the 
women would sometimes scream and -clap 
their hands as they passed a rival boat. An. 
explosion was a quick elevating process. 
The racing "brag boat," 4< Moselle," which 
exploded at Cincinnati, April 26, 1838, hurled 
over two hundred passengers into eternity. 
For a few moments the air was filled with 
human bodies and broken timber to fall in 
a shower into the river and on the shore 
near by. 

The captain of one of those large passen- 
ger boats was a personage of importance, 
the lord of a traveling domain. His will 
was law. And when he carried some nota- 
ble characters such as Henry Clay or Andrew 
Jackson, his pride in his position one can 
well imagine. Thorough men of the world, 
some of them were gentlemen in the best 
sense, whose great ambition was to well 
serve the floating populations under their 
care. * 

Experience of an Old Time River Man.— 
A fine specimen of the old time river men is 
Capt. John F. Devenny whom I met at 
Steubenville on this tour. He has known 
the river from early in this century. In con- 
versation he gave me some of his experi- 

He was born in 1810 in Westmoreland 
Co., Pa., near the mouth of the Youghi- 
ogheny, pronounced there by the people for 
short, " Yough." In 1 8 1 5 his father removed 
with his family to Steubenville which since 
has been the captain's residence. Steuben- 
ville was the first considerable manufacturing- 
point in south-eastern Ohio, and his father 
put up there the machinery for a large 
woolen factory, a paper mill, and a grist 
mill. In 1829, at the age of 19, Mr. Devenny 
was an engineer on a river boat; in 1835, 
commanded a boat which ran from Pittsburg 
to St. Louis and New Orleans. In the war 
he was captain of a transport engaged in 
the Vicksburg campaign. "In the early 
days of boating," said he, " drinking and 
gambling were almost universal. I found 
in my first experiences I was being drawn 
into the vortex ; the fondness for drink and 
the passion for gaming were getting a hold 
upon me. I stopped short off and was 
saved. A large part of the young men who 
went on the river died drunkards. Of those 
who went with me on the first boat, -the 
' Ruhamah,' I am the sole survivor. On my 
own boat I never allowed gambling. I have 
outlived two generations of river men who 
have perished mainly from intemperance* 
I ascribe my long life to my refraining from 
such habits and the longevity of my family." 
His father lived to the age of 96,«and the 
captain himself, a large, fine-looking gentle- 
man, seems at seventy-six as one in his 

An Amusing Incident occurred when he 



was in command of the " North Carolina " 
running from Pittsburg to New Orleans. He 
started out from a port with another boat 
which had wooden chimneys. She had lost 
her chimneys by their striking against some 
trees, and being in haste had constructed 
these for temporary use ; boxes of plank they 
were, fastened together. " I laughed at the 
sight of them," said Devenny, " when the 
captain replied I would find it no laughing 
matter : he should beat me into New Or- 
leans. We moved along in company when 
after a few hours we discovered his chimneys 
were on fire. There was great excitement 
on his boat. He called up his crew and we 
saw them tumble them overboard. We 
were greatly amused at the sight, laughing 
heartily. I thought it was all up with 
them. But they had an extra set, had them 
up in a twinkling and got into New Orleans 

Preventing Explosions. — Captain De- 
venny has long held the position of govern- 
ment inspector of steamboats. He ascribes 
explosions as generally if not always occur- 
ring from the water getting low in a boiler, 
and then when fresh water is let in upon the 
bare metal thus superheated its sudden 
conversion into steam rends the boiler. This 
is now guarded against by boring holes in 
the parts of the boiler that would first be- 
come exposed to the heat in case of a di- 
minution of water ; which holes are plugged 
with block tin. At the temperature of 442 
the block tin melts the holes open, and the 
steam escaping gives warning, whereupon 
the engineer opens the furnace door and the 
fire goes down. The plugs are externally 
hollow brass screws, the center tin. They 
are put in from the inside of the boiler into 
which the workman crawls for their inser- 

River Beacons. — In former times there 
„were no beacons or lights on the western 
rivers. " There were places then on the 
Mississippi," said Devenny, " where we had 
to lie by all night. Sometimes we had to 
send a skiff across the river to build a bon- 
fire as a guide to the channel. This was 
constantly changing from year to year." 

In going down the Ohio my attention was 
arrested by the new feature introduced by 
the Government, of beacons erected on the 
. banks, which greatly lessens the dangers of 
navigation. These are petroleum lamps 
commonly set upon posts and shaded by 
small roofs as is shown in the picture. A 
small steamer, the " Lily/' plies on the Ohio 
between Cairo and Pittsburg, supplies oil, 
pays the keepers, puts up new lights where 
wanted and changes the old ones, which is 
often required from the changes of the 

The lights are placed on the channel side 
of the river, where the water is deep. Some- 
times three or four beacons are put up on a 
single farm. The steamers steer from light 
to light. 

The farmers on the river largely consign 

the duty of attending to the lights to their 
wives and daughters who thus earn " pin 
money," some few dimes daily for each 
lamp. And the reflection is certainly inter- 
esting that along on these rivers, sweeping 
the margins of many states in the aggre- 
gate, are hundreds of worthy thrifty females 
daily ascending ladders and attending to the 
lamps ; and among them all I venture to 
say no five foolish virgins could be found so 
long as Uncle Sam with smiling visage 
stands ready with his huge cans to pour 
out the oil. 

The Ascension of Ladders must be classed 
as among the accomplishments of the softer 
sex. In Vienna and other continental cities 
females carry the hod, and with us that high 
class, the library women, are continually go- 
ing up ladders while Providence seems" to 
have a watch over the delicate fragile crea- 
tures in this peril. Alarmed at the sight of 
an ascension in the Mercantile Library of 
Cincinnati for a book she had wanted, a 
lady in terror tones exclaimed, " Don't go 
up there for me, I'm afraid you will fall." 
" Humph," gruffly retorted a voice at her 
side, that of her other half, " that is what 
she is put here for, to go up ladders ! " 

In this connection it is interesting to men- 
tion that the statistics of a public library in 
Manchester, England, showed that the 
average life of a library book was eighty 
readings, when the book would be useless 
from torn and missing leaves and general 
shackling condition. Where such a book 
was on a top shelf its procurement and re- 
turn would require 160 ladder ascensions ere 
it could be classed as defunct literature. 

Thursday Morn, Dec. 23. — Well, here I 
am safe in Manchester. The boat porter 
took a lantern and holding me by the hand 
I gol; ashore with perfect ease ; a flood of 
light being thrown on the plank. The por- 
ter of the McDade Hotel, a colored lad, 
took me in charge. He also had a lantern 
and taking my hand we floundered through 
the mud up the river bank, my rubber san- 
dals getting boot jacked off by the way. 

After leaving my " grip " at the hotel 
which faced the river, the boy taking a lan- 
tern went with me to make a call ; but the 
party was not at home. It is bad to get 
about in many of these places at night. 
The walks are so ugly with so many sudden 
" step up's " and " go downs," that it is 
dangerous for a stranger to move about 
without a lantern or a pilot. 

I gave the boy a good sized coin for going 
with me. He could hardly believe his eyes. 
"What" said he, "all this?" "Yes." I 
then sent him out for cigars. When he re- 
turned I asked, " How old are you ? " 
" Nineteen." "Be a good boy," I rejoined, 
" and you will have plenty of friends." 
" Yes, I try to be. I don't drink, nor use 
tobacco, nor swear." Thinks I, " that boy 
is almost a saint ! " 

This is one of the oldest places in the 
State. The tavern is evidently very old ; 



the room I was in, a small dingy spot. In 
ancient days of free liquor it had been a bar- 
room, doubtless a loitering place for the scum 
of the river and village. 

I took out my note-book and made some 
notes while the old clock ticked away faith- 
fully, not skipping a single second. My only 
companion, indeed the only person I had seen 
about the premises, the boy, tipped his chair 
against the wall and dropping asleep snored 
in unison with the clock ticks, boon my 
notes were finished. I gave him a gentle 
touch, and then felt as though I had a saint 
in black to light me to bed. All of life does 
not consist in keeping awake. Then how 
sweet is sleep when without a thought or care 
of trouble one can sink into oblivion while the 
grand procession of the stars passes over him. 

Blest sleep which beguiles with visions of far 

So calm and so peaceful heart can wish for 

no more. 
With cool, leafy shades, and green sunny 

And low murmuring waters laving the 


Somnns, King of Sleep, " gentlest of the 
gods, tranquillizer of mind and soother of 
careworn hearts :" his subjects all welcome 
him, and nod at his coming. 

11 We are all nodding, nid nod nodding, 
We are all nodding at our house at home. " 

Few of them have their pride touched as he 
passes by, and so get mad and grumble, say- 
ing, " He would not speak tome." 

The Best Sleep in History. — As long as the 
world has stood, Somnus has pursued his vo- 
cation with an industry worthy of all praise. 
But the greatest of his feats, for which we 
are the most grateful, was in the first exercise 
of his power. Way back in the ages it was, 
when he put the first man asleep in a garden 
and during that sleep a rib was taken from 
him, and when he awoke there lay by his side 
amid the fragrance of the flowers a beautiful 
creature. The doves cooed from among the 
roses and the fiat went forth that thereafter 

man should not live alone. Thus was mar- 
riage instituted with flowers and love songs, 
while the bending leaves, its witnesses, whis- 
pered of the great event, and moved by the 
unseen spirits, the zephyrs, they danced in 
joy : it was the original wedding dance, that 
in Eden : the dance of the leaves. 

But ah ! there was a sad omission to that 
union : no preliminary courtship, none of 
those blissful walks by moonlight in the 
dreamy poetic hours, to throw a halo of ro- 
mance over love's young dream, and which 
gives to many a joyous couple in their serene 
old age their most delicious sacred retrospect. 
Still the moon must later have put in her ap- 
pearance, smiling and happy as she played 
bo-peep from behind the soft, fleecy clouds, 
and blessed them, as she ever does us all. 

The Blessing of the Moon. — We may all 
worship and love the moon, so beautiful and 
so chaste. Silent and solemn are her minis- 
trations. Her soft light drops down from on 
high — reflects from the bosom of many waters, 
bathes the mountain sides, relieves the gloom 
of the forest with ribbons of silver, lies over 
the fields and habitations of man, touches 
with the tips of her fingers the clustering 
vines of the trellis, and entering the chamber 
window spreads her angel light over the pure 
white couch where youth and innocence are 
sleeping. And the heart of man wells up in 
calm seraphic joy. He feels it^ is the power 
of God and he says: " Great is the gift of 
human life that it is made receptive of such 
hallowed, chaste beauty." It is the common 
blessing, alike to the lofty and the lowly — the 
blessing of the beauty of the moon. 

But I return from my allegorical poetical 
excursion to the McDade, the home of my 
young friend the black boy, Son of Night. 

At daylight I was awakened by music. It 
was a monotone, especially grateful as I was 
so nicely nestled. ^ The music was the sound 
of a steady pouring down rain on the roof 
over me ; but far above the first beams of the- 
rising sun were striking upon the rolling 
mists, lighting them up as an aerial ocean of 
golden glory : a vast and awful solitude of 
ethereal^ beauty. Great is Creation ! and the 
wonder is that it can be, and our lives with so 
little of real evil. 

Winchester is on the line of the railroad in the northwest corner of the 
county, thirteen miles from West Union. It has one newspaper, The Signal, 
Rufus T. Baird, editor ; the Winchester Bank, George Baird, president, James 
S. Cressman, vice-president, L. J. Fenton, cashier; and one Baptist, one Pres- 
byterian, and one Methodist Episcopal church ; population in 1880, 550; school 
census, 1 886, 196; do. at Rome (fifteen miles southeast of West Union), 160; 
at Bentonville (five miles southwest of West Union), 142 ; Locust Grove 99, 
and Sandy Springs 56. 


Allen County was formed April 1, 1820, from Indian Territory, and named 
in honor of a Col. Allen, of the war of 1812 ; it was temporarily attached to 
Mercer county for judicial purposes. The southern part has many Germans. A 
large part of the original settlers were of Pennsylvania origin. The western half 
of the county is flat, and presents the common features of the Black Swamp. 
The eastern part is gently rolling, and in the southeastern part are gravelly ridges 
and knolls. The "Dividing Ridge" is occupied by handsome, well-drained farms, 
which is in marked contrast with much of the surrounding country, which is still 
in the primeval forest condition. Its area is 324 square miles. In 1885 the 
acres cultivated were 119,175; in pasture, 29,598; in woodland, 53,395; pro- 
duced in wheat, 460,669 bushels; in corn, 1,157,149; wool, 103,654 pounds. 
School census, 1886, 11,823; teachers, 178 ; and 118 miles of railroad. 


JS. 1840. 


Townships and Cj 
























Sugar Creek, 







The population in 1830 was 578 ; 1850, 12,116 ; 1860, 19,185 ; 1880, 31,314, 
of whom 25,625 were Ohio born, 3 were Chinese, and 4 Indians. 

The initial point in the occupancy of the county by the whites was the building 
of a fort on the west bank of the Auglaize in September, 1812, by Col. Poague, 
of Gen. Harrison's army, which he named in honor of his wife Fort Amanda. A 
ship-yard was founded there the next year, and a number of scows built by the 
soldiers for navigation on the Lower Miami, as well as for the navigation of the 
Auglaize, which last may be termed one of the historical streams of Ohio, as it 
was early visited by the French, and in its neighborhood were the villages of the 
<iost noted Indian chiefs ; it was also on the route of Harmer's, Wayne's, and 
Harrison's armies. To-day it is but a somewhat diminutive river, owing to the 
drainage of the country by canals and ditches, and the clearing off of the forests ; 
in the past it was a navigable stream, capable of floating heavily laden flat-boats 
and scows. 

The fort was a quadrangle, with pickets eleven feet high, and a block-house at 
each of the four corners. The storehouse was in the centre. A national cemetery 
was established here, where are seventy-five mounds, the graves of soldiers of the 
war of 1812. 

Among the first white men who lived at this point was a Frenchman, Francis 
Deuchoquette. He was interpreter to the Indians. It was said he was present at 
the burning of Crawford, and interfered to save that unfortunate man. He was 
greatly esteemed by the early settlers for his kindly disposition. In 1817 came 
Andrew Russell, Peter Diltz, and William Van Ausdall; and in 1820 numerous 

Russell opened on the Auglaize the first farm probably in the county, and there 
was born the first white child, a girl, who became Mrs. Charles C. Marshall, of 



Delphos. She was familiarly called the << Daughter of Allen county." She died 

in i 87L aa k , T V rnnninirham delivered before the Pioneer Associa- 
*£Z£$££* mi U ,^ 2ve the lowing additional *_ »po» 

1825, forty-six years ago. He has remained^ on the iarra ^ere 

that of Joseph Walton They came in MarcM826 ^ 

Shawneetown, an Indian vdlage, was situated le g" nute Mm ^ 

settlement, at the mouth of Hog creek A portion ot the vi g ^ 

old Ezekiel Hoover farm and a P ortl fl p n n ^. ^^upon good terms with their 
his little, neighborhood soon beeam "W^'^^&to been civilized, 
red neighbors. He says Hai-Aiteh-Tah the vrar c ™\ h t busi . 

would have been a man of mark in any comn ^' <*™™ ™ was made they 
ness man of the tribe here Soon after the McC ^e^etgment w^ ^ 
heard from the Indians at Shawneetown that the United btates go 
erected a mill at Wapakoneta^ The ^tlers had no wadi to th e nru ,^ ^ 
^tm^^o^^^ «* thelndian method 

° f Sr^re^any of the children of the ^ders to whom the^ njnjerf 
Quilna is a.household word. To ^J^^^JTaaSS of his personal 
of heart, and a thorough "V^^J^£^ „ e w neighbors, 
ease was too »^ rf > ^^f^^^^ Jowph wU and Benjamin 
In the month ot June, i 5 Zb ' , ^ V>ri F c^ilm^nf To his great surprise, 
Dolph, while out hunting found ^^^^L £tKn . g few miles of 
Mr.Wire learned tha " d o ^ n J™k nllelrned from the hunters 
another white settlement heated on b ^ Cr £ Lippin cott, Samuel Jacobs, 
there were five families : Christopher Wood, Mo rgan U gp ^ ^ 
Joseph Wood and Samuel Purdy It» his behe ^ ferm ? ^e 


3~r s^ ^ «■* ° f Li - on the 

lands the families of that name have occ jed hever anc* Cnristoph er Wood 

Lima was surveyed in 1831 by ^apf James ™ • jL_ geat and was on the 
was one of the commissioner » appointed I to ^J^f™£ Bo h of these were 
board to plat the v llage - n \ Xi Sentncly h 1 1 769, was an Indian scout, and 
remarkable men. Wood was born ™ ^^V/^. of 1812 . Riley was the 
engaged in all the border campaigns inclusive ot the way I i « ~ Connect i C ut. 

firft Pettier in Van Wert county He was a native of JJ^J* ^ ^ coast of 
Early in life, while m ^command of _ a ^fl, he was ship wrec ^ maAs 

Africa, and fell into the hands of the ArUbs ^ s ^ry 

like a romance. For a foliar account of himsee V A> rW ^ ^ 

Lima was named by Hon Patrick Cx bjode. in g ^^ 



John Mark and John Bashore, all with families, except Brewster, who was a 

Sl°n tt ^JT^iT 8 ft?^ W , hite Citizen ^ and his ^ughter, Marion 

Mitenell Brown, the first white child born here. 

Three years later, the picture Lima presented is thus given in the cheery 
reminiscences of Robert Bowers : ^ 

My father brought me to Lima in the fall 
of 1834. I was then a boy of twelve years 
of age, and as green as the forest leaves in 
U ? e ~" a « rare s P ec ^ men to transplant on new 
and untried soil, where there was nothing to 
develop the mind but the study of forest 
leaves, the music of the bull-frog and the 
howl of the wolf. The boys and girls were their 
own instructors, and the spelling schools that 
i^ere held by appointment and imposed upon 
our lathers by turns, were our highest 
academical accomplishments, and unfortu- 
nately for myself I never even graduated at 
them. Lima was then a town of very few 
souls. I knew every man, woman and child 
in the settlement, and could count them all 
without much figuring. No newspaper office, 
no outlet or inlet either by rail or earth. 
In the spring we travelled below, in the sum- 
mer we travelled on top. Our roads were 
trails and section lines. Emigrants were con- 
stantly changing the trails seeking better and 
♦dryer land for their footing and wheeling. 
Yet under all our disadvantages we were 
Aappy, and always ready to lend a helping 
iiand and render assistance wherever it was 
needed. The latchstring was always out and 
often the last pint of meal was divided, re- 

fardless where the next would come from, 
he nearest mills were at settlements in ad- 
joining counties, and the labor of going 
thither through the wilderness and the delays 
on their arrival in getting their grain ground, 
so great that they had recourse to hand-mills, 
hominy blocks and corn-crackers; so the 
labor was largely performed within the family 
■circle. [A very pleasing picture of this is given 

"J ' *he s reminiscences of Mr. Bowers ; he says :] 
Ihe horse and hand miller, the tin grater 
were always reliable and in constant use as a 
means of preparing our breadstuff. I was 
my father s miller, just the age to perform 
the task. My daily labor was to gather corn 
and dry it in a kiln, after which I took it on 
a grater made from an old copper kettle or 
tin bucket, and after supper made meal for 
the johnny-cake for breakfast ; after breakfast 
1 made meal for the pone for dinner ; after 
dinner I made meal for the mush for supper. 
And now let me paint you a picture of our 
domestic life and an interior view of my 
father s house. The names I give below ; a 
great many will recognize the picture only too 
well drawn, and think of the days of over 
forty years ago. Our house was a cabin con- 
taining a parlor, kitchen and dining-room. 
Connected was a shoe shop, also a broom 
and repair shop. To save fuel and light and 
have .everything handy, we had the whole 
thing m one room, which brought us all to- 
gether so we could oversee each other better. 
After supper each one knew his place. In 
our house there were four mechanics. I was 
a shoemaker and corn-grater. My father 
could make a sledge, and the other two boys 
could strip broom corn. My sisters spun 
yam and mother knit and made garments. 
Imagine you see us all at work ; sister Mar- 
garet sings a sonff, father makes chips and 
mother pokes up the fire : Isaac spins a yarn, 
John laughs at him, and thus our evenings 
are snent in our wild home, for we were all 
simple, honest people, and feared no harm 
from our neighbors. 

Thewant of mi Is is everywhere a great deprivation in a new country • varied 

iKiS ^w f ° r ove T min ? iL The en S™™g annexed shows' a sub- 
stitute for a mill that was used m the early settling of Western New York and 
probably to some extent in Ohio. It consists of a stump hollowed out by Ire at 
peS T^J l0g ^^f t0 *? eU i ° f a ^ WB »»t over to actls a 
Cstl oltn^lZt SW and **"»*> * *** a **?* ™* ^0 convert a 
The early settlers in Western New York when they owned a few slaves which 
some of them.did, employed them in this drudgery, hence the procaTs ?^«S 
termed "mggermg corn.- People of humanity in our time wouW not be Sy 
of usmg such an expression as this. No one thing shows the general r^ffl 

?888 • Prob^ E f A W V 1°' ^'M G L ' & N « W - G <™V officers in 
1888: ^obate Judge, John F. Lindemann ; Clerk of Court Eugene C 

Sf™ 6 4ir^\ M S?? R £° agland ; P ™^ing Attorney, Isa^c S Motter • 
Auditor, William D. Pohng, Cyrus D. Crites ; Treasurer, Jacob B. Sund7rland ' 

16 * 


Recorder, George Monroe; Surveyor, James Pillars; Coroner, John C. Couvery* 
Commissioners, John Akerman, Abraham Crider, Alexander Shenk. News- 
papers : Gazette, Republican, C, Parmenter, editor ; Democrat, Democratic, Mr. 
Timmonds, editor ; Republican, Republican, daily and weekly, Long, Winder & 
Porter, publishers ; Times, daily and weekly, O. B. Selfridge, Jr. ; Courier, Ger- 
man, Democratic. Churches : two Methodist Episcopal, one Colored Methodist 
Episcopal, one Presbyterian, one Old School Presbyterian, one Mission Presbyterian^ 
one Baptist, one Colored Baptist, one German Catholic, one Evangelical Lutheran,, 
two Lutheran, one German Reformed Lutheran, one Episcopalian, one United 
Brethren, one Christian, one Reformed English. Banks : City, T. T. Mitchell, 
president, E. B. Mitchell, cashier ; First National, S. A. Baxter, president, C. M. 
Hughes, Jr., cashier; Lima National, B. C. Faurot, president, F. L. Langdon,. 
cashier; Merchants', R. Mehaffey, president, R. W. Thrift, Jr., cashier. 

Manufactures and Employees. — The Lima Engine Manufacturing Company, 6 
hands; Sinclair & Morrison, well-drilling tools, 10; W. Schultheis, leather, 23; 
E. F. Dunan, builders 7 wood-work, 8 ; C. H. & D. R. R. shops, railroad 
repairs, 154; Lima Machine Works, locomotives, 150; the Cass Manufacturing 
Company, handles, sucker-rods, etc.j 10 ; E. W. Cook, job machinery, 37 ; the 

Early Settlers Pounding Corn. 

Lima Paper-Mills, straw-board and egg-cases, 128 ; Enterprise Cracker Company^ 
crackers, 10; Woolsey & Co., bent wood-work, etc., 78; Castle & Muller r 
drilling and fishing tools, 8 ; Lafayette Car- Works, railroad cars and repairs, 300 ; 
L. E. and W. R. R. Company, locomotive repairs, 103; Dr. S. A. Baxter, boxes 
and staves, 8.— State Report 1887. Population in 1860, 2,354 ; in 1880, 7,567 ; 
school census 1886, 3,345. Estimated population in 1888, 18,000. 

Lima has several fine business blocks. The court-house is one of the most 
imposing in Ohio ; it covers half an acre, and was erected, with the stone jail 
adjacent, at a cost of $350,000 ; it is constructed of Berea stone, ornamented with 
red granite columns. It is 160 feet in height, and has a tower and clock. Its 
interior finished in granite, and with encaustic tiled floors, is furnished in the finest 
cherry, and is adorned with statuary. It is the large structure with a tower 
shown in the street view. 

The Faurot Opera Block, finished in 1882, contains not only an opera-house 
(which is said to have only one equal. to it in the State) and a fine music-hall, but 
also eight large business rooms, numerous offices, a dining-hall, and the Lima 
National bank, facing upon Main and High streets, and remarked for its beauty. 

Annexed is a view of Lima, drawn by us in 1846, when the place w r as but a 



T 1 a w V ^ Jt WaS taken near the then resid ence of Col. James Cunningham, an 
the Wapakoneta road. The stream shown in the view is the Ottawa river, often 
called Hog river— a name derived from the following circumstance : McKee, the 

Dratvn by Henry Howe in 1846. 
View of Lima from the Wapakoneta Road. 

British Indian agent, who resided at the Machachac towns, on Mad river during: 
the incursion of Gen. Logan in 1786, was obliged to flee with his effects. He had 
Ins swine driven on to the borders of this stream ; the Indians thereafter called it 

J. W. Mock, Photo,, Lima, 1887. 
Street View in Lima. 

Knhfo sepe, which signifies Hog river The eccentric Count Coffenbury, in his 
poem The Forest Rangers," terms it Swinonia. A sketch of the count is given 
elsewhere m this work, with extracts from his amusing poetry. ■ 

Although a substantial and growing manufacturing city, it was not until May, 


1885, that it was discovered that Lima was in the largest oil-field known on the 
globe, not even excepting the famous Russian oil-fields. Its discovery was a 
matter of accident, the history of which, and the position of Lima a year later 
consequent upon it, has thus been given. 

" It was while boring for gas at his paper-mill that Mr. B. C. Faurot found oil 
at a depth of 1,251 feet, and though Eastern speculators pronounced the product 
worthless, they soon leased land. In the following August (1885) a citizens' 
company was formed and a well was put down, which yielded about sixty barrels 
per diem. When the manufactories began to use the oil for fuel it brought the 
low price of forty cents a barrel. The work began in earnest in February, 1886, 
when the Mandeville company, from Olean, N. Y., leased land known as the Shade 
farm, at the suburbs of the city, and opened wells which made 200 barrels a day. 
When refined, the oil proved to be an article of excellent quality. Other wells 
were soon sunk, and some of them were found to yield some 600 barrels daily. A 
refinery was built ; the work moved on rapidly, and in less than one year there 
was an increase of at least 1,500 more inhabitants. There are now about 116 oil- 
wells, with a flow of about 5,000 barrels a day from 125 or more wells. A firm 
has for some time been manufacturing rigs. Drilling is going on, and another 
refinery is about to be erected, with a capacity of 2,500 barrels per day. An 
average of thirty-five wells is developed each month. The Standard Oil Com- 
pany is now erecting a refinery." 

By May, 1887, there were seventy wells in the city of Lima, and in the entire 
Lima field over 300. What is termed the Lima oil-field extends southwest about 
twenty-five miles, through Wapakoneta and St. Mary's, in Auglaize county, into 
Mercer county, just south of Celina. The entire profitable oil territory of North- 
western Ohio is much larger. It covers all of Allen and Hancock counties, the 
south part of Wood, and parts of Seneca, Wyandot, Hardin, Putnam, Auglaize, 
and Mercer counties. The general position of Lima at this period (May, 1887) 
was thus defined by President Baxter, of the Board of Trade : 

" The enterprise and dash of our people is inherited ; it came to us from our 
fathers who are dead and gone. We are reaping the benefits of their labors and 
sacrifices. We have a magnificent agricultural country, as fine railroad facilities 
as any city in the country. For thirty years we have had a substantial, healthy 
growth, with scarcely a single backset. We have the general shops of the Cincin- 
nati, Hamilton and Dayton, and Lake Erie and Western railroads; a machine- 
works, with a specialty that brings orders from all parts of the globe ; a straw- 
board and egg-case concern, with facilities that cannot be excelled on earth; a 
contract car-shops, that employ more men than the combined industries of our 
neighboring town of Findlay; two wagon and carriage material manufacturers, 
that manage to disturb the markets of the country by the cheapness of their 
products. The town is filled with little concerns of all kinds in the manufacturing 
line, and last night a single bank in the city paid 1,800 checks to skilled labor 
employed in the various industries. In addition to what we have had heretofore, 
the past year has developed here the largest oil-field in area in the world, and of 
which Lima is the nucleus. Within ten months probably $5,000,000 of capital 
has been brought in, and the future of Lima as the head-centre of the oil distribu- 
tion is fixed and assured by the action of the Standard Oil Company in building 
here the largest and most complete refinery in their entire system. Two other 
pipe-lines and a refinery, operated by gritty young fellows, are also in operation, 
and more coming. We have 500 oil-wells in operation, with a daily production 
of 20,000 barrels, and there is already stored, within a radius of a few miles, prob- 
ably 1,000,000 barrels of oil, with the oil business as yet only in its toddling 
- infancy, the developed territory being capable of sustaining fifty-fold more wells and 
operated with much greater economy. The possibilities of the oil business are 
simply beyond comprehension to the ordinary mind, and those actively engaged in 
the production, handling, and purchase seem the most muddled of all. These are 


the things that bring the solid wealth to our coffers. To spend it we have, to begin 
with, a daisy town. We have a system of public-schools that are as near perfec- 
tion as can be made, and, by the way, we have scrupulously kept the schools out 
of politics and religion. Every denomination of church is represented. We go to 
the handsomest little opera-house in the West. For a nickel we can ride two 
miles on a splendidly equipped electrical street-railroad. For light we can use 
electricity or gas, each the very perfection of their kind; and for thirst and clean- 
liness a system of water-works has been provided that, although it broke our hearts 
and exhausted our purses to build them, more than compensate for all they cost. 
As to natural gas, we already have enough to set the ordinary village crazy." 

From a circular issued in Lima early in the year 1888 we extract some interest- 
ing details relating to the oil refineries : 

In the development of the oil industry, Refinery has a capacity of 1,000 barrels of 
the new concerns that have grown up within refined oil daily. They own sixty tank cars, 
the past two years are too numerous to men- have fourteen acres of land upon which their 
tion. Among the heaviest producers of crude works are located, and a capital of $100,000 
oil may be mentioned the Ohio Oil Company, is invested. The Solar Refinery has 1 21 acres 
with a capital of one million dollars. They of land upon which their works are located 
are producmgover 4,000 barrels daily, and when and employ a capital of half a million dollars, 
a fair price is obtained for "Lima Crude," Their capacity is 5,000 barrels daily. The 
have the territory and facilities for increasing Solar is probably the largest refinery in the 
their production fourfold. Schofield, Sher- country, and additions are being made con- 
mer & Teagle, oil refiners of Cleveland, have stantly to the works. During the past year 
about fifty producing wells, with fifteen miles and a half more than a million dollars has 
of pipeline, and a tankage capacity of 150,- been used in the erection of new business 
000 barrels. They have employed in this field buildings, manufacturing establishments and 
somewhere near $200,000. The Buckeye Pipe dwelling-houses, and the present year prom- 
Lme Company have some 250 miles of pipe ises still greater investments in building en- 
hne, about 170 large iron tanks of 36,000 barrels terprises. Real estate in Lima and through- 
capacity each, and employ m the neighbor-? out the county has always been held at very 
hood of $3,000,000 in taking care of the moderate values. The county is one of the 
product of the field. The Excelsior Pipe finest agricultural districts in the State,wheat, 
Line has something over thirty miles of pipe, com and oats being the staple products, and 
with a tankage capacity of about 100,000 bar- there is hardly an acre in the county that is 
rels, and employ $100,000 in taking care of not capable of cultivation, 
the crude product. The Eagle Consolidated 

The great enterprise of piping oil from the Lima fields to Chicago manufactur- 
ing establishments is now, m this the year 1888, being undertaken by the Standard 
Oil Company, who practically control all the oil territory around Lima. The total 
length of pipe will be about 210 miles, and the entire investment aggregate over 

The view of the derricks was taken from a bridge, the successor of the covered 
bridge over the Ottawa shown in the' old view of Lima, and looking easterly. 
The oil-wells, with their derricks, are a marked feature of this entire region. 
Nowhere are they so plentiful as around the town. Experience soon showed they 
were often too close for profit, sometimes not over an acre apart, when the flow 
proved too weak • one well in ten acres was found near enough. The life of a well 
on the Bradford, Pennsylvania, oil-field is usually about ten years; how long in 
that of Lima remains to be tested. A single steam-engine in places answers for 
the pumping of several wells, the power being transmitted from well to well by 
cables and shafting. The wells are named from the original proprietors of the 
land. To illustrate, one is named « Shade well, No. 11/" it being the eleventh 
well on the land of Mr. Nelson Shade. The cost of drilling for wells varies from 
sixty-five cents to $1.50 a foot. The oil is struck at from 1,250 to 1,500 feet. 

Another marked feature of the oil region is the tanks for the storage of the oil, 
which vary in capacity from 250 to 3,500 barrels. They resemble huge tubs, are 
covered on top with boards, and housed or shedded over. The tanks are some- 
times struck by lightning; in a single storm in October, 1885, several were thus 



destroyed. Very little else was destroyed but the tanks. No flames of conse- 
quence were seen, but immense volumes of smoke |>oured forth, which seemed as a 
protection, acting as an impenetrable curtain to outside objects. 

The Black Swamp tract, in which this county partially lies, has been the scene 
of much unwritten history in the early settlement of the country. Father Finley 
— a sketch of whom is elsewhere given in this work — has preserved a pleasant 
anecdote connected with the war of 1812 in his sketch of the life of an eminent 
Methodist minister, Rev. William H. Raper. At the time he was a lad of nine- 
teen, and volunteered in the company of Capt. Stephen Smith, of Clermont 
county, which marched to the frontier. From his brightness, notwithstanding his 
youth, he was chosen sergeant. 

J. W. Mock, Photo., Lima. 
Fikld ok Derricks. Lima. 


A day or two before the battle of the 
Thames, Raper' s company was told to march 
up the lake some fifteen miles to prevent the 
landing of the British from their vessels, and 
the engagement took place during their ab- 
sence. This circumstance rendered it neces- 
sary for his company, which was now the 
strongest, to be put in charge of the pris- 
oners taken by Commodore Perry and Gen. 
Harrison, and march them across the State to 
the Newport Station in Kentucky. 

His superior officers having been taken 
sick, the command devolved upon him. It 
was a responsible undertaking for so young 
an officer. The company consisted of 100 
soldiers, and the prisoners numbered 400. 
Their route was through the wilderness 

of the Black Swamp, which at that season 
was nearly covered with water. In their 
march they became bewildered and lost. For 
three days and nights they wandered about in 
the swamp without food, and became so scat- 
tered, that on the morning of the third day 
he found himself with a guard of only twelve 
men, and one hundred prisoners, ^ Seeing 
their weakness the prisoners mutinied, and 
refused to march. No time was to be lost ; 
Raper called out his men, commanded them 
to make ready, which they did by fixing bay- 
onets and cocking their guns. He then gave 
the prisoners five minutes to decide whether 
they would obey him or not. At the expira- 
tion of the last minute the soldiers were 
ordered to present arms, take aim, and — but 
before the word "fire," had escaped his lips, 
a large Scotch soldier cried "hold," and 



stepping aside, asked the privilegt of saying 
a word to his companions : it was granted, 
^whereupon he addressed them as follows: 
*' We have been taken in a fair fight, and are 
prisoners ; honorably so, and this conduct is 
disgraceful to our king's flag, not becoming 
true soldiers. Now," said he, " I have had 
no hand in raising this mutiny, and I propose 
that all who are in favor of behaving them- 
selves as honorable prisoners of war shall 
rally around me, and we will take the others 
in hand ourselves, and the American guard 
shall stand by and see fair play. ' ' This speech 
had the desired effect, the mutiny was brought 
to an end without bloodshed, and Raper de- 
livered his prisoners at Newport. They had 
among the prisoners two Indians, whom 
Haper forced at the point of the sword to lead 
them out of the swamp. After Raper' s 
arrival in Newport he was offered a com- 
mission in the regular army. Such was his 
love for his mother that he would take no 
important step without consulting her. The 
answer was characteristic of the noble mothers 
of that day. "My son, -if my country was 
still engaged in war and I had fifty sons I 
would freely give them all to her service, but, 
as peace is now declared, I think something 
better awaits my son than the camp-life of a 
soldier in time of peace." In 1819 Raper 
became a minister in the Methodist Church, 
and while travelling in Indiana, upon the first 
visit to one of his appointments, a fine, large 
man approached him, called him brother, and 
said : "I knew you the moment I saw you, 
but I suppose you have forgotten me. I am 
the Scotch soldier that made the speech to 
the prisoners the morning of the mutiny in 
the Black Swamp. After we were exchanged 
as prisoners of war, my enlistment termi- 
nated. I had been brought to see the justice 

of the American cause and the greatness of 
the country, and I resolved to become an 
American citizen. I came to this State, 
rented some land, and opened up a farm. I 
have joined the Methodist Church, and, 
praise God ! the best of all is, I have obtained 
religion ! Not among the least of my bless- 
ings is a fine wife and noble child. So come, ' ' 
said he, "dinner will be ready by the time 
we get home." And the two soldiers, now as 
friends and Christians, renewed their ac- 
quaintance, and were ever after fast friends. 

At another time Raper met with a singular 
accident while riding to one of his appoint- 
ments. Swimming nis horse over a swollen 
creek, the horse became entangled and sank, 
but with great effort he managed to catch 
hold of the limb of a tree overhead, where 
he was enabled to rest and hold his head 
above water. While thus suspended, the 
thought rushed upon him, "Mother is pray- 
ing for me, and I shall be saved." After 
resting a moment he made an effort and got 
to shore, his horse also safely landing. His 
mother, ninety miles away, that morning 
awoke suddenly in affright with the thought 
upon her, "William is in great danger," 
when she sprang from her bed, # and falling on 
her knees prayed for some time in intense 
supplication for his safety, until she received 
a sweet assurance that all was well. When 
they met and related the facts, and compared 
the time, they precisely agreed. 

This hero of the Black Swamp died in 
1 852, closing a life of great usefulness. Father 
Finley says of him that he was an eloquent 
preacher, a sweet, melodious singer, was filled 
with the spirit of kindness, while his con- 
versational powers were superior, replete with 
a fund of useful incidents gathered from 
practical life in camp, pulpit and cabin. 

Delphos, on the border line of Van Wert and Allen counties, and on the T. 
St. L. and K. C. ; P. Ft. W. and C. ; D. Ft. W. and C. ; C. and W. ; P. and C. 
railroads, lies within the oil and gas belt of Northwestern Ohio, seventy-four miles 
southwest of Toledo, and in a country of great fertility. The Miami and Erie 
canal divides the town into two nearly equal parts. The post-office is in Van Wert 

Newspapers : Courant, E. B. Walkup, editor ; Herald, Democratic, Tolan & 
Son, editors and proprietors. Churches : one Presbyterian, two Methodist, one 
United Brethren, one Catholic, one Christian, one Reformed, one Lutheran. 
Banks : Commercial, R. K. Lytle, president, W. H. Fuller, cashier ; Delphos 
National, Theo. Wrocklage, president, Jos. Boehmer, cashier. 

Manufactures and, Employees. — The Ohio Wheel Company, 62 hands ; Hartwell 
Bros., handles, neck-yokes, etc., 14 ; Delphos Union Stave Company, 23 ; Pitts- 
burg Hoop and Stave Company, 50 ; L. F. Werner, woollen yarns, flannels, etc., 
8; Steinle & Co., lager beer, 60; Toledo, St. Louis and Kansas City R. R., car 
repairs, 100 ; Weyer & Davis, hoops, etc., 17 ; Shenk & Lang, Miller & Morton, 
flour, etc. ; Krift & Ricker, D. Moening, builders' wood- work. — State Report 1887. 
Also Empire Excelsior Works, Delphos Chemical Works, pearlash, etc. Popu- 
lation in 1880, 3,814. School census in 1886, 782; E. W. Greenslade, principal. 

Delphos was laid out in 1845, directly after the opening of the Miami and Erie 
<anal. The different portions of it were originally known as Section 10, Howard, 
and East and West Bredeick. Its general name for many years was Section 10. 


It is said that Delphos could not have been settled without the aid of quinine- 
The air was so poisoned with malarial effluvia from swamps and marshes, that not 
only the pioneers but also the very dogs of the settlement suffered intensely from 
fever and ague. Ferdinand Bredeick built the first cabin ; E. N. Morton the first 
saw- and the first grist-mills; and Mrs. George Lang (maiden name, Amelia 
Bredeick) was the first child born here. The original settlers were German 
Catholics. In December, 1845, thirty-six male members met in a cabin, and made 
arrangements to build a church. It was the first established at Delphos, and " its 
honored founder, Rev. John O. Bredeick, was the benevolent guardian of the 
spiritual and material interests of the German settlers, who were pioneers in the 
inhospitable forests of North America." It was a huge, ungainly structure. It * 
was succeeded in 1880 by an elegant church, erected at an expense of over 
$100,000 ; it has a chime of bells, and its appointments are all in keeping — stained 
glass windows, paintings, statuary, altars, frescos, organ, etc. 

Samuel Forrer, the civil-engineer, is regarded as the pioneer of this region, as he 
ultimately settled here in Delphos. He was connected with the Ohio canal sur- 
veys from July, 1825, to 1831, and located the Miami and Erie canal; in 1871, 
when he was seventy-eight years of age, he still held the position of consulting; 
engineer of this work. Earlier he had been canal commissioner and member of 
the board of public works. 

Knapp's "History of the Maumee Valley," published in 1872, has these inter- 
esting items : 

"The great forests, once so hated because they formed a stumbling-block in the 
tedious struggles to reduce the soil to a condition for tillage, have been converted 
into a source of wealth. Within a radius of five miles of Delphos, thirty-five 
saw-mills (now perhaps doubled) are constantly employed in the manufacture of 
lumber, and a value nearly equalling the product of these mills is annually ex- 
ported in the form of lumber. Excepting in the manufacture of maple sugar, and 
for local building and fencing purposes, no use until recent years had been made 
of the timber, and its destruction from the face of the earth was the especial object 
of the pioneer farmers, and in this at that time supposed good work they had the 
sympathies of all others who were interested in the development of the country. 
The gathering of the ginseng crop once afforded employment to the families of the 
early settlers, but the supply was scanty and it soon became exhausted. Some 
eighteen years ago, when the business of the town was suffering from stagnation. 
Dr. J. W. Hunt, an enterprising druggist, and now a citizen of Delphos, bethought 
himself that he might aid the pioneers of the wilderness, and add to his own trade, 
by offering to purchase the bark from the slippery elm trees, which were abundant 
in the adjacent swamps. For this new article of commerce he offered remunerative 
prices, and the supply soon appeared in quantities reaching hundreds of cords of 
the cured bark ; and he has since controlled the trade in Northwestern Ohio and 
adjacent regions. The resources found in the lumber and timber and in this bark 
trade, trifling as the latter may appear, have contributed, and are yet contributing, 
almost as much to the prosperity of the town and country as the average of the 
cultivated acres, including the products of the orchard." 

Bluffton, on the L. E. and W. and C. and W. railroads, is seventy-five miles 
southwest of Sandusky, in the northeast corner of the county. It was laid out in 
1837, under the name of Shannon, which it retained many years. Newspaper: 
News, Independent, N. W. Cunningham, editor. Churches : one Lutheran, one 
Methodist, one Catholic, one Reformed, one Presbyterian, and one Dissenters. 
Bank : People's, Daniel Russell, proprietor and cashier. 

Manufactures and Employees. — Althaus & Bro., builders' wood-work, 10 hands; 
A. J. St. John, handles, lumber, etc., 10 ; A. Klay, machinery, 5 ; J. M. Town- 
send & Son, lumber, etc., 5 ; W. B. Richards, flour and feed, 3. — State Report 
1886. Population in 1880, 1,290. School census 1886, 464 ; S. C. Patterson, 
superintendent. West of the town is a large Mennonite settlement. Large stone 
quarries are in its vicinity. 



Spencervii.le, laid out in 1844-45, at the intersection of C. A. and D. Fk 
W. C. railroads, and on the Miami and Erie canal, is fourteen miles from 
Lima. Newspaper : Journal, Independent, S. L. Ashton, editor. Bank : Citi- 
zens', Post & Wasson ; I. B. Post, cashier. Churches : one Methodist, one Ger- 
man Methodist, two Baptist, one Catholic, one German Reformed, and one 

Manufactures and Employees. — J. S. Fogle, Sr., lumber, $ hands; Richard 
Hanse, churns, 10 ; George Kephart, clotlfes-racks, etc., 10 ; Kolter & Kraft, flour 
and feed, 6 ; R. H. Harbison, builders' wood-work, and also staves and heading, 
31 ; W. A. Reynolds, lumber and feed, 5.— State Eepo7i 1886. Census 1880, 
532. School census 1886, 468 ; C. R. Carlo, principal. 

Small villages, with census in 1880: Elida, 302 ; Lafayette, 333 ; Westmin- 
ster, 225; Cairo, 316; Beaver Dam, 353. 


Ashland County was formed February 26, 1846. The surface on the south 
is hilly, the remainder of the county rolling. The soil of the upland is a sandy 
loam ; of the valleys — which comprise a large part of the county — a rich sandy 
and gravelly loam, and very productive. A great quantity of wheat, oats, corn, 
potatoes, etc., is raised, and grass and fruit in abundance. A majority of the pop- 
ulation are of Pennsylvania origin. Its present territory originally comprised the- 
townships of Vermillion, Montgomery, Orange, Green, and Hanover, with parts 
of Monroe, Mifflin, Milton, and Clear Creek, of Richland county ; also the prin- 
cipal part of the townships of Jackson, Perry, Mohican, and Lake, of Wayne 
county; of Sullivan and Troy, Lorain county; and Ruggles, of Huron county. 
The townships from Lorain and Huron counties are from the Connecticut Western 
Reserve tract. Area, 371 square miles. In 1885 the acres cultivated were 
130,947; in pasture, 47,607; woodland, 45,137; lying waste, 3,128; produced 
in wheat, 443,339 bushels; in corn, 861,675; cheese, 476,850 pounds; flax, 
564,200; wool, 268,573 ; maple sugar, 57,850. School census 1886, 7,336; 
teachers, 153. It has 29 miles of railroad. 

Townships and Census. 


Clear Creek, 
















Townships and Census. 















Population in 1860 was 22,951 ; in 1880, 23,883, of whom 18,852 were Ohia 

Ashland in 1846. — Ashland, the county-seat, was laid out (1815) by William 
Montgomery, and bore for many years the name of Uniontown ; it was changed ta 



its present name in compliment to Henry Clay, whose seat near Lexington, Ken- 
tucky, bears that name. Daniel Carter, from Butler county, Pennsylvania, raised 
the first cabin in the place about the year 1811, which stood where the store of 
William* Granger now is in Ashland. Kobert Newell, three miles east, and Mr. 
Fry, one and one-half miles north of the village, raised cabins about the same 
time. In 1817 the first store was opened by Joseph Sheets, in a frame building 
now kept as a store by the widow Yonker. Joseph Sheets, David Markley, 

Drawn by Henry Howe in 1846. 
Public Buildings in Ashland. 

Samuel Ury, Nicholas Shaeffer, Alanson Andrews, Elias Slocum, and George W, 
Palmer Avere among the first settlers of the place. Ashland is a flourishing village, 
eighty-nine miles northwest of Columbus, and fourteen from Mansfield. It con* 
tains five churches, viz., two Presbyterian, one Episcopal Methodist, one Lutheran, 
&nd one Disciples ; nine dry-goods, four grocery, one book, and two drug stores ; 
two newspaper -printing-offices; a flourishing classical academy, numbering over 
100 pupils of both sexes, and a population estimated at 1,300. The above view 
was taken in front of the site selected for the erection of a court-house, the Metho- 
dist church building seen on the left being now used for that purpose; the struc- 
tures with steeples, commencing on the right, are the First Presbyterian church, 
the academy, and the Second Presbyterian church. At the organization of the 



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^^^^ ' ■ 

Frank Henry Howe, Photo., 1888. 
Public Buildings in Ashland. 

first court of common pleas for this county, at Ashland, an old gentleman by the 
name of David Burns was one of the grand jurors who, as a remarkable fact, it is 
said, was also a member of the first grand jury ever impanelled in Ohio. The 
court met near the mouth of Wegee creek, in Belmont county, in 1795; the 



country being sparsely settled, he was compelled to travel forty miles to the place 
of holding court. — Old Edition. 

County officers for 1888: Auditor, Samuel L. Arnold; Clerk, Milton Win- 
bigler; Commissioners, Nathan J. Cresson, John Martin, Jacob Kettering*; Coroner, 
William H. Reinhart ; Prosecuting Attorney, Frank C. Semple ; Probate Judge, 
Emanuel Finger ; Recorder, Edwin S. Bird ; Sheriff, Randolph F. Andress ; Sur- 
veyor, John B. Weddell ; Treasurers, James W. Brant, Thomas C. Harvey. 

Ashland, the county-seat, is about fifty miles southwest of Cleveland, on the 
line of the N. Y. P. and O. railroad. It is a well-built town, with a fine farming 
country round about. Newspapers : Press, Democratic, W. T. Albertson, editor ; 
Times, Republican, W. H. Reynolds, editor ; Brethren Evangelist, religious and 
Prohibition, A. L. Garber, editor; Gazette, Republican, Hon. T. M. Beer, man- 
ager. Churches : one Presbyterian, two Lutheran, one Disciples, two Brethren, 
one Evangelical, one Reformed, and one Catholic. Banks: Farmers', E. J. Gross- 
cup, president, George A. Ullman, cashier; First National, J. O. Jennings, presi- 
dent, Joseph Patterson, cashier. 

Manufactures and Employees. — Shearer, Kagey & Co., doors, sash, etc., 16 hands ; 
F. E. Myers & Bro., pumps, 65 ; Kauffman & Beer, woven-wire mattresses, 20 ; 
H. K. Myers & Co., flour, etc. ; Klugston & Hughes, grain elevator. — State 
Report 1887. Population in 1880,3,004. School census 1886, 1,169; Joseph 
E. Stubbs, superintendent. 

Ashland has the high distinction of having given the first citizen of Ohio to 
volunteer as a soldier for the Union 
-army. This was Loein Andrews, 
who was born here in a log-cabin, April 
1, 1819, being the fourth child born in 
Ashland. His father, Alanson An- 
drews, later opened a farm southwest of 
the village. At the age of seventeen he 
delivered with great credit a Fourth of 
July oration at Carter's Grove just east 
of the town. From 1840 to 1843 he 
was a student at Gambier, but from 
want of pecuniary means was obliged to 
leave, and then took charge of the Ash- 
land academy. He pursued his studies 
without a teacher, and with signal suc- 
<iess. He lectured before institutes 
throughout the State, and had scarcely 
&n equal in influence as an educator. 
So greatly was he valued for power of 
intellect and general capacity that, in 
1854, he was chosen to the presidency 
of Gambier, and he brought up the 
institution from an attendance of thirty 
to over 200 pupils. Princeton con- 
ferred upon him the degree of LL. D. He had peculiarly winning qualities that 
made him a born leader. It was in February, 1861, that, believing war inevitable, 
he offered his services to Gov. Dennison. In April he raised a company in Knox 
oounty for the Fourth regiment, and was elected colonel. It was ordered to West 
Virginia, where, owing to exposure, he was taken sick of typhoid fever, and died 
September 18, 1861, and was buried at Gambier in a spot of his own selection. 
He was but forty-two years of age — in his prime — and of great moral influence. 
He was about five feet eight inches in height, and weighed about 130 pounds; hair 
sandy, and inclined to curl. His eye was a clear gray, his face manly, full of 
benevolence, his carriage erect, with a sprightly gait. 


Ohio's First Volunteer for the Union Army. 



Upon a high, commanding site upon the outskirts of the town stand the some- 
what imposing structures of the Ashland Preparatory College, W. C. Perry, prin- 
cipal. This institution is under the auspices of the Society of Dunkards, or Ger- 
man Baptists, of whom there are many in parts of this county. The following 
account of these peculiar and excellent people is from the " County History." 
The quiet simplicity and earnestness of their lives is on a par with that of the 
members of the Society of Friends : 

The German Baptists or, as they are com- 
monly called by outsiders, thinkers or Dunk- 
ards (the name being derived from the German 
word to dip), had their first organization in 
Germany about the year 1708, in a portion 
of country where Baptists are said to have 
been unknown ; the original organization con- 
sisted of eight persons, seven of whom were 
bred Presbyterians and one in the Lutheran 
faith ; they agreed to "obey from the heart 
that form of doctrine once delivered unto the 
saints." Consequently, in the year 1708, 
they repaired to the river Eder, near Schwar- 
zenau, and were buried with Christ in bap- 
tism. They were baptized by trine immer- 
sion and, organizing a church, chose Alex- 
ander Mack their first minister. He was not, 
however, the originator of their faith or 
practice, the church never having recognized 
any person as such. Meeting with opposi- 
tion and persecution, they emigrated to 
America and settled, in the year 1719, near 
Philadelphia and Gennantown. Pennsylvania. 
And from that little band or eight persons 
have sprung all the Dunkers in America. 
As the church has no statistics, its numbers 
can only be estimated. The estimate is about 
100,000 souls, inostly in Pennsylvania, Vir- 

gnia, Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, Maryland, 
ansas, Iowa and Nebraska. They are 
mostly farmers, some mechanics and a few 
professional men, but such a thing as a 
Dunkard lawyer is unknown, 

Their religion inculcates industry and fru- 
gality, abstaining from extravagance and 
worldly display. They . are very desirable 
citizens in any community, as by their in- 
dustry and freedom from excesses of all kinds, 
they create and develop the wealth of a 
country blessed with their presence, and by 
their example exert a healthy influence upon 
the morals of those associated with them. 

They regard the New Testament as the only 
rule of their faith and practice ; believe in the 
Trinity and contend for the literal interpreta- 
tion of the Old and New Testaments, as works 
of Divine inspiration. All idiots, infants and 
those who die before knowing good from evil 
will be saved without obedience, having been 
sufficiently atoned for by the death of Christ. 
None, however, are recognized as members 
of the church until after baptism, which must 
be entire immersion, the applicant kneeling 
and being dipped forward three times, one for 
each person of the Godhead. 

Feet-washing is their next ordinance, the 
authority for which is narrated in John 13. 
It is observed as a preparation for the love- 
feast and communion. The brethren wash the 
feet of brethren only, and sisters of sisters : 

the sexes never washing the feet of each 
other, as has been sometimes stated. Those- 
who perform this are not chosen, but any 
person of the same sex may voluntarily per- 
form it. 

The love-feast is a real meal, the quality or 
kind of food being unlimited, Christ* s supper 
being the authority for it. After this, imme- 
diately preceding the communion, is the salu- 
tation of the kiss as observed by the apostles 
and Christian churches following them. In 
this ordinance the sexes do not interchange 

At communion, the next ordinance, the 
sisters with heads covered with plain caps and 
brethren with heads uncovered give thanks 
for bread and wine< The minister breaks- 
bread to the brethren and they to each other ; 
he also breaks bread to the sisters, but they 
do not break bread 1 to each other; it is the 
same in passing thie wine. The communion 
is always observed at night, the hour of its 
institution by Christ ; usually once or twice a 
year in every church. 

There are also the ordinances of laying on 
of hands and anointing the sick with oil r 
founded on James 5:14, 15. 

The church government is republican ire 
form, matters of difference and questions of 
doubt being first submitted to the council 
of each church, and when not settled they 
are carried to the district council composed 
of one delegate each from twenty churches,, 
sometimes less. If still unsettled it is carried 
to the national conference if a matter of gen- 
eral interest ; but no local matter can be re- 
ferred to that body. 

In the lower councils all matters are decided 
by vote of brethren and sisters ; but the sisters 
do not participate in the official deliberations 
of the national conference. 

Their mode of worship does not materially 
differ from that of other denominations, save 
that the Lord's prayer is repeated after every 
prayer, and the service closed without bene- 
diction ; the minister simply says : " We are 
dismissed in the name of the Lord," or some 
similar phrase. During the service the sisters 
keep their heads covered with a plain covering, 
in compliance with Paul, who says : " It is a 
shame for a woman to worship or prophesy 
with her head uncovered. ' ' 

The Dickey Church (so named after Elias 
Dickey, one of its leading speakers), the 
pioneer Dunkers' church of Asnland county, 
was erected about 1860 in Montgomery town- 
ship, but a new and larger edifice was erected 
in 1877. It owes its institution to the efforts 
of the late Jos. Hoop, who about 1839-40 in- 
vited Mr. Tracy to address a few people at his 


fiouse, and the meetings were continued until Their speakers receive no salary, but if one 

the present organization was formed. The should be a poor man devoting his time and 

Maple Grove or Beighly church was erected talents to the spreading of their faith, they 

four or five years before the Dickey building, regard it as incumbent upon them to reward 

but the latter was the earliest church organi- him by gifts, 

Jeromeville is a small village eight miles southeast of Ashland, on Jerome 
fork of Mohican, which has one Presbyterian, one Methodist, and one Disciples 
church, and in 1880 had 314 inhabitants. In that vicinity, about the year 1762, 
Mohican John, a noted chief of Connecticut Mohegans, to the number of about 
200 it is supposed, emigrated to Ohio, and established a village upon- the west side 
of Jerome fork, on the site of the farms of Rev. Elijah Yocum and Judge Edmund 
Ingmand. In the war of 1812 it was about the only settlement within the present 
limits of the county, and consisted of a few families, who erected pickets for their 
safety. There was at that time a Frenchman, named John Baptiste Jerome, who 
resided there and gave name to the locality. He had been an Indian trader, and 
had taken a squaw for a wife. The people of that nation always became more 
-easily domesticated among the aborigines than the English. From very early 
times it was the policy of the French government not to allow their soldiers to 
take wives with them into the wilderness. Hence the soldiers and traders fre- 
quently married among the Indians, and were enabled to sustain themselves with 
far less difficulty. In 1812, when the Indians were removed, his wife went with 
them, and later he married a German woman. He removed to the mouth of Huron 
river, and died there. He began trading with the Indians when seventeen years 
of age, and was with them in Wayne's campaign. The Indian village consisted 
of about thirty bark huts or wigwams. The names of the heads of the families 
were Aweepsah, Opetete, Catotawa, Nesohawa, Buckandohee, Shias, Ground 
Squirrel, Buckwheat, Philip Canon icut, Billy Montour, and Thomas Jelloway. 

Hill, in the " County History/' says that Jerome was a brave and kindly man, 
small, wiry, and vivacious. Having been with the Indians at the battle of the 
4( Fallen Timbers," he often related anecdotes of that battle, describing the amaze- 
ment of the Indians at the .rapidity and violence of the movements of Wayne's 
army, the Indians comparing him to a huge " black snake," and ascribing almost 
--supernatural powers to him. He came like a huge anaconda, inclosed and crushed 
them in such a frightful manner that they abandoned all hope of resistance, and 
were glad to make peace. He asserted that for a very long time the very name of 
*" Mad Anthony " sent a chill of horror through the body of an Indian. 

The Delaware Indians had a settlement at or near Jeromeville, which they left 
at the beginning of the war of 1812. Their chief was old Capt. Pipe, who resided 
near the road to Mansfield, one mile south of Jeromeville. When young he was a 
great warrior, and the implacable foe of the whites. He was in St. Clair's defeat, 
where, according to his own account, he distinguished himself, and slaughtered 
■white men until his arm was weary with the work. He had a daughter of great 
beauty. A young chief, of noble mien, became in love with her, and on his suit 
being rejected mortally poisoned himself with the May apple. A Capt. Pipe, 
"whose Indian name was Tauhangecaupouye, removed to the small Delaware 
reserve, in the upper part of Marion county, and when his tribe sold out theii 
Ohio possessions accompanied them to Kansas. 

Helltown and Greentown were two Indian villages in the southern part of this 
county. Greentown was so named after Thomas Green, a Connecticut Tory, who, 
sympathizing with the British and Indians in the destruction of the valley of the 
Wyoming, fled to Ohio and joined the Delawares, acquiring great influence among 
them. Among the Greentown Indians was a very aged, full-blooded, ugly-look- 
ing savage, who was known to the early settlers as Tom Lyons. He was born in 
New Jersey, and was one of the friendly Delawares with the whites at the massacre 
of Wyoming in 1778. On a few occasions he related his achievements. He had 


been in many battles on the border, and taken many scalps. He related some of 
his acts of extreme cruelty, and a few of his barbarities inflicted upon the wives 
and children of the border settlers. He was with the other Greentown and 
Jerometown Indians in the battle of the Fallen Timbers, and, as related in Hill's 
" History of Ashland County," gave this graphic account. It was in reply to a 
question of Allen Oliver, who asked him what he thought of Wayne as a white 

44 Wayne be great chief. He be one devil Wayne great fight — brave white chief. He 

to fight. Me hear his dinner horn way over he one devil" 

there go toot, toot ; then over here it go toot, While going through the description of the 

toot ; then way over side it gfo toot, toot. Then fight, " Old Tom ' ' gesticulated and grinned, 

his soldiers run forward — shoot, shoot ; then as much as if in the midst of the battle, 

run among logs and brush. Indians have got Terror was evinced in the whole of the mimic 

to get out and run. Then come Long Knives battle he was then fighting over, and being 

with pistols and shoot, shoot. Indians run ; about the ugliest-looking Indian the settlers 

no stop ; Old Tom see too much fight to be had ever seen, the effect of his speech was to 

trap — he run into woods — he run like devil — the highest degree expressive, 
he keep run till he clear out of danger. 

The exact location of the Indian village Helltown is not known, but it was sup- 
posed to l>e on the south line of what is now Green township, on the banks of the 
Clear fork of the Mohican. It probably derived its name from a Pennsylvania 
captive who spoke the German language, in which " Hell " signifies clear or trans- 
parent, so called after the stream on which it was situated. 

When Col. Crawford Jn the spring of 1782 invaded the Indian settlements of 
the upper Sandusky the Helltown Indians fled thither for safety. The village 
was the home of a number of well-known Delaware chiefs, among others Thomas 
Armstrong; also the occasional residence of the noted Capt. Pipe, one of Col. 
Crawford's executioners. In 1783 Thomas Armstrong, with the original inhab- 
itants of Helltown (that village having been abandoned) and a few Mingoes and 
Mohawks, established the village of Greentown, some three miles west of the 
present village of Perrysville. It was on a bluff extending to the north banks of 
Black fork, or "Armstrong's" creek, almost entirely surrounded by alder marshes, 
and a very strong position. The huts, numbering about 150, were constructed of 
poles covered with bark, and irregularly placed around a knoll, with a playground 
in the centre, at the west side of which was built the council house and cemetery 
in a grove. 

Up to 1795 it was a station on the route for captives on the way to Detroit and 
other points in the Indian Territory. 

Two tragedies in the autumn of 1812 were enacted by the Indians not far from 
the old Indian village of Greentown. These were the murder of Martin Ruifner^ 
Frederic Zimmer (or in English Frederic Seymour) and family, on the Black fork 
of the Mohican, and the tragedy at the cabin of Mr. James Copus. Hill's " History 
of Ashland County " gives very full details. We here first take the briefer his- 
tory as published on pages 429-30 in the first edition of this work. In a note 
there we stated that our informant for the first tragedy was Mr. Henry Nail, from 
whose lips, now just forty-two years ago, we derived it ; and for the second, we 
said : 

"■We have three different accounts of this affair: one from Wyatt Hutchinson, 
of Guernsey, then a lieutenant in the Guernsey militia ; one from Henry Nail, who 
was with some of the wounded men the night following ; and the last from a gen- 
tleman living in Mansfield at the time. Each differs in some essential particulars. 
Much experience has taught us that it is almost impossible to get perfectly accurate 
verbal narratives of events that have taken place years since, and which live only 
in memory." And to this remark of ours made in that long ago we here add the 
additional reason for conflicting testimony, viz., the rarity of ]>erfect accuracy of 
observation and strength of memory, combined with the faculty of clearness in 
statement : 



The Massctcre of the Rvffner Family. — 
There was living at this time—said Mr. Nail 
— on the Black Fork of the Mohican, about 
half a mile west of where Petersburgh now 
is [now Mifflin], a Mr. Martin Kuffner. Hav- 
ing removed his family for safety, no person 
was with him in his cabin, excepting abound 
boy. About two miles southeast stood the 
cabin of the Seymours. This family con- 
sisted of the parents— both very old people 
— a maiden daughter Catharine, and her 
brother Philip, who was a bachelor. 

One evening Mr. Ruffner sent out the lad 
to the creek bottom, to bring home the cows, 
when he discovered four Indians and ran. 
They called to him, saying that they would 
not harm him, but wished to speak to him. 
Having ascertained from him that the Sey- 
mours were at home, they left, and he hurried 
back and told Ruffner of the circumstance ; 
upon which he took down his rifle and started 
for Seymour's. He arrived there, and was 
advising young Seymour to go to the cabin 
of a Mr. Copus, and get old Mr. Copus and 
his son to come up and help take the Indians 
prisoners, when the latter were seen ap- 
proaching. Upon this young Seymour passed 
out of the back door and hurried to Copus' s, 
while the Ijfdians entered the front door, with 
their riflespi hand. 

The Seymours received them with an ap- 
parent cordiality, and the daughter spread 
the table for them. The Indians, however, 
did not appear to be inclined to eat, but soon 
arose and commenced the attack. Ruffner, 
who was a powerful man, made a desperate 
resistance. He clubbed his rifle, and broke 
the stock to pieces ; but he fell before superior 
numbers, and was afterwards found dead and 
scalped in the yard, with two rifle balls 
through him, and several fingers cut off by a 
tomahawk. The old people and daughter were 
found tomahawked and scalped in the house. 

In an hour or so after dark, young Seymour 
returned with Mr. Copus and son, making 
their way through the woods by the light of 
a hickory bark torch. Approaching the 
cabin, they found all dark and silent within. 
Young Seymour attempted to open the door, 
when it flew back. Reaching forward, he 
touched the corpse of the old man, and ex- 
claimed in tones of anguish, "here is the 
blood of my poor father!" Before they 
reached the place, they heard the Indians 
whistling on their powder chargers, upon 
which they put out the light and were not 

These murders, supposed to have been com- 
mitted by some of the Greentown Indians, 
spread terror among the settlers, who imme- 
diately fortified their cabins and erected sev- 
eral block-houses. Among the block-houses 
erected was Nails', on the Clear fork of the 
Mohican ; Beams' , on the Rocky fork ; one 
on the site of Ganges, and a picketed house on 
the Black Fork, owned by Thomas Coulter. 

The Copus Tragedy.— Shortly after this, a 
party of twelve or fourteen militia from 
Guernsey county, who were out on a scout, 
without any authority burnt the Indian village 
of Greentown, at this time deserted. At 
night they stopped at the cabin of Mr. Copus, 
on the Black Fork, about nine miles from Mans- 
field. The next morning, as four of them were 
at a spring washing, a few rods from the cabin, 
they were fired upon by a party of Indians in 
ambush. They all ran for the house, except 
Warnock, who retreated in another direction, 
and was afterwards found dead in the woods, 
about half a mile distant. His body was 
resting against a tree, with his handkerchief 
stuffed in a wound in his bowels. Two of the 
others, George Shipley and John Tedrick, 
were killed and scalped between the spring- 
and the house. The fourth man, Robert 
Dye, in passing between the shed and cabin, 
suddenly met a warrior with his uplifted 
tomahawk. He dodged and escaped into the 
house, carrying with him a bullet in his 

Mr. Copus at the first alarm had opened 
the door, and was mortally wounded by a rifle 
ball in his breast. He was laid on the bed, 
and the Indians shortly attacked the cabin. 
"Fight and save my family," exclaimed he, 
"for I am a dead man." The attack was 
fiercely made, and several balls came through 
the door, upon which they pulled up the pun- 
cheons from the floor and placed them against 
it. Mrs. Copus and her daughter went up inta 
the loft for safety, and the last was slightly 
wounded in the thigh, from a ball fired from 
a neighboring hill. ^ One of the soldiers, 
George Launtz, was in the act of removing 
a chunk of wood to fire through, when a ball 
entered the hole and broke his arm. After 
this, he watched and saw an Indian put his 
head from behind a stump. He fired, and 
the fellow's brains were scattered over it. 
After about an hour the Indians, having suf- 
fered severe loss, retreated. Had they first 
attacked the house, it is probable an easy 
victory would have been gained by them. 

We now give the incidents of these tragedies, and in an abridged form, as told 
in the " County History : " 

Martin Ruffner and brother-in-law Richard 
Hughes erected cabins near each other in the 
spring of 1812, about half a mile northwest 
of the present site of Mifflin. Mr. Fred- 
erick Zimmer, Sr. , put up a cabin two and a half 
miles southeast of Mr. Martin Ruffner and 
occupied it with his wife, daughter Catherine, 
Zimmer's son Philip Zimmer, aged 19, and 

Michael Ruffner, brother of Martin, whom 
he hired to assist him. Martin Ruffner and 
a bound boy, Levi Berkinhizer, occupied the 
Ruffner cabin. 

One day in September Michael Ruffner 
met two well-armed Indians near the Zimmer 
cabin, and being suspicious of their intentions 
he mounted a fleet horse and rode rapidly 



to Zimmer' s and put them on their guard, 
and Philip Zimmer was despatched to inform 
James Copus, who lived two miles further 
south. Having warned Copus he proceeded 
to inform John Lambright, who returned 
with him and was joined by Mr. Copus ; pro- 
ceeding to the Zimmer cabin, which they 
Teached early in the evening. Finding no 
light in the cabin Copus crept cautiously up 
to it; the door was ajar, but with some ob- 
struction against it : cautiously feeling his 
way, he placed his hand in a pool of blood. 
Returning to his companions he informed 
them of his discovery, and further investiga- 
tion proved that Frederick Zimmer, wife and 
daughter and Martin Ruffner had been mur- 
dered. RufFner had made a desperate resist- 
ance ; he had fought his way from the cabin 
into the yard, his gun being bent nearly 
double from clubbing it ; several of his fingers 
had been chopped off by a tomahawk and he 
was shot twice through the body. The fiends 
had scalped their victims, who had been 
treacherously set upon while furnishing them 
refreshment, as was indicated by the table 
being nigh spread. 

It is supposed eight or ten Indians were 
engaged in the slaughter, whose enmity Mr. 
dimmer had incurred by tying clap-boards to 
their ponies' tails to frighten them away from 
the corn fields : any injury to an Indian's dog or 
pony being a cause for enduring resentment. 
Martin Ruffner and the Zimmers were buried 
in one large grave on a knoll near the scene 
*of the tragedy. The cabins of Martin Zim- 
mer and Richard Hughes near the Zimmers' 
were not disturbed, young Berkinhizer having 
slept alone in that of Ruffner the night of 
the tragedy, Ruffner having been very friendly 
^with the Indians, although perfectly fearless 
in his dealings with them. 

After his discovery of the murder of the 
Zimmers Mr. Copus and Mr. Lambright re- 
turned to their cabins for their families, and 
removed them to the block-house at Jacob 

After several days in the block-house Mr. 
Copus, believing the Indians owed him no ill 
will, insisted on returning with his family to 
his cabin on the Black Fork. Capt. Martin 
protested against it, but as Copus persisted 
in going he sent nine soldiers with him as an 
escort. They reached the cabin in safety and 
retired for the night, the soldiers occupying 
the barn. In the night the dogs kept up a 
^continuous barking and Mr. Copus got up 
toward daylight and invited the soldiers into 
the cabin. 

In the morning the soldiers leaning their 
guns against the cabin (although cautioned to 
keep possession of them by Mr. Copus) 
passed out to the spring at the base of a hill 
aiear the sixth cabin for the purpose of wash- 

ing. They had reached the spring, when 
some Indians from their concealment in a 
corn field near by rushed out, cut off their 
retreat and began hooting and tomahawking 
them. Mr. Copus seizing his gun rushed 
for the cabin door ; just as he opened it, he 
met an Indian ; both fired at the same in- 
stant and both were mortally wounded. The 
ball from the Indian's gun passed through 
the leather strap sustaining Mr. Copus' s 
powder horn (which is now in the possession 
of Mr. Wesley Copus) and into his breast ; 
he staggered to his bed and died in a short 
time, begging the soldiers to defend and save 
his family. Two of the soldiers fled toward 
the forest, but were soon overtaken, killed 
and scalped; another, Mr. Warnock, suc- 
ceeded in escaping his pursuers, but was shot 
through the bowels and foot ; his body was 
afterwards found seated leaning against a tree 
with his handkerchief stuffed into the wound 
in his bowels. Mr. Geo. Dye, another soldier, 
was shot through the thigh just as he was 
entering the cabin. 

The knoll near the cabin being- covered 
with dwarfed timber served the Indians as a 
shelter from which they fired volley after 
volley into the cabin, wounding Nancy Copus, 
a little girl, above the knee and breaking the 
arm of Geo. Launtz, a soldier, who had the 
satisfaction however of returning his compli- 
ments with a bullet, which caused the Indian 
who had shot him to bound into the air and 
roll down the hill on the way to the "happy " 
hunting grounds of his fathers. 

The battle lasted about five hours, after 
which the Indians withdrew, carrying off their 
dead and wounded, but fired a parting salute 
into a flock of Mr. Copus' s sheep, killing 
most of them. 

After the withdrawal of the Indians a sol- 
dier was despatched to the block -house at 
Beams' for assistance. Shortly after Capt. 
Martin, having been out with a party of sol- 
diers on a scouting expedition, arrived at the 
cabin, too late to be of any assistance. An 
effort was made to pursue the Indians, but 
was abandoned as useless. Mr. Copus and 
the soldiers were buried in a large grave a 
rod or two from the cabin, under an apple 
tree. Capt. Martin then took the family and 
returned to the block-house. Mrs. Copus 
and her children remaining in the block-house 
several weeks removed to Guernsey county, 
but in the spring of 1815 returned to their 

The number of Indians engaged in this at- 
tack was estimated at forty-five, there having 
been discovered back of the corn field the re- 
mains of forty-five fires in holes scooped in 
the ground, to prevent observation, over which 
the Indians roasted ears of corn the evening 
before the attack. 

Two handsome monuments in Mifflin township now mark the resting-places of 
ihe victims of these tragedies. The Ruffner-Zimmer monument is ten miles 
southerly from Ashland, and the Copus monument twelve miles. They are so 
alike in structure that the engraving annexed gives a correct idea of the other. 



These monuments were erected, at an expense of nearly $500, near the sites of the 
occurrences they commemorate. The project had its inception with Dr. 8. Kiddle, 
historian of the Ashland Pioneer Society, who interested its members, and the 
necessary sum was raised by subscription in this and in Richland county. The 
history of their dedication is thus given by him : 

Monument in Commemoration of the Copus Massacre. 

The date for the unveiling of the Ruffner- 
Copus Monument was fixed for Friday, Sep- 
tember IS, 1882, just seventy years to the day 
when the tragic scenes took place, and prepa- 
rations were made for what was expected 
would be a memorable day in the history of 
Ohio. The expectations of the committee 
were more than realized. Early in the day 
the people began to arrive at the Copus Hill 
from every direction ; a-foot, on horseback 
and in every imaginable kind of conveyance, 
until fully 6,000 had assembled in the forest 
overlooking the scene of the Copus battle. 
The day was balmy— one of those pleasant fall 
days — and the thousands present came with 
baskets filled ready for the pic-nic. The ex- 
ercises opened with music by the Mt. Zion 
band, followed by prayer by Rev. J. A. Hall, 
then music, then the address of welcome by 
the gentleman above named. Rev. P. R, Rose- 
berry followed in a few remarks, after which 
the venerable Dr. Wm.BushnelI,of Mansfield, 
and Andrew Mason, Esq., of Ashland, in re- 
sponse to calls, entertained the audience. 
Mrs. Sarah Vail, daughter of James Copus, 

who was present at the time her father and 
the three soldiers were killed, and who now 
resides hard by at the age of eighty-four 
years, was introduced to the multitude. Mrs. 
Baughman, mother of A. J. Baughman, was 
also introduced to the audience : this lady's 
father, Capt. Cunningham, assisted in burying 
the dead at Copus Hill. A recess was then 
taken for the pic-nic and an hour later R. M. 
Campbell, Esq., of Ashland, was introduced 
and spoke at length. Hon. Henry C. Hedges, 
of Mansfield, was then introduced and made 
some touching remarks ; at the close of his 
address the Huff Brothers Band played a 
dirge ; following this, Dr. P. H. Clark, of 
Ashland, delivered an appropriate address 
which was full of interest for the occasion ; 
at its close a procession of vehicles to the 
number of about 1,200 was formed and passed 
by the Copus Monument as it was unveiled. 
The multitude then proceeded to the Ruffner 
Monument, when it was also unveiled. Thus 
the ceremonies of the day ended ; a day long 
to be remembered. 


Under the names of Copus and the slain soldiers was carved, at the suggestion 
of Miss Rosella Rice, of Perrysville, the name of the eccentric Johnny Apple- 
seed, whom she knew well, and whose good deeds she has commemorated with her 
pen. A novel, founded upon these tragedies and the early times in this region, 
entitled, " Philip Seymour, or Pioneer Life in Richland County ," by Rev. James 
F. McGaw, published in Mansfield in 1857 and 1883, has had quite a local 

Perrysville, sixty miles northeast of Columbus, on the P. Ft. W. & C. rail- 
road. It has churches : 1 Baptist, 1 Methodist, 1 Presbyterian, and 1 Lutheran, 
and in 1880, 476 inhabitants. A correspondent sends us some items : 

Perrysville was laid out June 10, 1815, by here with Miss Nancy Tannehill and pro- 
Thomas Coulter and was the second village posed, but was just one too late : she was 
established in the county. At that early day already engaged. He died March 11, 1845, 
whiskey drinking was the general custom. in St. Joseph township, Indiana, at the house 
At one period there were nine still houses in of Wm. W orth. When he died he had on 
the township in active operation, and they for clothing next to his body a coarse coffee 
were unable to keep up with the demands sack slipped over his head ; around his waist 
of the thirsty. Jeremiah Conine, on the parts of four pantaloons ; over these a white 
present Van Horn farm, was the pioneer dis- pair complete. He was buried two and a 
tiller. Hop picking was then an important half miles north of Fort Wayne. The prin- 
industry; the hops sold for fifty cents a pound. cipal white settlers in this section in 1809 
Mrs. Betsy Coulter, nee Rice, in 1815 opened were Andrew Craig, an exhorter and local 
the first school in her own home. She took minister in the Methodist Church who fre- 
spinning and weaving as part pay for tuition. quently preached to the Greentown Indians, 
Johnny Appleseed was a frequent visitor James Cunningham, Samuel Lewis and Henry 
here. He was a constant snuff consumer McCart. 
and had beautiful teeth. He was smitten 

Hayesvtlle, about seventy miles northeast of Columbus, is a fine trading 
town, in the centre of an extensive farming, wool-growing, and stock-raising dis- 
trict. Newspaper : Hayesville Journal, Independent, H. H. Arnold. Churches : 
1 Methodist, 1 Presbyterian, 1 United Presbyterian. Population in 1880, 563. 

Loudonville, about sixty-five miles southwest of Cleveland, on the Black 
fork of the Mohican river, also on the P. Ft. W. & C. railroad. It is surrounded 
by a very productive agricultural district. Newspapers : Advocate, Independent, 
P. H. Stauffer, editor ; Democrat, Democratic, J. G. Herzog, editor. Churches : 
1 Methodist, 1 Baptist, 2 Lutheran, 1 Catholic, 1 Presbyterian, and 1 Evangelical. 
Banks: Farmers', J. Schmidt, president, A. C. Ullman, cashier; Loudonville 
Banking Company, G. Schauweker, president, J. L. Quick, cashier. Among the 
principal industries is one of the finest and best equipped roller-process mills in 
the State. Population in 1880, 1,497. School census in 1886, 547 ; Elliott D. 
Wigton, superintendent. Savannah and Polk have each about 400 inhabitants. 

William B. Allison, the eminent member of the United States Senate from Iowa, 
was born in Perry township this county, March 2, 1829. He was educated at 
Allegheny College, Pa., and Western Reserve College, Ohio, practised law at Ash- 
land and Wooster, and removed to Dubuque, Iowa, in 1857. 




Ashtabula was formed June 7, 1807, from Trumbull and Geauga, and organ- 
ized January 22, 1811. The name of the county was derived from Ashtabula 
river, which signifies, in the Indian language, Fish river. For a few miles parallel 
with the lake shore it is level, the remainder of the surface slightly undulating, 
and the soil generally clay. Butter and cheese are the principal articles of export, 
and in these it leads all other counties in the amount produced. Generally not 
sufficient wheat is raised for home consumption, but the soil is quite productive in 
corn and oats. In 1885 the acres cultivated were 129,992; in pasture, 150,152; 
woodland, 62,223; lying waste, 3,700; produced 'in wheat, 234,070 bushels; 
corn, 382,238; oats, 677,555; apples, 587,385; pounds butter, 1,042,613; and 
cheese, 354,400. School census, 9,441 ; teachers, 543. Area 537 square miles, 
being the largest county in Ohio. It has 191 miles of railroad. 

Townships and Census. 



Townships and Census.